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        XXIV. Kupfer-Tafeln, welche die Knochen des ganzen menschlichen Körpers vorstellen.

      23 n.n. Bl. Mit 24 Kupfertafeln. Pappband der Zeit. Blake 315. - Hirsch IV, 300. - Gottfried Wilhelm Müller (1709-1799) wirkte als Arzt in Frankfurt. Er war auch Mineraloge und entdeckte in der Nähe von Frankfurt den Hyalith, der nach ihm Müllersches Glas genannt wurde. - Die Tafeln fleckenlos sauber. Einband leicht bestossen und beschabt.

      [Bookseller: Daniel Thierstein Buchantiquariat]
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        Amérique Septentrionale et Meridionale divisée en ses principales parties par les S[ieu]rs Sanson ... rectifiée suivant les nouvelles découvertes ... par le S[ieu]r. Robert

      Paris: Vaugondy, 1749. Copper-engraved map, with original outline colour. In good condition, with two small repairs to lower blank margin. 21 5/8 x 28 3/4 inches. The rare first issue of this very fine eighteenth-century map depicting both North and South America, by one of France's greatest cartographers This highly attractive map depicts the American continent at a time when the European powers were jockeying for power and possessions in the the New World: the period immediately before the Seven Years' War. It is one of Gilles Robert's earlier original maps, and concurrently he also issued a world map and maps of the three other continents. Its rarity can be explained by the fact that it was not apparently usually issued in any of the Robert atlases. The political realities of the time are spelt out in the interesting engraved panel on the right hand side which lists the holdings of Britain, France, Portugal, Holland, Denmark and Spain in the Americas. Also included in this panel is a list of the dominant religions in the region. The map includes two insets: one of Martinique and the other of Santo Domingo, two immensely profitable French colonies (they shared Santo Domingo with the Spanish). The elegant title cartouche is by Gobin and features a Native American reclining beside a spilled pot of gold, her arms raised in exultation as she accepts Christianity, as personified by the Blessed Virgin holding a Cross. The scene also includes flora and fauna indigenous to the Americas: an alligator, a parrot, a goat, a small, rather unusual quadruped with a long tail and two tropical trees. This map was re-issued in 1771, 1776 and 1778 with a new cartouche incorporating a new title "Amérique ou Indes Occidentales". Pedley Bel et Utile, 19 (1st state) & see pp.34/35 (double-page plate)

      [Bookseller: Donald Heald Rare Books ]
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        Tegning, Tÿpus und Eerklärung allen Figuren und Characterendes beÿ Tündern 1734 gefundene Gülden=Horns. Ex Musæo A. de Witken=Wittenheim. [handwritten, presumably in the hand of A. de Witken=Wittenheim]. - Being a unique collection of the earliest published works and treatises on the Golden Horn that was found in 1734 + Kryssinger's seminal plate that constitutes the first copy of the inscription on the horn + the part of the original 1642 treatise that describes the location where the first (and thus also later the second) horn was found, i.e. being the earliest treatise on the location of the horn.

      [collected and bound together:] 1749. [The separate original treatises: 1734, 1735, 1737, 1642]. Small folio. Nice contemporary half calf with four raised bands and simple gilt title (GULD/HORN) to spine. Inisde of front board with "Alarik von Witken zu Wittenheim" in Runic characters. First leaf (recte: front free end-paper) with large engraved vignette with hand-written title inside; engraved figures underneath (presumably the finders of the two horns - Kirsten Svendsdatter and Erik Larssen, the latter holding what seems to be the golden horn), with "Sacerdos Cimbricus" and "Sacerdas Cimbrica" respectively underneath. Verso of this first leaf with a hand-written "title-page" consisting in parts of the title-page for the original German edition of Pauli's "Zuverlässiger Abriss Des Anno 1734 Bey Tundern gefundenen Güldenen Horns", namely the printed title itself and the printed imprint (Copenhagen, Ove Lynow [1734]) + seven hand-written lines by Wittenheim + an engraving serving as vignette (seemingly his ex-libris (a horn)). After that we have the original title-page for the first Danish edition of Pauli's work ("Tilforladelig Tegning Paa det Anno 1734 udi Jydland fundene Guld=Horn", Copenhagen, [1735]), with the large title-woodcut depicting Kirsten Svens (the finder of the first horn, and Erik Larssen (the finder of the second horn), with the second horn depicted, taking up the largest part of the half-page woodcut. This lovely woodcut has been hand-coloured (presumably by Wittenheim); verso of this title-page with the large engraved ex-libris of King Christian VI, with his engraved portrait - Christian VI being the King who acquired the horn from Erik Larssen upon the find. Following this title-page is the entire original German and the entire first Danish edition of Pauli's work, with the prefaces first, and then the text set up as German-Danish parallel-text, with the three woodcut plates consisting in the seminal six figures that show for the fist time the Runic inscription + the illustrations of the horn (naturally, there is only one set of the plates here, from either the German or the Danish edition - they are the same) + one large folded engraved plate, showing the horn in its entirety. This plate is by Gutacker, and according to a hand-written note, Gutacker issued this engraved plate in natural size shortly after the finding of the horn. It is said that the plate, due to its great importance, was also added to some copies of Grauer's own work. All the four plates here have handwritten inscriptions by Wittenheim and are in lovely hand-colouring. This part is interleaved with blank leaves. (German ed.: (4), 10 pp (all), Danish ed.: (6), 12 pp. (all) + all plates present).This part is followed by Kryssing's magnificent, large, folded engraved plate (with text) of the golden horn, the "Cornu Aurei Typus". THIS PLATE IS OF THE UTMOST SCARCITY AND ONLY VERY FEW COPIES OF IT ARE KNOWN. THE PRSENT PLATE IS IN THE EVEN SCARCER AND MORE IMPORTANT SECOND EMENDED STATE - A VERSION THAT SEEMS TO BE UNIQUE. THIS PLATE CONSTITUTES A FULL-SIZE FACSIMILE MADE WITH HIS OWN HAND BY MED. DOCT. GEORGE KRYSING OF FLENSBORG, IN 1734, FROM THE HORN ITSELF, MERELY A FEW WEEKS AFTER IT WAS FOUND AT GALLEHUS. AS SUCH, IT IS THE VERY EARLIEST TESTIMONY WE HAVE TO THE APPEARANCE OF THE HORN AND THE FIRST COPY OF THE STAVES ON THE RUNIC GOLDEN HORN. THE PLATE HAS BEEN DECISVE IN THE INTERPRETATION OF THE RUNES. - See below (under Wittenheim) for further information of this plate and this particular copy of it). The plate is also excellently hand-coloured as above. This is followed by the original edition of Grauer's "Gründliche und ausführliche Erklärung Derer Heydnischen und in specie Runischen Götzen=Bilder, Thieren, Figuren und Gotho=Runischen Characteren, Welche auf dem im Jahr 1734. den 21 April bey Gallehus gefundenen gülden sogenannten "Heiligthums= oder Götzen=Dienstes=Horn seich repræsentieren; Benebst einer accuraten Untersuch= und Dijudicirung einiger Runischen Inscriptionen, ordentlich entworffen und vorgetragen" Tøndern, Rottmer, 1737. Grauer's work is originally a 4to, but Wittenheim has extended all pages so that it fits with the small folio-format. On the title-page he has placed (beneath the title, author, and imprint) the original woodcut title-illustration from the original German edition of Pauli's work, which is like that of the Danish edition and which was thus not necessary in the first section where the Gernman title-page faces the Danish. The horns in this lovely woodcut have been hand-coloured as above. Wittenheim has added a line in his own hand-writeng, beneath the illustration. The collation of Grauer's work is: (14), 96. With woodcut vignette, many Runic charecters in the text, and numerous illustrations (figures from the horn), all in lovely hand-colouring as above. Grauer's work is followed by two large, folded plates: 1) "Corum Oldenburgum", being plate nr. V from the "Oldenburgische Chronicon" (1596), 2) "Aureum Serenissimi Principis Christiani Quinti Cornu", presumably from Ole Worm's work on the first golden horn (withou a Runic inscription). This plate is mounted and has a few tears. At the very end we have four small quarto-leaves that Wittenheim has inserted and also re-done to fit his publication. These four leaves consist in "Erster Hauptpunkt" from Paulus Egardus' "Theologische und Schrifftmässige Gedanken und Auslegung über das wunderbare/köstliche und kunstreiche gülden Horn". Printed in Lüneburg, bey Johann und Heinrich Sternen, 1642. As with all the other texts here, Wittenheim has re-set it to fit his publication and has added notes as well as an engraved end-vignette. 8 pp. Inside of back board with an engraved armorial plate and a hand-written line underneath. All the illustrations, both in the text, and on the plates, have the same exquisite golden-yellow hand-colouring (presumably by Wittenheim).. Magnificent "proof-copy" of a book clearly intended for publication (but which never appeared), consisting in a compilation of the most important works (all in first editions!) and on and illustrations of the seminal national treasure that is the second Golden Horn (the one with the Runic inscriptions as opposed to the first which had no inscriptions) - discovered in 1734 -, which came to be the main symbol of Danish (as well as Scandinavian and Northern European) national Romanticism and inspired much romantic literature and mysticism of the 18th and early 19th centuries. The discovery of this second horn also profoundly influenced the course of history and linguistics of the North; the inscriptions and illustrations of the horns gave way to numerous novel theories and interpretations and came to play a foundational role in the history of our knowledge of the Germanic languages. The Runes used on this horn constitute the oldest version of the Runes that we know of. This earliest version is called "Older Futhark" and is only used on ab. 10% of the Runic inscriptions that have been discovered. This "Older Futhark" is very close to "Proto-Germansk" and is therefore of the utmost importance to our understanding of the Germanic languages and their common root. Among the works in the present proof-compilation we find all the earliest depictions of this horn, including the earliest printed version of the runic inscription of it and of the many figures with which it is ornamented. The many interesting figures have also given way to a number of interpretations that have profoundly influenced the course of Romanticism in the North as well as to many interpretations of the history of the Antiquity in the in the North.For Danes, the Golden Horns, discovered on 1639 and 1734 respectively, with their amazing, complicated, and tragic story, constitute the Scandinavian equivalent to the Egyptian pyramids and have been the object of the same kind of fascination here in the North, causing a wealth of fantastical interpretations, both historical, literary, mystical, linguistic, and artistic. The two golden horns constitute the greatest National treasure that we have. They are both from abound 400 AD and are thought to have been a pair. A span of almost 100 years elapsed between the finding of the first horn and the finding of the second. Both findings are now a fundamental part of Danish heritage. In 1802 the horns were stolen, and the story of this theft constitutes the greatest Danish detective story of all times. The thief was eventually caught, but it turned out that he had melted both of the horns and used the gold for other purposes.Before the horns were stolen, a copy of the horns was made and shipped to the King of Italy, but the cast which was used to make this copy was destroyed, before news had reached the kingdom of Denmark that the copies made from the cast were lost on their way to Italy, in a shipwreck. The original works contained in the present compilation constitute not only our earliest description of this most important second horn, but also constitute the most important sources that we now have to the knowledge of these horns. It is on the basis of the descriptions and depictions in the present works that the later copies of the horns were made and due to these descriptions and depictions that our knowledge of them has been preserved. Both horns were found in Gallehus near Møgeltønder, the first in 1639, by Kirsten Svendsdatter, the second in 1734, by Jerk (Erik) Lassen.Kirsten Svendsdatter made her discovery on a small path near her house, initially thinking that she had stumbled upon a root. When she returned to the same place the following week, she dug up the alleged root with a stick, and took it for an old hunting horn. She brought it back home and began polishing it. During the polishing of it, a small piece broke off, which she brought to a goldsmith in Tønder. It turned out that the horn was made of pure gold, and rumors of Kirsten's find quickly spread. The horn was eventually brought to the King, Christian IV, and Kirsten was given a reward corresponding to the gold value of the horn. The king gave the horn to his son, who had a lid made for it so that he could use it as a drinking horn. An excavation of the site where the horn was found was begun immediately after, but nothing more was found - that is until 95 years later when Jerk Larsen was digging clay on his grounds - merely 25 paces from where Kirsten had found the first horn. The year was now 1734. The horn that Larsen found was a bit smaller in size, 49,5 cm long, with a diameter of 11 cm at the top and 4 cm at the bottom. It was lacking the tip, but it still weighed 3,666 kg. As opposed to the first horn, this second horn had a runic inscription. After the horn had been authenticated, it was sent to King Christian VI, where it was placed in a glass case in the royal art chamber, together with the first horn. Before being placed here, a copy was made of both horns. These copies were lost in a ship wreck, however, and the casts had already been destroyed. In the fatal year of 1802, the gold smith and counterfeiter Niels Heldenreich broke in to the royal art chamber and stole the horns. By the time it was discovered who had stolen them, the horns were irrevocably lost - Heldenreich had melted them and used the gold to make other things, such as jewellery. A pair of ear rings that are still preserved are thought to have been made with gold from the horns, but this is all that we have left of the original horns. New horns were produced on the basis of the descriptions and engraved illustrations that were made after the finding of the horns. And thus, all the illustrations in the present collection of works constitute our only source to the knowledge of the appearance of the second horn. It is the works in the present compilation that are responsible for the possibility of reproducing this most important piece of Danish heritage. Numerous suggestions as to the meaning of the runic inscription on the horn have been proposed. Usually the inscription is translated thus: "I, Lee Guest, HoltijaR, made this horn". Other translations read "I Lee Guest (or Fame Guest), son of Holte, made this horn" or "I Lee Guest of Holt made this horn". Some think that the second word, the name "HoltiraR" means "from the forest".This inscription is of the utmost importance to the understanding of early Nordic languages. It is one of the earliest inscriptions in the Elder Futhark to record a full sentence and the earliest preserving a line of alliterative verse. The earliest depiction and description of this sentence, which is to be found in the present compilation, gave way to much research of Proto-Norse and the foundation of the Germanic languages. The many figures on the horn have also been subject to many interpretations, and to this day no satisfactory interpretation of them has been given.Had it not been for the works in the present collection, no such interpretations would have been at all possible, as our knowledge of the horn would have been lost forever. _____________________________________Alarich von Witken zu Wittenheim was of a wealthy and powerful family. In the year 1749, same year that he made the present compilation, he was made secretary of state of Westerstede/Burgforde. As with many other of his contemporaries, the finding of the second Gold Horn fascinated him a great deal. His great compilation of the most important of all works on the Horn, with his own numerous additions and his own setting, seems to have never appeared, however. Apart from its obvious uniqueness, this compilation has a further feature that makes it of the utmost importance to Golden Horn scholarship: It contains perhaps the only known copy of the more important corrected version of the plate that constitutes the first copy of the staves on the Runic Golden Horn:"First copy of the staves on the Runic Golden Horn. Photoxylographic transcript, full size, by j. f. eosenstand, of the large facsimile made with his own hand by Med. Doct. geoege krysing of Flensborg, in 1734, from the Horn itself, a few weeks after it was found at Gallehus : From the excessively rare double-folio engraving "Cornu Aurei Typus", an impression of which is in my own bookhoard; another is in the Danish National Library. Here these runes are twice given, in their place at the mouth of the Horn, and separately on a still larger scale lower down on the plate. It is this latter line which is here photographt, full size, direct on to the wood, and carefully cut in. In both places Krysing gives a plain separating mark (<) between the words echlew and ^g^stia. The runes in his copy of the Horn itself begin with echlew and end with t^wido. But below, he has "corrected" the order, begins with T^wiDO and ends with HOBNiE. In a unique copy of the same plate however, a kind of second edition in the same year, in my collection, from a volume of "Runica" brought together by ALARIK VON WITKEN zu WITTENHEIM in 1734, Dr. Krysing has erased the TiEwiDO at the beginning of the long line and placed it at the end, as it had stood in his drawing at the mouth of the Horn, preserving the divisional mark between the echlew and the jeg^stia, which he has in both places also in his first edition of this large plate. In my facsimile I have restored the order. But whether we take TiEWiDO first or last, the meaning is the same. In the old Ms. Essay on this Horn by the learned Icelander jon Olafson of Grunnavik (Danish National Library), the mark between the w and the M is plainly given. But paulli. who says he was purposely careless about small things, omits it, and later drawings follow paulli. We thus see: - that the Horn bore marks of division between every word, - and that each letter-group between these separating stops was one word." (George Stephens. Handbook of the Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England. Now First Collected and Deciphered. Copenhagen, H.H.J. Lynge, 1884. pp. 86-88)

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