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Displayed below are some selected recent viaLibri matches for books published in 1537

        Hauss apoteck, zu jeden leibs gebresten fur den gemainen mann und das arm landvolck HERBAL REMEDIES FOR ALL OCCASIONS AND STATES OF MIND

      Hainrich Stainer, Woodcut title by Hans Weiditz depicts a man raking the earth and woman gathering herbs. Among the other woodcuts are illustrations of a herb garden, an apothecary shop, and a banqueting scene. Finely bound in blind-stamped full calf of the period. Second edition (first 1537) of Brunschwig's popular pharmacology and distillation manual, based on his Thesaurus pauperum, which formed Book Five of his Liber de arte distillandi, also called Grosses destillierbuch. Brunschwig's advice on herbal remedies became the authority throughout the sixteenth century. Prescriptions are offered for marital compatibility, good memory, happiness, drunkenness and fright. In addition, he describes a number of liqueurs and elixirs; the most curious is a section on intoxication with a large woodcut depicting a wild party.& & Brunschwig (ca. 1450- ca. 1512) was a surgeon primarily concerned with anatomy, treatment of wounds, and pharmacy. The present edition is quite rare with only two copies located. &

      [Bookseller: B & L Rootenberg Rare Books & Manuscript]
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        CASTIGATISSIMI | ANNALI COM LA LORO COPIOSA TAVOLA

      - | della Eccelsa & Illustrissima Republ. di Genoa, da fideli & approuati Scrit- | tori, per el Reuere[n]do Monsignore Agostino Giustiniano Genovese Vescoso di | Nebio accuratamente racolti. Opera certame[n]te molto laudeuole, a Stu- | diosi assai cómoda, & commumente a tutti vtilissimi. Face[n]do per | la varieta delle opere chiaramente conoscere, quando si deb | ba da tutti riprouare el male, & constantemente pró- | curare el bene della sua Republica. | GENOA. | M. D. XXXVII. [1537]. | Cum gratia i privilegio. In folio [8º gr; de 31x23 cm] com [xiv], 282 fólios. Encadernação recente (réplica perfeita de uma encadernação da época) com lombada em pele de carneira natural sobre pastas em madeira (casquinha); rótulo manuscrito (da época); e com fechos em latão ao gosto da época. Corte das folhas azulado da época. Ilustrado com vinhetas na folha de rosto; no verso da folha de rosto (S. Jorge mata o dragão); e capitulares decorativas. Exemplar com ex-libris, carimbos e títulos de posse sobre a folha de rosto. [EN] Binding: recased in the contemporary with origal label at spine. Slighty waterstained. Ownership at title page. Title page with woodcut showing coat of arms of Genova in red and black; large woodcut showing St. Georges fighting the dragon on verso of the title; beautiful woodcut decorated and illustrated initials in the text. Castigatissimi annali con la loro copiosa tavola della eccelsa et illustrissima Republica di Genoa, da fideli et approvati scritti accuratamente racolti. First edition of this important work on the history of Genova from its beginnings up to the year 1527. The work is carefully printed with nice woodcut initials throughout the text. Besides Italian history it concerns also America, containing under the year 1493 (f. 249) an interesting account of Christopher Columbus - a native from Genova - called 'the inventor of the navigation to the New World'. STC Italian p. 306; Adams G 751; Sabin 27518; Harisse 220; Leclerc, Bibliotheca Americana, Catalogue (1687), n. 642. Location/localizacao: raros

      [Bookseller: Livraria Castro e Silva]
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        Nouum Testamentum per Desiderium Erasmum Roterodamum

      London - Apud viduam M. Csaris impensis I. Coccii 1537 - A scarce and early Latin Bible, holding the New Testament. Adorned with several beautifully engraved, decorative, capitals. Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, or simply Erasmus, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. He was a proponent of religious toleration, and enjoyed the sobriquet Prince of the Humanists; he has been called the crowning glory of the Christian humanists. Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. He also wrote The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works. Erasmus wrote both on ecclesiastic subjects and those of general human interest. He seems to have regarded the latter as trifling, a leisure activity. By the 1530s, the writings of Erasmus accounted for 10 to 20 percent of all book sales. The popularity of his books is reflected in the number of editions and translations that have appeared since the sixteenth century. Ten columns of the catalogue of the British Library are taken up with the enumeration of the works and their subsequent reprints. This charming biblewas originally published in 1516, and became the foundation of all critical Bible studies, deeply influencing Luther in his German translation of the Bible. Condition: The work is disbound, although with the contemporary calfboards still present. Binding has failed in places, with occasional splitting to the textblock edge. Loss to the title page and first leaf. Bright, although with light age toning to the first and last leaves, as well as marginal tide marks. Neat copperplate ink inscriptions to the last few leaves. Overall: GOOD ONLY [Attributes: Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: Rooke Books PBFA]
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        SEMINARIUM sive Plantarium earum Arborum, quae post hortos conseri solent. quarum nomina, fructus, item etiam conserendi vocabula apud authores bene recepta hoc libello declarantur. In puerorum gratiam atque utilitatem ut post ipsas herbas, etiam arbores.

      Lugduni, Haredes Simonis Vincentii, MDXXXVII (1537). 1537 In-8 (cm. 16,5 x 10,5), pp. 96 - (8 cc. di indice in latino e in francese) [segnatura a-g8]. Con tre piccoli schemi xilografati nel testo. bella marca tipografica incisa al frontespizio. Leg. pergamena floscia antica riadattata, sul dorso titolo calligrafato su etichetta di carta. Minimo alone di umido al margine esterno di poche carte. Opera in buone condizioni. Seconda edizione (prima lionese) di questo trattato dedicato agli alberi da frutto dell'agronomo, medico e stampatore Charles Estienne (1504 - 1564), proveniente dalla celebre dinastia di tipografi. L'edizione originale fu pubblicata a Parigi nel 1536. Quest'opera, dedicata all'educazione dei fanciulli, è divisa in brevi capitoli consacrati alla coltivazione degli alberi da frutto, la cura, la nomenclatura, lo sfruttamento dei frutti. Uno di questi è interamente dedicato alla coltura dell'olivo ed alla preparazione dell'olio di oliva.

      [Bookseller: Studio bibliografico Atlantis]
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        Paradoxorum ad Pratum libri sex; Dispunctionum libri IIII; De eo quod interest liber unus; In tres libros Codicis libri III; Praetermissorum libri II; Declamatio una; De stip. divisionibus commentariolus

      Sebastiano Grifio 1537 Unito a ALCIATI Andrea, In Digestorum sive Pandectarum libri XII, Lione Sebastiano Grifio, 1538; unito a ALCIATI Andrea, Parergon iuris libri tres, Lione, Sebastiano Grifio 1538. Tre opere in un volume in-folio (cm 33x23), pp. (8), 264, (12); (16), 66, (2); 316, (16) [per quanto concerne l'ultima opera, si è riportata la numerazione per colonne che appare nel testo: il testo è disposto su due colonne per pagina. Lo scritto si compone in realtà di 166 pagine]. Marca tipografica al frontespizio e in fine in ciascuna delle tre opere. Legatura in mezza pergamena coeva con piatti in cartone. Segni di tarlo al dorso. Alcuni piccoli segni di tarlo nei margini bianchi, molto lontani dal testo. Andrea Alciati, insigne giurista, nacque ad Alzate, nei pressi di Milano, l'8 maggio 1482. Fu dapprima avvocato in Milano, poi dal 1518 al 1521 fu professore di diritto Civile nell'Università di Avignone. Tornato nuovamente in Milano, nel 1528 Francesco I lo chiamò all'Università di Bourges, ove rimase sei anni e la sua fama divenne mondiale. Nel 1532 Francesco Sforza lo richiamò ad insegnare all'Università di Pavia. In seguito insegnò a Milano, Bologna, Ferrara. Morì a Pavia il 12 giugno 1550. L'Alciati meritò senz'altro la fama di grande umanista e di principe degli studi giuridici: iniziatore di una nuova età nello studio della giurisprudenza, quella che andò poi sotto la denominazione di Scuola culta, fu profondo conoscitore delle letterature greca e latina, riassumendo in sé, armoniosamente e in altissimo grado, attitudini e preparazioni disparate. I posteri lo hanno universalmente riconosciuto come l'iniziatore della Storia e della Scienza del Diritto nel secolo XVI.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Mazzei]
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        De natura stirpium libri tres, Cum indice omnium universi operis observatione dignorum copiosissimo.

      Folio. 46 n.n. Bl., 666 S., 1 Bl. Mit 2 wiederholten Holzschnitt-Druckermarken auf dem Titel und dem letzten Blatt. Halblederband um 1920 im Stil des 18. Jahrhunderts mit rotem goldgeprägtem Rückenschild und floraler Rückenvergoldung. VD16 R-3499. - Adams R-873. - BM Germann Books 760. - Hirsch V, 115. - Pritzel 7885. - Zweite, im Jahr nach der ersten in Paris gedruckten Ausgabe erschienen. Jean de la Ruel war Leibarzt von François I. Seine Vorliebe galt der Botanik sowie der Kommentierung klassischer Autoren der Naturwissenschaften. Laut Darmstädter S. 79 hat er als Erster den Spinat als Lebensmittel beschrieben, der vermutlich von den Arabern in Spanien eingeführt wurde. - Ca 150 Seiten mit unschön hinterlegten Wurmspuren. Durchgehend stockfleckig. Einbanddeckel beschabt und mit Kratzspur.

      [Bookseller: Daniel Thierstein Buchantiquariat]
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        Conicorum Lib. V. VI. VII. paraphraste Abalphato Asphahanensi nunc primum editi. Additus in calce Archimedis Assumptorum liber, ex codicibus Arabicis m.ss... Abrahamus Ecchellensis... latinos reddidit. Io Alfonsus Borellus... curam in Geometricis versioni contulit, & notas uberiores in universum opus adiecit...Florence: Giuseppe Cocchini, 1661. First edition.

      Large-paper copy, uncut in the original wrappers. Editio princeps of books V-VII of the Conics, the most original parts of Apollonius' treatise on conic sections. Books I-IV were translated and published in 1537, and at the time it was believed that the remaining books were lost. "In the first half of the seventeenth century the Medici family acquired an Arabic manuscript containing Books V-VII of Apollonius's Conics, which had been lost up to that time. In 1658, with the help of the Maronite scholar Abraham Ecchellensis, Giovanni Borelli prepared an edited Latin translation of the manuscript, which was published three years later. This was a valuable addition to the mathematical knowledge of the time, for whereas Books I-IV of the Conics dealt with information already known to Apollonius's predecessors, Books V-VII were largely original. Book V discusses normals to conics and contains Apollonius's proof for the construction of the evolute curve; Book VI treats congruent and similar conics and segments of conics; Book VII is concerned with propositions about inequalities between various functions of conjugate diameters" (Norman). "The fifth book reveals better than any other the giant intellect of its author. Difficult questions of maxima and minima, of which few examples are found in earlier works, are here treated most exhaustively. The subject investigated is to find the longest and shortest lines that can be drawn from a given point to a conic. Here are also found the germs of the subject of evolutes and centres of osculation" (Cajori, A History of Mathematics). <br/></br> The sheets of our copy measure 368 x 255 mm, significantly more than all other copies which we have been able to find descriptions of. <br/></br> Norman 58, Honeyman 119, De Vitry 29.. Folio, original plain interim wrappers, pp [36] 415 [1:blank], a very fine and clean copy in its original state. Rare in such condition

      [Bookseller: Sophia Rare Books]
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        De Arte Bibendi Libri Tres

      Joh. Petreium , Nuremberg, 1537. Second Edition. Hardcover (Full Leather). Good Condition. Small quarto in contemporary elaborately stamped leather. Heavy wear and loss at edges of binding, spine deteriorating, but still intact and with elements of a very attractive period binding. With rubricated vellum manuscript leaves used as the endpapers. Worming in the margins, early notes and underlining and a number of paper repairs in the margins, apparently from the worming. Worming touches a few letters but nothing is obscured. Mild tide mark throughout. Lacking one leaf - 53 of 54 leaves present, lacking e1 and front blank. Despite the faults, a nice copy of the second edition of this poem about the art of drinking without getting drunk, first printed by Petri the previous year. Obsopoeus (d. 1539), was the son of a Bavarian cook. He made Latin translations of several of Luther&#39;s German works. Graesse (5.3).Oberle 1017 & Simon, BB ii, 476 (1st edition). Later editions were often bound with the Art of Joking. Size: Quarto (4to). Quantity Available: 1. Shipped Weight: Under 1 kilo. Category: Cooking, Wine & Dining; Antiquarian & Rare. Inventory No: 041580. .

      [Bookseller: Pazzo Books]
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        ANNOTATIONI SOPRA LA LETTIONE DELLA SPERA (SFERA) DEL SACROBOSCO. Dove si dichiarano tutti e principii Mathematici & Naturali, che in quella si possan desiderare. Con alcune questioni Notabili a detta Spera Necessarie, & altri notandi & rari segreti che in quella son ascosti....

      in-8 p. (mm. 217x139), p. pergam. coeva, pp.num. 219, con numerose silografie nel t., anche a p. pagina, che raffigurano sfere, sfere armillari e sistemi astronomici. Il vol. è ornato da pregevoli grandi capilett. decorati a vignetta, pure inc. su legno. Nell?opera: - ?Una Nuova & fedele (ad verbum) traduttione di detta Spera. - Una Spera Theologica Divina & Christiana. - Una Spera Platonica, con alcune eccitationi mathematiche, theologiche & divine. - Una nuova inventione & Astronomico instrumento, per subitamente fabricare le dodici case celesti della figura astronomica, senza altri canoni, o calculo. Authore M. Mauro Fiorentino, Theosebo, Phonasco & Philopanareto.? ?"Edizione originale" che contiene, oltre al volgarizzamento del testo del Sacrobosco (celebre astronomo e matematico inglese del XII/XIII sec.), uscito già a Venezia nel 1537 con il corredo di annotazioni di Fra Mauro Fiorentino, una ?Sphera teologica?, una ?Sphera platonica? ed altre aggiunte di carattere sapienziale e astrologico dello stesso Fra Mauro. L?autore dedica l?opera a Cosimo de? Medici in data 1 gennaio 1547 (p. 4)?. Cfr. Annali dei Torrentino, pp. 85-87 - Riccardi,I, p. 138: ?Bella edizione? - Cat. British Library, p. 597. Solo tracce d?uso altrim. esemplare ben conservato.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Malavasi]
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        [Omnium Operum Divi Aurelii Augustini Episcopi, undecumque doctissimi, Epitome] Omnivm Opervm Divi Avrelii Avgvstini Episcopi, undecu[m]q[ue] doctissimi, Epitome: Et quid uir ille de Ecclesiæ sacramentis, necnon sacr[a]e scripturæ locis communioribus insignioribusq[ue]; senserit, scripserit, simulatq[ue] docuerit, per Ioannem Piscatorium [Johannes Piscatorius] Lithopolitanum, hoc libro fidelißimè, [et] compendiaria quadam uia diligentißimè comportatum. Ad Sacrarvm Literarvm Lectores pios ac candidos Decastichon Stephani Vigilij [Stephan Vigilius] Pacimontani

      Augsburg, Heinrich Steiner 1537. 33 cm. 3 Teile in 1 Band; (6), 178 (irrig 158); 24; 239 (irrig 249), (17) Blatt mit Holzschnitt-Titelbordüre und 1 Textholzschnitt vom Petrarcameister und Initialen. Blindgeprägter Lederband der Zeit über Holzdeckeln - VD16 A 4156 - Adams A-2171 - BM STC German Books 55 - DBA 960, 372f - Die erste von 3 Piscator-Ausgaben mit Lectores pios von Stephan Vigilius Pacimontanus (Friedberg) und Vita Augustini von Johannes Trithemius. Johann Piscator (Fischer), geboren in Stein am Rhein, verließ 1531 den Dominikanerorden und wurde evangelischer Pfarrer in Balzheim (Iller). Die Holzschnitt-Titelbordüre des Petrarcameisters (2. Zustand) mit Puttten und Waffen als Trophäen und eingedruckter Jahreszahl (Pflugk-Harttung Nr. 42). Der Index ist, abweichend von anderen Exemplaren, am Schluß eingebunden. Schließen entfernt, Einbandbezug am Rücken und an den Kanten stellenweise ergänzt; im Anfang bis Blatt 56 kleines Wurmloch, erste 10 und letzte 4 Blatt am Schnitt Feuchtigkeitsränder; auf Titel Besitzeintragungen 1592 und 1664; in Teil 3 sind Blatt 55-60 durch Faksimile-Kopie ergänzt; Stempel auf Titelblatt - Sprache / Language: Lateinisch / Latin -

      [Bookseller: Wenner Antiquariat]
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        Iudiciarii [Judiciarii] Processus Compendiu[m], Atque Adeo Iuris

      1537. Alciati, Andrea[s] [1492-1550], Attributed. Hegendorph, Christoph [1500-1540], Editor. Iudiciarii [Judiciarii] Processus Compendiu[m], Atque Adeo Iuris Utriusq[ue]; Praxis. Locis tam Multis, Tamq[uam] Insignibus Integritati Suae Restitutis, Fere ut Nov[um], Ac Pene Aliud Opus hoc Nostrum Iudicet, Qui Primo Illi Coloniensi Contulerit. Accessit huc & Iuris Discendi Methodus, & De Artibus Iurisconsulto Futuro Necessariis, Oratio Elegantissima, Authore Christophoro Hegendorphino. Paris: Apud Ioannem Parvum [Chevallon], 1537. [viii], 271 ff. Signatures M and N (ff. 97-104) bound in reverse order. Octavo (6-1/2" x 4"). Contemporary vellum, raised bands and early hand-lettered title to spine, another title to foot of text block in early hand, ties lacking. Light soiling, rubbing to extremities with some wear to spine ends, top edge of front board and corners, a few worm holes to boards and front pastedown, partial crack between text block and rear free endpaper. Attractive crible initials. Toning, faint dampstaining to endleaves and a few text leaves. Early owner signature to foot of title page, annotation in his hand to endleaves, interior otherwise clean. * An important Italian humanist and professor of law at Avignon, Bologna, Milan, Padua, Ferrara and Bourges, Alciati was one of the first jurists to base his interpretation of civil law on the history, languages and literature of antiquity, and to conduct original research on the texts rather than merely copy earlier glosses. His work was deeply influential and his services were retained by the kings of France and Spain, as well as by several Italian princes. As one would expect, there was a large market for his works. In addition to those published by Alciati there are several unauthorized publications based on lecture notes compiled by his students. First published in Cologne in 1530, Iudiciarii Processus Compendium, a treatise on procedure in civil and canon law, appears to fall into this latter category. Some sources say it is not based on Alciati&#39;s work and is the work of an anonymous author. It was nevertheless a popular work that went through several editions and issues over the next 30 years. OCLC locates 3 copies of this imprint, 1

      [Bookseller: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.]
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        Anatomiae, hoc est, Corporis Humani Dissectionis pars prior, in qua singula quae ad Caput spectant recensentur membra, atque singulae partes, singulis suis ad vivum commodissimè expressis figuris, deliniantur...Item Anatomia porci, ex traditione Cophonis [&] Infantis, ex Gabriele de Zerbis

      Title within woodcut border, folding letterpress table, & 23 woodcut illustrations (19 are full-page). Woodcut printer&#39;s device on verso of final leaf. 36 unnumbered leaves. Small 4to, modern vellum-backed boards (ruled border of woodcut on f. 17 slightly shaved, very skillful and almost invisible paper repair to lower inner margins diminishing towards the end with very small parts of the extremity of the woodcut on f. 4v touched). Marburg: E. Cervicornus, 1537. First edition of the first significant book on the anatomy of the head and one of the most important illustrated anatomical treatises before Vesalius. Johann Eichmann, usually known as Dryander (1500-1560), studied anatomy at Paris with Vesalius and was one of the first to perform public dissections in Germany. In 1536 he published his Anatomia Capitis Humani (which is of the greatest rarity) and the following year published the present book, the first part of his Anatomia Corporis Humani, which was never completed. This work expanded on the earlier 1536 book, and incorporates eleven of its full-page woodcuts with the numbers removed and the four smaller cuts of the skull seen from different angles. Dryander&#39;s illustrations in this book formed a dissection sequence starting with removing the scalp and skull-cap, and then continued to expose the meninges and the cerebral hemispheres, then the cerebellum, and finally the base of the skull. The text was expanded with new material on the lungs and the heart, as well as with the 12th-century Anatomia Porci of Copho (fl. c. 1110), first printed at Lyon in 1523, and the first printing of Gabriele de Zerbi&#39;s Anatomia Infantis, a treatise on the anatomy of the foetus. It also has eight new full-page woodcuts including four on the heart and lungs. It is one of the first anatomical works with illustrations based on the author&#39;s own dissection. Along with those of Berengario, they are the best that were published before Vesalius&#39;s Fabrica in 1543. This is a particularly fine copy, and is remarkable for having the folding table which is almost always lacking. From the library of Walter Pagel, the great historian of medicine. &#10087; Choulant & Frank pp. 148-149. Garrison-Morton 371. Herrlinger, History of Medical Illustration from Antiquity to 1600, pp. 83-85. Roberts & Tomlinson, The Fabric of the Body: European traditions of Anatomical Illustration, pp. 84-91. Stillwell, The Awakening Interest in Science, 621. .

      [Bookseller: Jonathan A. Hill, Bookseller, Inc.]
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        Divi thome aquinatis enarrationes, quas cathenam vere auream dicunt. in quattuor euangelia, ex vetustissorum codicum collatione quatu' licuit emedate ac in lucem edite opera nicolai higman. additus est index rerum scitu dignarum. paris, iehan petit, 1537.

      Cm. 30, cc. 340 (3). Bellissimo frontespizio incorniciato da grande bordura con figure di angeli, stemmi, ecc. Marchio tipografico di Petit al centro. Molti capolettera figurati. Legatura settecentesca in piena pergamena rigida con titoli in oro al dorso. Un solo, lieve alone chiaro a poche carte iniziali, peraltro bell'esemplare, genuino ed in ottimo stato di conservazione. Manca l'ultima carta (bianca?). Non comune edizione, tipograficamente molto elegante, della Catena Aurea, commento ai Vangeli di Tommaso d'Aquino. Cfr. Adams I, 1476.

      [Bookseller: Studio Bibliografico Benacense]
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        Susanna. Comoedia tragica.

      Augsburg, Philippus Ulhardus, 1537. Small 8vo. Unbound, with the original cords. First two quires loose (in their entirety). Faint dampstaining throughout. A nice copy. Large woodcut vignette (the German double-eagle) to title-page. (46 ff. + final blank).. Exceedingly scarce first Latin edition (being the first edition thus) of Sixt Birck's important and greatly influential political and religious Reformation drama, his highly interesting and original version of the Susanna legend.When living in Basel and working as a rector there (1530-34), the German dramatist and later Augsburg-rector Sixt Birck, or Xystus Betelius, (1501-1554) had been asked by the town council to write a religious play. Protestant town councils of the period took an especially active role in determining the theatrical repertory of their cities, so that the local stage at times became an extension of council policy. This did not please Birck, who had wanted to write a political play, but nonetheless he composed the first version of his first play, the famous "Susanna" (a later so frequently used theme of Reformation plays - with no less than 16 dramatizations in Germany alone from 1490 till 1627), which thus appeared in German in 1532. However, after having moved back to his home town Augsburg in 1534, he began writing his Latin-language version "Susanna", which appeared in 1537. In this, perhaps the most important edition of the work, Birck chastised the council for having required of him a religious drama instead of the political play that he would have preferred. The Latin version had thus become a much more politically oriented work, and the main goals of this Latin play seem to have been 1) to politically educate the audience, 2) to combine religion and politics in a sensible way, 3) to erect a model for how a Protestant republic should be governed, and finally 4) to create a genre of dramas to be played by school students. This Latin version is often considered a work in its own, as it differs so much in content from the German version.Unlike the German version of the play, the Latin version was written for Birck's students in Augsburg. And as such, "Susanna" in Latin, printed in 1537 is considered the first play within the tradition of the German "shool dramas", and Birck is considered the father of this tradition, which later established itself as a distinct branch within the "Jesuit theatre".Apart from this stylistic fact, the play sets out to create a model for the government of a Protestant republic, and with this aim in mind, Birck puts an entirely new focus on the Susanna-figure, which is very different from the classical account of her. Instead of focusing on Susanna'a chastity, Birck focuses on how her case was handled by the local magistrates and council, and at the same time he dramatically recreates the contemporary legal procedures. Completely untraditionally, he portrays Sussana's absolute faith in the law and her right to appeal, which guarantees that she will be given a fair trial. At the end, though, the drama changes from a mainly political point of view to a strictly religious one. "The "Susanna" of Sixt Birck or Xystus Betulius is chiefly remarkable for the extreme elaboration of its picture of the trial of the heroine, in which the respectable members of the court, who are extremely numerous, distinguish themselves by giving their judgment dead against Susanna, in great individual detail..." (Saintsbury George, The Earlier Renaissance, p. 341)."The paradox in Protestant thought between man's fallen nature and his educability was more apparent in Sixt Birck's two Susanna plays (German, 1532; Latin, 1537). In these works, the theological significance of Birck's religious plot contradicted the sociopolitical lessons he had incorporated into his plays. The discrepancy was especially evident in the Latin drama where Birck developed his ideas about sociopolitical function of theater" (Parente, Religious Drama and the Humanist Tradition, p. 91). In this Latin version, Birck thus heavily criticized contemporary theatre (and contemporary dramatists such as Gnaphaeus and Crocus) for ignoring political subjects, and he expressed his wish to combine religion and politics in a way that the audience would understand, at the same time as he adapted the Susanna story to fit the emphases of the Reformation (also with regards to women and their behavior)."The German playwright Sixt Birck (1501-1554) produced two treatments of the Susanna story around the mid-sixteenth century. In fact, Paul F. Casey claims that Birck's first Susanna play, written 1531/32 was the "first version of the Susanna theme during the Reformation period."... as Casey notes, the play was not just for Birck's students. Rather, "the drama was intended for public performance with the aim of bringing to the people the newly revised classical form of the drama in the vernacular", which... was entirely in keeping with the Humanist emphases... He translated and slightly revised his earlier play into Latin in 1537/8 explicitly for his students to perform. The Latin version of Birck's drama begins with a prefatory letter to the Augsburg Senate in which Birck makes a point of discussing the importance of state sponsored schooling for boys in a "Christian state", as opposed to the situation of the "Papists"." (Clanton, "The Good the Bold, and the Beautiful: The Story of Susanna", p. 146). The German version appeared in Basel (Thomas Wolf) in 1532, and this the first Latin version appeared in Augsburg (Philippus Ulhardus) in 1537. They are both of the utmost scarcity. In 1538 two other editions of the Latin version appeared, and it was printed again several times during the 16th century.It was through the Latin version that the work became famous and through that version that it exercised its great influence (it inspired numerous plays of this sort), and it was frequently played at theaters (e.g. the Danish translator of the work -it appeared in print in Danish in 1578 but had been translated before that- had seen the play two times, while he was studying in Leipzig, once at the City Hall and once at the "Paulinerkollegium" ).Brunet, I:834

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