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Displayed below are some selected recent viaLibri matches for books published in 1903

        The Principles of Mathematics. Vol I (all).

      Cambridge, at the University Press, 1903. Royal 8vo. Original blue full cloth binding, all edges uncut. An excellent copy with only minor wear to capitals and a bit of bumping to corners. Very nice and clean throughout. Unusually fine. XXIX, (1), 534 pp.. The uncommon first edition of Russell's landmark work in mathematical logic, in which theory of logicism is put forth and in which Russell introduces that which is now known as "Russell's Paradox". The work constitutes the forerunner of Russell and Whitehead's monumental "Principia Mathematica", and it seminally influenced logical thought and theories of the foundations of mathematics at this most crucial time for the development of modern mathematical and philosophical logic."The present work has two main objects. One of these, the proof that all pure mathematics deals exclusively with concepts definable in terms of a very small number of fundamental logical concepts, and that its propositions are deducible from a very small number of fundamental logical principles, is undertaken in Parts II. - VI. Of this Volume, and will be established by strict symbolic reasoning in Volume II. ... The other object of the work, which occupies Part I., is the explanation of the fundamental concepts which mathematics accepts as indefinable. ..." (Russell, Preface, p. (III)).At the age of 27, in 1898, Russell began working on the book that became "The Principles of Mathematics". He originally set out to investigate the contradiction that is inherent in the nature of number, and he originally imagined doing this from a Hegelian standpoint. However, after having read Whitehead's "Universal Algebra", Russell gave up his Hegelian approach and began working on a book that was to be entitled "An Analysis of Mathematical Reasoning". This book never appeared, as he gave it up in 1900, but much of it is what lies at the foundation of "The Principles of Mathematics". After having attended a congress in Paris in 1899, where Peano was present, Russell began rewriting large parts of the work, now with the aim of proving that all of mathematics could be reduced to a few logical concepts, that that which is called mathematics is in reality nothing but later deductions from logical premises. And thus he had developed his landmark thesis that mathematics and logic are identical; a thesis that came to have a profound influence on logic and the foundations of mathematics throughout the 20th century.Since the congress, Russell had worked with the greatest of enthusiasm, and he finished the manuscript on the 31st of December 1900. However, in the spring of 1901, he discovered "The Contradiction", or as it is now called, "Russell's Paradox". Russell had been studying Cantor's proof, and in his own words, the paradox emerged thus: "Before taking leave of fundamental questions, it is necessary to examine more in detail the singular contradiction, already mentioned, with regard to predicates not predictable of themselves. Before attempting to solve this puzzle, it will be well to make some deductions connected with it, and to state it in various different forms. I may mention that I was led to endeavour to reconcile Cantor's proof that there can be no greatest cardinal number with the very plausible supposition that the class of all termes (which we have seen to be essential to all formal propositions) has necessarily the greatest possible number of members." (p. 101). The class of all classes that are not members of themselves, is this class a member of itself or not? The question was unanswerable (if it is, then it isn't, and if it isn't, then it is) and thus a paradox, and not just any paradox, this was a paradox of the greatest importance. Since, when using classical logic, all sentences are entailed by contradiction, this discovery naturally sparked a huge number of works within logic, set theory, foundations of mathematics, philosophy of mathematics, etc. Russell's own solution to the problem was his "theory of types", also developed in 1903.In December 1902 Russell had come to the point where he could write a preface, and the book finally appeared in May 1903. It was printed in merely 1.000 copies, and although it was well received, it was not a bestseller at its appearance. By 1909 the last copies of the first run were at the bookbinders. However, the book did play an enormous role in the development of mathematical and philosophical logic as well as the foundation of mathematics throughout the 20th century. Wittgentein's immense interest in the philosophy of logic stems from his reading of the present work and from Frege's "Foundations of Arithmetic", and no logician could neglect the impact of this seminal work, which still counts as one of the most important philosophical and logical works of the 20th century. The book also played an important part in spreading the works of Cantor and Frege to the English-speaking world. In 1903 the Spectator wrote "we should say that Mr. Russell has an inherited place in literature or statesmanship waiting for him if he will condescend to come down to the common day." Shearman's review in Mind hailed it as the most important work since Boole's "Laws of Thought". "Bertrand Arthur William Russell (b.1872 - d.1970) was a British philosopher, logician, essayist, and social critic, best known for his work in mathematical logic and analytic philosophy. His most influential contributions include his defense of logicism (the view that mathematics is in some important sense reducible to logic), and his theories of definite descriptions and logical atomism. Along with G.E. Moore, Russell is generally recognized as one of the founders of analytic philosophy. Along with Kurt Gödel, he is also regularly credited with being one of the two most important logicians of the twentieth century." (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).Russell had actually planned to write a second volume of the work, but as the contents of this further development would overlap considerably with the further research that Whitehead had undertaken after his "Universal Algebra", which he also planned two write a second volume of, the two great logicians decided to collaborate on that which became the "Principia Mathematica", which appeared 1910-13

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        The Ambassadors.

      London, Methuen & Co., 1903 In the original publisher's vertical-ribbed red cloth with gilt lettering to spine and front board. Capitals with minor bumpings, otherwise a very nice, clean and well kept copy.. First edition of Henry James' masterpiece which follows the trip of protagonist Lewis Lambert Strether to Europe in pursuit of Chad, his widowed fiancée's supposedly rebellious son.Henry James is regarded as one the key figures of 19th-century literary realism

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        A History of British Birds. Revised and brought up to date, with an Appendix of recently added species...

      London: John C. Nimmo 1903.. Fifth edition, four volumes of six, being volumes II, III, IV and VI, large 8vo. 267 hand coloured plates. Original gilt titled green cloth, slight bumping to spine ends.

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        Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und de Schweiz.

      I-VIII. 2nd ed. Friedrich von Zezschwitz, 1903-1910. XI,108;(6),287;(6),398;(6),510;VI,512;(4),918;(4),384;(4),510 pp. 616 coloured plates, vol. I-IV, and c:a 255 plates, some coloured, vol. V-VIII. Publ. orig. bds. Spines faded

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        Principia Ethica.

      Cambridge, 1903. 8vo. Orig. brown full cloth w. a bit of wear to capitals. Minor wear to corners. Ownership signature of F.M. Cranford on front free end-paper, dated "Feb. 1926". One 8vo leaf of handwritten notes to the work laid in loose at front, these presumably in the hand of W.K.C. Guthrie. Many marginal marginal annotations and underlinings throughout, all in pencil (presumably Guthrie's). A very nice and tight copy. Uncut. XXVII, (1), 232 pp.. The seminal first edition of Moore's main work, his hugely influential "Principia Ethica", which helped found analytic philosophy and introduced and named the "naturalistic fallacy". The present copy has belonged to the famous English classical scholar and poet, Francis Macdonald Cornford (1874-1943), who is considered an expert on Greek philosophy, and is annotated throughout, presumably by the great Scottish classical scholar, William Keith Chambers Guthrie (1906-81), whose "History of Greek Philosophy" remains an absolute classic within the field."Moore's "Principia Ethica" (1903) is a landmark in the history of ethics. Its impact and influence on subsequent ethical theory, at least in Anglo-American philosophy, have been tremendous. Its specific doctrines of the indefinability of good and of the naturalistic fallacy, whether reinforced, amended, or even rejected, by later theorists, have served as the starting points of much of twentieth century philosophy." (Morris Weitz, 20th-Century Philosophy: The Analytic Tradition, (1966), p. 68).George Edward Moore (1873-1958) is one of the most influential of twentieth century philosophers, and his contributions to analytic philosophy can be compared to only those of Russell, Wittgenstein and Frege, with whom he founded this philosophical discipline. His impact on Anglo-American philosophy in the 20th century must be said to be nearly unsurpassed. "Principia Ethica" is the most important of Moore's works. In this work, he makes use of analysis to establish the main doctrines of the book, and thereby lays one of the cornerstones of analytic philosophy. Moore here applies logic to ethics and shows us how this can provide a better foundation for ethics. Starting out with showing that analysis will reveal to us that "good" is a simple, non-natural, and indefinable property, which cannot itself be defined and analyzed, because it is not a complex object that can be divided, but a simple object of thought, Moore defines ethics as an inquiry into what is good. He furthermore shows how sometimes false premises in the definition of good lead to false conclusions about ethical behavior, and he introduces his "naturalistic fallacy", which is defined as the error of assuming that "good" can be defined by naming various properties of things which we believe to be good. "Naturalism", according to Moore falsely assumes to have defined "good" and is therefore unable to provide any logical reason for any principle of ethics."It appears to me that in Ethics, as in all other philosophical studies, the difficulties and disagreements, of which history is full, are mainly due to a very simple cause: namely to the attempt to answer questions, without first discovering precisely WHAT question it is which you desire to answer. " (Moore, Preface, p. VIII). Francis Macdonald Cornford is a famous and very well esteemed classical scholar, also renowned for his poetry. He was a fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1899 and taught here from 1902. In 1931 he became Laurence Professor of Ancient Philosophy and in 1937 he was elected Fellow of the British Academy. He was married to Charles Darwin's granddughter, Frances Darwin, later Frances Macdonald Cornford.William Keith Chambers Guthrie was and ramains a famous classical scholar, best known for for his obligatory work "History of Greek Philosophy" which is still used in the basic teaching of Greek philosophy at many universities throughout the world. Having been brought up in London, Guthrie went up to Cambridge in 1925 and here won the Eric Evan Spier scholarship to Trinity College. He was a brilliant student, and among his supervisors was Francis Cornford. He was placed in the first class of both Parts of the Classical Tripos, with distinction in Part two, and he was awarded the Carven Prize. After graduating, he bagan a postgraduate career at Trinity College, which he left in 1930, when he took up a fellowship at Peterhouse. In 1939 he was appointed university Orator. After the war, where he served in the Intelligence Corps, he returned to Cambridge, where he was much in demand due to his orating skills, and he gave encomia in Latin in the honer of e.g. Churchill and Eisenhower. He followed Cornford as Laurence Professor of Ancient Philosophy in 1952, and like him also became Fellow of the Bristish Academy. In 1957 he became Master of Downing College, Cambridge, which he remained throughout the rest of his life. In 1950 he edited an edition of Francis Cornford's essays under the title "The Unwritten Philosophy".There is no doubt that Guthrie viewed Cornford as his mentor, and it is of great interest to see the two great scholars, the mentor and the brilliant student, united here in this seminal work of philosophy and ethics, which must have had the interest of both. There are numerous sceptial remarks in the margins and numerous corrections and commentaries that are of great interest, providing us with the specialized classical scolars view on the thoughts that have had the greatest impact on Anglo-American ethical thought. Both Cornford and Guthrie followed the doctrine of reading and interpreting the ancient philosophers against their own historical background, and in this they both broke ground, infuencing later generations of classical philosophers as well as historical philosophers in general

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        ON THE "POLAR STAR" IN THE ARCTIC SEA. With the Statements of Commander U. Cagni Upon the Sledge Expedition to 86 Degrees 34 Minutes North, and of Dr. A. Cavalli Molinelli Upon His Return to the Bay of Teplitz.

      London: Hutchinson and Co.,1903.. 1st English Edition; 2 volumes; Vol I xvi, 346pp xvii-xxii; Vol II viii, 347-702pp, ix-xii. Publisher's green cloth with gilt titles to spines, gilt stamped image of masted ship caught in the ice. 212 illustrations in text, 16 full-page photogravure plates, 2 panoramas and 5 maps. In 1899 the author organized an expedition towards the North Pole. In spring he arrived in the Norwegian capital Christiania (the present day Oslo) with 10 companions. The duke acquired the Jason, a steam whaler of 570 tons, renamed it Stella Polare ("Pole Star") & took the ship on the expedition through the frozen Artic Sea. The members of the expedition sought to reach the North Pole by way of Novaya Zemyla, and the Franz Joseph Archipelago. They sailed as far north as possible, and then continued their trek by sledge. While they did not reach the North Pole, they did reach the highest latitude ever attained by sledge at that time. Both volumes covers slightly bumped and marked, inner hinges beginning to crack, tissue paper guards brown as usual. Contents clean. Very Good.

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      New York: Doubleday, Page & Company,. 1903. original pictorial light green cloth, front panel stamped in dark green, red, white and gold, spine panel stamped in dark green and gold.. Small embossed stamp and inked name of early private owner Rena L.. Hamilton on front free endpaper. A fine, bright copy. Very scarce in. this condition. The ultimate collector's copy of this lovely book.. (#75250). First edition. "New England regionalist writer, highly regarded for cameo like, naturalistic pictures of domestic life and for supernatural stories ... THE WIND IN THE ROSE-BUSH (1903), Freeman's only supernatural collection, is of greater critical and historical importance than its uniqueness might suggest. It is one of the very few bodies of work that combine domestic realism with supernaturalism, and it has been the founding document of a minor school within supernatural fiction (notably August Derleth and his followers). The individual stories are also excellent." - Sullivan (ed), The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural, p. 163. Barron (ed), Horror Literature 3-71. Bleiler, The Guide to Supernatural Fiction 662. Locke, A Spectrum of Fantasy, p. 231. Schlobin, The Literature of Fantasy 395. Tymn (ed), Horror Literature 3- 259. Bleiler (1978), p. 77. Reginald 15339. BAL 6371 (BAL notes that Merle Johnson termed this binding the earliest).

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        The Refutation of Idealism. [Off-printed from MIND: a Quaterly Review of Psychology and Philosophy. Vol. XII., N.S., No. 48.].

      [Aberdeen Univ. Press Limited, 1903]. 8vo. In the orig. printed wrappers (part of the collation); wrapper with a bit of browning and minor brownspotting. 23 , (1) pp.. First edition, off-print - from the library of Wittgenstein -, of the first classic text of Realism, one of Moore's main works and a huge inspirational source for analytic philosophy.Off-prints of the present work are of great scarcity, and the present copy has been in the possession of Ludwig Wittgenstein, who was probably given the copy by Moore himself. Wittgenstein handed over some of his belongings, including a number of his books, to his life-long friend Ludwig Hänsel. Among these belongings was the present copy of Moore's influential work.Wittgenstein did not have many close friends, but the closest- together with Rudolph Koder- was Luwig Hänsel, who was a high-school teacher of German and literature. Hänsel and Wittgenstein, who befriended each other in 1918 while being war prisoners in Monte Casino, also remained close friends throughout their lives.George Edward Moore (1873-1958) is one of the most influential of twentieth century philosophers, and his contributions to analytic philosophy can be compared to only those of Russell, Wittgenstein and Frege, with whom he founded this philosophical discipline. His impact on Anglo-American philosophy in the 20th century must be said to be nearly unsurpassed, and his Refutation of Idealism constitutes his most important, influential, and consequential criticism of idealism.''The Refutation of Idealism (1903) is the first classic text of Realism. Although ostensibly a refutation of the doctrine that to be is to be perceived, which Moore took to be central in all arguments for the Idealist view that reality is spiritual, it is also a vindication of the common-sense notion that what is experienced is often distinct from and logically independent of our experience of it as well as a vindication of analysis as a method for discerning constituents of certain complexes in the world. Basic to Moore's refutation of Idealism is the rejection of the logical doctrine that all relations, including that of the object and subject of experience, are internal. Yellow and the sensation of yellow are not only distinct, but the latter also involves and external relation between consciousness which is mental and yellow which is not. (Morris Weitz, edt., 20th-Century Philosophy: The Analytic Tradition, 1966, p. 14).For Wittgenstein, the question of idealism is absolutely central in most aspects of his philosophy, and this main work on the area must therefore have been of the utmost interest to him. When Wittgenstein claims that the limits of language are the limits of the world (the early Wittgenstein - Tractatus published 1921) and considers the possibility of private language (the later Wittgenstein - Philosophical Investigations - published 1953), it is continually idealism that is at stake, and the question of the idealism (or the refutation of idealism) in the works of Wittgenstein is a highly debated and often not agreed upon point. Wittgenstein must have read Moore's important work on the subject, before he wrote his own works, as it appeared many years earlier, and as he evidently had a copy of the off-print

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      1903. Good. SETH-SMITH, David. PARRAKEETS: A HANDBOOK TO THE IMPORTED SPECIES. Illustrated by H. GOODCHILD and others. London: R. H. Porter, 1903. First edition. xix + [1] + 281 pp. + 20 chromolithograph plates. Complete. 8vo., red cloth sunned at spine, gilt spine lettering faded. Joints and corners starting to split. Hinges cracked, spine slightly shaken. Endpapers have offset tanning. Light foxing to title page. Plates bright, clean.

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