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Displayed below are some selected recent viaLibri matches for books published in 1812

        The History of the European Commerce with India. To which is subjoined a Review of the Arguments for and against the Trade with India, and the Management of it by a Chartered Company; with an Appendix of Authentic Accounts.

      London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Browne, 1812 - Quarto (265 × 208 mm). Contemporary red half morocco-grained skiver, marbled boards and edges, title gilt direct to the spine, low flat bands with twined bead and fern leaf roll, rectangular device composed of drawer-handle, and foliate scroll tools to the compartments, bead and leaf roll in blind to the spine and corner edges. Rubbed, some foxing and browning to the map which has off-set onto the title page, text-block toned and with occasional light foxing, but overall very good. Folding engraved frontispiece map. First edition, first impression. Macpherson's most celebrated work was his Annals of Commerce, Fisheries and Navigation, which established him as a leading authority on the history of Britain's overseas trade. This, his final work, "opposed Adam Smith's view that the East India Company's monopoly was detrimental to the development of trade between India and Europe" (ODNB). Goldsmiths'-Kress no. 20505. [Attributes: First Edition]

      [Bookseller: Peter Harrington. ABA member]
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        Traité complet sur la théorie et la pratique du nivellement.

      Draguignan, Fabre, (1812). ____ Première édition. Elle est illustrée par 21 planches dépliantes hors-texte. Jean-Antoine Fabre (1749-1834), né à Saint-André (Basses-Alpes), était ingénieur hydraulique des Etats de Provence, puis ingénieur en chef des Ponts et Chaussées jusqu'en 1812. Traité complet par lequel "on connaîtra parfaitement les règles du nivellement, et on sera en état de les appliquer aux diverses parties des travaux publics, sans être exposé aux erreurs inévitables dans les premières opérations de la pratique." Cette première édition a été publiée à Draguignan, la suivante le sera à Paris. Bon exemplaire. *****. In-4. [280 x 208 mm] Collation : XXVI, 368 pp., 6 tableaux dépliants, 21 planches dépliantes hors-texte. Demi-basane rouge, dos orné. (Relié vers 1880.).

      [Bookseller: Hugues de Latude]
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        Kupferstich - Karte, n. C. Mannert b. Schneider und Weigel in Nürnb., "America nach der zweyten AusGesamtansichtbe von Arrowsmiths Weltkarte .".

      - mit altem Grenzkolorit, dat. 1812, 52 x 59 Seltene Karte bei Schneider und Weigel. Oben links die Titelkartusche.

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Nikolaus Struck]
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        The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy; Excelling Any Thing of the Kind Ever Yet Published

      Alexandria [Virginia]: Cottom and Stewart. 1812. H Hard Cover. Poor. Published 1912. Rough but complete copy of this hard-to-find work on cooking and food and menu selection, also a scarce pre-Civil War Virginia imprint. Unfortunately this copy does indeed appear to have been through the war, with scorched covers and smoke-darkened outer edges, a few smoke whispers in the margins, but the text complete, readable and barely touched by the smoke darkening. Full calf of the period with gilt spine ruling and old repair to the rear cover, 288, xii pages, endpapers still present but with excess creasing and a few tiny edge chips. Covers are dried and blackened, especially the front cover, with the calf curled back from the underlying composition board which has warped considerably. Text block is somewhat shaken with a few gatherings a little loosened but not detached, contents protruding from the covers at the outer edges, pages generally clean with the aforenoted minor smoke traces in the margins, some darkening to the upper corner of the title page and first page of text, names of Israel Gillett and Susan Morris on front free endpaper along with the name Regent in all caps. Good rebinding candidate but readable as is.

      [Bookseller: Resource Books, LLC]
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        \"Vue d`Oberwesel et la Ruine de Schomberg\". Prächtige Gesamtansicht vom Rhein aus, links die Ruine Schönberg.

       Altkol. Aquatinta von Radl nach Schütz, 1812, 47,5 x 59 cm. Schönes Blatt in kräftigem Altkolorit. - Auf Chinapapier aufgezogen, mit wenigen Restaurierungen in den Rändern. Versand D: 6,00 EUR Rheinland-Pfalz - Saarland

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Bierl]
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        IJsgezicht - 19de eeuw.

      IDYLLISCHE WINTERTekening in waterverf toegeschreven aan Reinier Craeyvanger (1812-1880). Afm. 36,4 x 52,6 cm.De Lage Landen kenden vele vinnig koude winters. Kou die ?deur vel en vleesch passeerde?. Binnenwateren en rivieren konden potdicht gevroren zijn en tot maart met een dikke ijskorst bedekt. Havens zaten dicht. De Zuiderzee werd met sledes en wagens overgestoken. Soms zwierven wolven rond op zoek naar prooi. De prijzen voor etenswaren stegen tijdens de winterperiode tot onwaarschijnlijke hoogte. Er was gebrek aan turf, hout en kolen en vooral aan vers water. Werk was moeilijk te vinden. Er stierven heel wat mensen van de kou. Ellende overheerste.Toch ligt de winter ligt veel Nederlanders na aan het hart. De gedachte aan ijs en schaatsen alleen al doet het sneller slaan. Vroeger even goed als tegenwoordig.Van de ruige realiteit tijdens grillige winters is op ijsgezichten doorgaans weinig te zien. Het koperspubliek wilde geen ellende en ook geen al te realistische weergave van borrelende scheuren, windwakken en viezigheid op het ijs. Men vroeg om een idyllisch plaatje.Prijs: ?2.350,- (incl. lijst).

      [Bookseller: Inter-Antiquariaat MEFFERDT & DE JONGE]
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        Säkularausgabe. 41 Bde. komplett inklusive aller Kommentarbde. und des Registerbdes. Herausgegeben von den Nationalen Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur in Weimar und dem Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris.

      Bd. 1: Gedichte 1812 - 1827. Bd. 1KI: Gedichte 1812 - 1827 Kommentar. Bd. 1KII: Gedichte 1812 - 1827 Kommentar. Bd. 2: Gedichte 1827 - 1844 und Versepen. Bd. 3: Gedichte 1845 - 1856. Bd. 4: Tragödien, frühe Prosa 1820 - 1831. Bd. 5: Reisebilder I 1824 - 1828. Bd. 6: Reisebilder II 1828 - 1831. Bd. 7: Über Frankreich 1831 - 1837. Bd. 7K: Über Frankreich 1931 - 1937 Kommentar. Bd. 8: Über Deutschland 1833 - 1836 Kunst und Philosophie. Bd. 9: Prosa 1836 - 1840. Bd. 10: Pariser Berichte 1840 - 1848. Bd. 11: Lutezia. Berichte über Politik, Kunst und Volksleben. Bd. 12: Späte Prosa 1847 - 1856. Bd. 13: Poemes et Légendes. Bd. 13: Poemes et Légendes. Kommentar. Bd. 14: Tableaux de Voyage I. Bd. 15: Tableaux de Voyage II. Italie. Bd. 14/15K: Reisebilder. Tableaux de Voyage. Kommentar. Bd. 16: De l?Allemagne I. Bd. 17: De l?Allemagne II. Bd. 18: De la France. Bd. 19: Lutèce. Bd. 20: Briefe 1815 - 1831. Bd. 20K: Briefe 1815 - 1831 Kommentar. Bd. 21: Briefe 1831 - 1841. Bd. 21K: Briefe 1831 - 1841 Kommentar. Bd. 22: Briefe 1842 - 1849. Bd. 22K: Briefe 1842 - 1849 Kommentar. Bd. 23: Briefe 1850 - 1856. Bd. 23K: Briefe 1850 - 1856 Kommentar. Bd. 24: Briefe an Heine 1823 - 1836. Bd. 24K: Briefe an Heine 1823 - 1836 Kommentar. Bd. 25: Briefe an Heine 1837 - 1841. Bd. 25K: Briefe 1837 - 1841 Kommentar. Bd. 26: Briefe an Heine 1842 - 1851. Bd. 26K: Briefe an Heine 1842 - 1851 Kommentar. Bd. 27: Briefe an Heine 1852 - 1856. Bd. 27K: Briefe an Heine 1852 - 1856 Kommentar. Bd. 20-27R: Briefwechsel 1815 - 1856 Register. - Umschläge gebräunt mit kl. o. grösseren Randläsuren, vereinzelt auch Ausrissen, teils fleckig, angeschmutzt und/oder lichtrandig, Einband vereinzelt fleckig oder lichtrandig, Schnitte teils fleckig, Bll. und Vorsätze teils gebräunt, wenige mit Knickspuren, bei wenigen Bd. sind die Kapitalbändchen defekt. Insgesamt gute Exemplare. - Einzelverkauf der Bände ist ggfs. auch möglich. Bitte fragen Sie uns.

      [Bookseller: Rotes Antiquariat]
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        OBSERVATIONS ON LAYING OUT FARMS IN THE SCOTCH STYLE, ADAPTED TO ENGLAND. Comprising an account of the introduction of the Berwickshire Husbandry into Middlesex and Oxfordshire.

      London, John Harding, 1812.. FIRST EDITION 1812. Large 4to, approximately 385 x 280 mm, 15 x 11 inches, printed on good heavy stock, 38 engraved plates (title page calls for 40 plates, there is a note on this discrepancy at the end of the plate list), 10 are tissue guarded hand coloured aquatints including frontispiece, panorama with 3 images and 1 plate with 2 images, making a total of 13 images, 3 are large folding plates, plus 1 large folding in black and white, pages: [9]-16, 19-60, 59-105, collation: A-G5, H-M4 (1) including half-title, pagination slightly erratic but complete, numbers 59 and 60 are duplicated but there is no duplication of text. Handsomely rebound in half dark blue crushed morocco, matching cloth covers divided by gilt decoration, contrasting gilt lettered labels to spine, gilt date at foot, gilt decoration and urns between raised bands, edges untrimmed, housed in a plain blue cloth slipcase. The folding plates each have a small tear on central fold, all have repairs to the blank side to strengthen, the panorama plate has a repair to central blank margin on the image side, not affecting images (see attached image), 2 small repairs to edges, not affecting images, 2 further small tears to fold, not repaired, the large folding black and white plate has small central repair to fold on the blank side and the image side, not affecting the images (MOST COPIES SEEM TO SUFFER FROM TEARS TO FOLDS), pinhole worm track from page 50 to the end, hardly noticeable, small worm track affecting 2 plates, 1 in colour, on the colour plate the track just runs into the sky (see image named "Scone"), both neatly repaired on the blank side, 1 colour plate has 2 small darker blue spots in the sky, tissue guards foxed, that on frontispiece loose, 1 with a small worm track, 1 page has small hole to blank margin (paper fault), 1 margin has 2 neat small closed tears repaired, margin of 1 black and white plate has small closed tear neatly repaired, 13 black and white plates have pale age-browning, some margins on the colour plates have pale age-browning, not affecting images, page edges a little dusty with occasional tiny nicks and a tiny ink spot just affecting several edges. A very good copy of a rare colour plate farming book. See Mary Aslin, Catalogue of the Printed books on Agriculture published between 1471 and 1840, page 80; The Kress Library of Business and Economics, Volume 2, page 304, B. 6011. Not in Abbey or Tooley. John Claudius Loudon (1783 – 1843) was a Scottish botanist, garden and cemetery designer, author and garden magazine editor. This work is based on Loudon’s experiments at Tew Park in Oxfordshire which he rented in 1809 and set up as an agricultural school. Despite significant success financially, he abruptly disbanded the school in 1811 and left for a tour of the Continent (returning in 1814), leaving his publishers to produce the book. MORE IMAGES ATTACHED TO THIS LISTING, ALL ZOOMABLE. FURTHER IMAGES ON REQUEST. POSTAGE AT COST.

      [Bookseller: Roger Middleton]
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        Théorie Analytique des Probabilités. Paris: Courcier, 1812. [With:] Supplément a la Théorie Analytique des Probabilités, Paris: Courcier, n.d. [1816]; Deuxième Supplément ..., n.p., February 1818; Troisième Supplément ..., Paris: Courcier, n.d. [1819]; Quatrième Supplément ..., Paris: Huzard-Courcier, n.d. [1825].

      Paris: Courcier, 1812-25. First edition, very rare, accompanied by all four supplements (the fourth supplement is especially rare), of "the most influential book on probability and statistics ever written" (Anders Hald), which John Herschel called "the ne plus ultra of mathematical skill and power" (Essays from the Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews (1857), p. 382). "In the Théorie Laplace gave a new level of mathematical foundation and development both to probability theory and to mathematical statistics. ... [It] emerged from a long series of slow processes and once established, loomed over the landscape for a century or more." (Stephen Stigler, Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics, pp. 329-30). "It was the first full-scale study completely devoted to a new specialty, ... [and came] to have the same sort of relation to the later development of probability that, for example, Newton's Principia Mathematica had to the later science of mechanics" (DSB). "The Théorie analytique des Probabilités contains, besides an introduction, two books and four supplements: Book I. Du calcul des Fonctions génératrices; Book II. Théorie générale des Probabilités; first supplement, composed in 1816. Sur l'Application du calcul des Probabilités à la philosophie naturelle; second supplement, composed in 1817. Sur l'Application du calcul des Probabilités aux opérations géodésiques, et sur la Probabilité des résultats déduits d'un grand nombre d'observations; third supplement, composed in 1819. Application des formules géodésiques de Probabilité à la Méridienne de France; [fourth supplement, composed in 1825]" (Hoefer, Nouvelle Biographie Générale, 547). ABPC/RBH list only one copy of this first edition sold at auction since Honeyman, and that copy lacked the fourth supplement (Sotheby's, 11 December 2007, $25,000). The Honeyman copy had only the first supplement. "The first edition contains a brief introduction that was eliminated in the second and third in favor of the Essai philosophique. It is worth notice, nevertheless, for the interest that Laplace claimed for the work in bringing it before the public: "I am particularly concerned to determine the probability of causes and results, as exhibited in events that occur in large numbers, and to investigate the laws according to which that probability approaches a limit in proportion to the repetition of events. That investigation deserves the attention of mathematicians because of the analysis required. It is primarily there that the approximation of formulas that are functions of large numbers has its most important applications. The investigation will benefit observers in identifying the mean to be chosen among the results of their observations and the probability of the errors still to be apprehended. Lastly, the investigation is one that deserves the attention of philosophers in showing how in the final analysis there is a regularity underlying the very things that seem to us to pertain entirely to chance, and in unveiling the hidden but constant causes on which that regularity depends. It is on the regularity of the mean outcomes of events taken in large numbers that various institutions depend, such as annuities, tontines, and insurance policies. Questions about those subjects, as well as about inoculation with vaccine and decisions of electoral assemblies, present no further difficulty in the light of my theory. I limit myself here to resolving the most general of them, but the importance of these concerns in civil life, the moral considerations that complicate them, and the voluminous data that they presuppose require a separate work." Laplace never wrote that separate work, although the thought of it may well have been what led him to expand his old lecture for the École Normale into the Essai philosophique two years later. "The general subtitle of Book I is "Calcul des fonctions génératrices." It consists almost entirely of a republication, with some revision, of the two cardinal mathematical investigations of the early 1780's. The "Mémoire sur les suites", on generating functions themselves, has now become the basis of its first part, and that on the approximation by definite integrals of formulas containing very large numbers the basis of its second part. The introduction reiterates what Laplace had first stated in the memoir of the preceding year, that the two theories are branches of a single calculus, the one concerned with solving the difference equations in which problems of chance events are formulated, the other with evaluating the expressions that result when events are repeated many times. "Laplace says in the introduction that he is now presenting these theories in a more general manner than he had done thirty years before. The chief difference in principle is that the new calculus is held to have emerged along the main line of evolution of the analytical treatment of exponential quantities. In an opening historical chapter, Laplace traces the lineage back through the work of Lagrange, Leibniz, Newton, and Wallis to Descartes's invention of numerical indices for denoting the operations of squaring, cubing, and raising magnitudes to higher integral powers. The principal difference in practice between the two earlier memoirs and their revision in Book I is that Laplace omitted certain passages that had come to appear extraneous in the interval and gave greater prominence to others that now appeared strategic. The most important omission is three articles from the "Mémoire sur les suites" on the solution of second-order partial differential equations, which were important for problems of physics but not for theory of games of chance. On the other hand, Laplace gave greater emphasis than in the earlier memoirs to the passage from the finite to the infinitesimal and also from real to imaginary quantity. He now develops as an argument what he had merely asserted in the immediately preceding memoir on definite integrals, namely that rigor is not impaired by the necessity of neglecting in appropriate circumstances infinitesimal quantities relative to finite quantities and higher-order infinitesimals relative to those of lower order. It is in support of this proposition that he brings in the solution to the problem of vibrating strings. It affords a convincing example that discontinuous solutions of partial differential equations are possible under conditions that he specifies. He attached even greater importance to the fertility that he increasingly found in the process of passing from real to imaginary quantities and discussed those procedures in the transitional section between the first and second parts ... "In Book II, subtitled "Théorie générale des probabilités," Laplace turns from the calculus to probability itself. Indeed, it is fair to say that he constituted the subject, drawing together the main types of problems from the theory of chance already treated by many mathematicians, including himself, in a somewhat haphazard manner, and re-handling them in tandem with problems from the new areas of application in philosophy of science, astronomy, geodesy, instrumentation, error, population, and the procedures of judicial panels and electoral bodies. Unlike the two parts of Book I ..., Book II is more than a republication of earlier memoirs with minor and incidental revision. Material from earlier work is incorporated in it, to be sure, but it is revised mathematically and fortified with new material ... The first chapter gives the general principles and opens with the famous characterization of probability as a branch of knowledge both required by the limitation of the human intelligence and serving to repair its deficiencies in part. The subject is relative, therefore, both to our knowledge and to our ignorance of the laws of a determined universe. After stating the definition of probability itself and the rule for multiplying the probabilities of independent events, Laplace includes as the third basic principle a verbal statement of his theorem on the probability of cause, still without mentioning Bayes. Thereupon, he takes the example of the unsuspected asymmetries of a coin to consider the effect of unequal prior probabilities mistakenly taken for equal. Finally, he distinguishes between mathematical and moral expectation ... "The actual problems discussed in the early chapters also consist in part of examples reworked from ... early papers on theory of chance. Laplace solved them by using generating functions and arranged them, not for their own sake, but to illustrate the typology of problems in probability at large, interspersing new subject matter where the methodology made it appropriate. Chapter 2, which is concerned with the probability of compound events composed of simple events of known probability, is much the most considerable, occupying about one-quarter of Book II. In a discussion of the old problem of determining the probability that all n numbers in a lottery will turn up at least once in i draws when r slips are chosen on each draw, he adduced the case of the French national lottery, composed of ninety numbers drawn five at a time. Laplace went on to other classic problems in direct probability: of odds and evens in extracting balls from an urn, of extracting given numbers of balls of a particular color from mixtures in several urns, of order and sequence in the retrieval of numbered balls, of the division of stakes and of the ruin or victory of one of a pair of gamblers in standard games ... "We shall not follow Laplace into yet another calculation (his last on this phenomenon) that the orbital arrangement of the planets results from a single cause and that the comets escape its compass, nor from that back to a variation on the original problem, in which any number of balls in the urn may be designated by the same integer, nor even into his derivation by the same method that the sum of the errors in a series of observations will be contained within given limits. Suffice it to indicate the sequence and the virtuosity it bespeaks. But we must notice his earliest venture, this late in life, into judicial probability. Imagine a number i of points along a straight line, at each of which an ordinate is erected. The first ordinate must be at least equal to the second, the second at least equal to the third, and so on; and the sum of these i ordinates is s. The problem is to determine, among all the values that each ordinate can assume, the mean value ... Suppose now, however, that an event is produced by one of the i causes A, B, C, ..., and that a panel of judges is to reach a verdict on which of the causes was responsible. Each member of the panel might write on a ballot the various letters in the order that appeared most probable to him ... If all members of the tribunal follow that procedure, and the values for each cause are summed, the largest sum will point to the most probable cause in the view of that panel. Laplace hastened to add that since electors, unlike judges, are not constrained to decide for or against a candidate but impute to him all degrees of merit in making their choices, the above procedure may not be applied to elections. He proceeded to outline a probabilistic scheme for a preferential ballot that would produce the most mathematically exact expression of electoral will. Unfortunately, however, electors would not in fact make their choices on the basis of merit but would rank lowest the candidate who presented the greatest threat to their own man. In practice, therefore, preferential ballots favor mediocrity and had been abandoned wherever tried. "The third chapter deals with limits, in the sense in which the idea figures in the frequency definitions of the discipline of probability that have developed out of it. In his own terminology, his concern was with the laws of probability that result from the indefinite multiplication of events. No single passage is as clear and definite as his derivation of the central limit theorem in the memoir on approximating the values of formulas containing large numbers that had brought him back to probability several years before, but the examples he adduces are much more various ... Laplace points out that two sorts of approximations are involved. The first is relative to the limits of the a priori probability (facilité) of the event A, and the second to the probability that the ratio of the occurrences of A to the total number of events will be contained within certain limits. As the events are repeated, the latter probability increases so long as the limits remain the same. On the other hand, so long as the probability remains the same, the limits grow closer together. When the number of events reaches infinity, the limits converge in a point and the probability becomes a certainty. Just as he had done in his earliest general memoir on probability, Laplace turned to birth records to illustrate how the ratio of boys to girls gives figures from experience for prior probabilities, or facilitiés. "The latter part of the discussion contains another of the many passages scattered throughout his writings that have led modern readers to feel that Laplace must somehow have had an inkling (or perhaps a repressed belief) that random processes occur in nature itself and not merely as a function of our ignorance. The mathematical occasion here is the use ... of partial differential equations in solving certain limit problems. The concluding example turns on a ring of urns, one containing only white and another only black balls, and the rest mixtures of very different proportions. Laplace proves that if a ball is drawn from any urn and placed in its neighbor, and if that urn is well shaken and a ball drawn from it and placed in the next further on, and so on an indefinite number of times around the circle, the ratio of white to black balls in each urn will eventually be the same as the ratio of white to black balls in all of them. But what Laplace really thought to show by such examples was the tendency of constant forces in nature to bring order into the most chaotic systems. "By comparison to the early probabilistic memoirs of the 1770's, and 1780's, the fourth chapter on probability of error certainly represents the most significant development in the subject as a whole. It contains, of course, a derivation of the least-square law for taking the mean in a series of observations ... The chapter opens with determinations that the sum of errors of a large number of errors - equivalent to the distribution of sums of random variables - will be contained within given limits, on the assumption of a known and equipossible law of errors. It continues with the probability that the sum of the errors (again amounting to random variables), all considered as positive, and of their squares and cubes, will be contained within given limits. This is equivalent to considering the distribution of the sum of moduli. That leads to the problem of correcting values known approximately by the results of a great number of observations, which is to say by least squares, first in the case of a single element and then of two or more elements. Mathematically, this involves a discussion of linearized equations with one unknown and with two unknowns, respectively. Laplace includes instructions on application of the analysis to the correction of astronomical data by comparison of the values given in a number of tables. He then considers the case in which the probability of positive and negative error is unequal, and derives the distribution that results. The next-to-last section deals with the statistical prediction of error and methods of allowing for it on the basis of experience. At least, that seems to be a fair statement of what Laplace had in mind in speaking of "the mean result of observations large in number and not yet made," on the basis of the mean determined for past observations of which the respective departures from the mean are known. The chapter closes with a historical sketch of the methods used by astronomers to minimize error up to the formulation of least squares, in which account Laplace renders Legendre and Gauss each his due. "In the fifth chapter, Laplace discussed the application of probability to the investigation of phenomena themselves and of their causes, wherein it might serve to establish the physical significance of data amid all the complexities of the world. The approach offers practical instances of his sense of the relativity of the subject to knowledge and to ignorance, to science and to nature. In the analysis of error, it is the phenomena that are considered certain, whereas here the existence and boundaries of the phenomena themselves are the object of the calculation. The main example is the daily variation of the barometer, which long and frequent observation shows to be normally at its highest at 9:00 a.m. and lowest at 4:00 p.m., after which it rises to a lower peak at 11:00 p.m. and sinks until 4:00 p.m. Laplace calculated the probability that this diurnal pattern is due to some regular cause, namely the action of the sun, and determined its mean extent. He then raised a further question which, for lack of data, he could not resolve mathematically here, but which is interesting since it came to occupy the very last calculation of his life. For in theory, atmospheric tides would constitute a second and independent cause contributing to the daily variations of barometric pressure ... The detection of such a small effect was not yet possible, although Laplace expressed his confidence that observations would one day become sufficiently extensive and precise to permit its isolation. "In short, it was calculations of this sort that Laplace had in mind when he claimed, as he here remarked again, that on the cosmic scale probability had permitted him to identify the great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn, even as it had enabled him to detect the minuscule deviation from the vertical of a body falling toward a rotating earth. He even had hopes for its calculus in physiological investigations, imagining that application to a large number of observations might suffice to determine whether electrical or magnetic charges have detectable effects upon the nervous system, and whether animal magnetism reflects reality or suggestibility. In general - he felt confident - the same analysis could in principle be applied to medical and economic questions, and even to problems of morality, for the operations of causes many times repeated are as regular in those domains as in physics. Laplace had no examples to propose, however, and closed the chapter with a mathematical problem extraneous in subject matter but not in methodology. The problem had been imagined by Buffon in order to show the applicability of geometry to probability. It consists of tossing a needle onto a grid of parallel lines, and then onto a grid ruled in rectangles, of which the optimal dimensions relative to the length of the needle constitute the problem. Laplace adapted it to a probabilistic, or in this instance a statistical, method for approximating to the value of π. It would be possible, he points out, although not mathematically inviting, to apply a similar approach to the rectification of curves and squaring of surfaces in general. "Chapter 6, "On the Probability of Causes and Future Events, Drawn From Observed Events," is in effect concerned with problems of statistical inference. In practice, the material represents a reworking of his early memoir on probability of cause and of the application of inverse probability by means of approximations of definite integrals to calculations involving births of boys and girls and also to population problems at large. He now had figures for Naples as well as for Paris and London. In calculating the probable error in estimates of the population of France based on the available samples, he made use of the partial census which, at his request, the government had instituted in 1801. "The next, very brief, chapter also starts with old material, to which he gave a new turn. He recurs to his own discovery of the effect of inequalities in the prior probabilities that are mistakenly supposed to be equal. He always attached great importance to that finding, so much so that he alluded to it in the opening chapter of Book II, where definitions were laid down. The significance was that it brought out the care that needed to be taken when mathematical calculations of probability were applied to physical events. In effect, there are no perfect symmetries in the real world, and what Laplace was saying was that allowance has to be made for slight deviations of parameters from assumed values in making predictions. He discussed the problem in the same connection in which he had started it, in relation to the unfairness to one of two players of unsuspected asymmetries in a coin to be tossed. That could be mitigated, he now suggested, by submitting the chance of asymmetry itself to calculation ... "In chapters 8, 9, and 10, all of them quite brief, Laplace took up life expectancy, annuities, insurance, and moral expectation (or prudence). We do not know where he obtained his information, but it is reasonable to suppose that some of it must have been derived from occasional service on commissions appointed to review writings in this area and various actuarial schemes submitted to the government. The procès-verbaux of the Academy in its last years and of the Institute contain record of his having thus been called on from time to time. Moreover, the "Notice sur les probabilités" (1800) was published as a rationale of the application that it was legitimate to make to tables of mortality. This piece was an expansion of his École Normale lecture of 1795. It was then further expanded to become the first edition of the Essai philosophique and concludes with a summons to governments to license and regulate underwriters of insurance, annuities, and tontines, and to encourage investment in soundly managed associations. For an insurance industry and a literature did exist, although Laplace does not refer either to actual practice or to authorities. Comparison of his chapters with both would be required before a judgment could be made of what his contribution may have been. "Mathematically, his model for calculations of the "mean duration," both of life and marriage, is error theory. Given the tables of mortality covering a large population, a value for the mean length of life may be taken and the probability calculated that the mean life of a sample of stated size will fall within given limits. Calculation of life expectancy at any age follows directly. Laplace also gave a calculation for estimating the effect of smallpox on the death rate and of vaccination on life expectancy. The conclusion is that the eradication of smallpox would increase life expectancy by three years, if the growth in the population did not diminish the improvement by outrunning the food supply. Laplace did not give the data or provide numerical examples here, as he had done in his population studies. The succeeding chapter on annuities and tontines is equally abstract and gives expressions for the capital required to create annuities on one or several lives, for the investment needed to build an estate of given size, and for the advantages to be expected from participation in mutual benefit societies. "In the tenth chapter, with which Laplace concluded the first edition, he softened the asperity he had once expressed about Daniel Bernoulli's calculation of a value for moral expectation in distinguishing that notion from mathematical expectation. Bernoulli had proposed that prospective benefits, in practice financial ones, may be quantified as the quotient of their amount divided by the total worth of the beneficiary. Laplace now adopted that principle as a useful guide to conduct-without attributing it this time to Bernoulli ... Laplace concluded that in the most mathematically advantageous games of chance the odds are always unfavorable over time, and that diversification is a prudent practice in the investment of wealth ... "Laplace extended the application of inverse probability to the analysis of criminal procedures in a supplement to the Théorie analytique, the first of four, composed in 1816. For this purpose a condemnation is an event, and the probability is required that it was caused by the guilt of the accused. As always in the probability of cause, prior probabilities had to be known or assumed, and Laplace again supposed that the probability of a truthful juror or judge lies between 1/2 and 1. In a panel of eight members of whom five suffice to convict, the probability of error came to 65/256. He felt that the English jury system with its requirement for unanimity weighted the odds too heavily against the security of society, but that the French criminal code was unjust to the accused. By one provision, if a defendant was found guilty by a majority of 7 to 5 in a court of first instance, it required a vote of 4 to 1 to overturn the verdict in a court of appeal, since a majority of only 3 to 2 there still left a plurality against him in the two courts taken together. That rule was as offensive to common sense as to common humanity ... "Between 1817 and 1819, Laplace investigated the application of probability to sharpening the precision of geodesic data and gathered these studies for publication as the second and third supplements of the Théorie analytique. In recent years scholars concerned with the history of statistics have been especially interested in these two pieces, which Laplace himself saw in the context of his theory of error. His intention was to improve on the method of least squares in the minimization of instrumental and observational error. That had also been his motivation in the opening articles of the First Supplement, where before taking up judicial probabilities, he further developed what he called the "most advantageous" method of combining equations of condition formed from observations of a single element, like those exemplified in his initial justification of the least-squares method. He then applied the method to estimating the probable error in Bouvard's recent, highly refined calculations of the masses of Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter. "In the Second Supplement, Laplace turned to geodesy and compared the results of his method with the so-called method of situation of Boskovic. Stigler considers that this discussion contains the earliest instance of a comparison of two well-elaborated methods of estimation for a general population, in which the conditions that make one of them preferable are specified. He is particularly enthusiastic about the growing statistical sophistication, as he sees it, of Laplace's later work in probability and argues that the analysis here is strikingly similar to that which led R. A. Fisher to the discovery of the concept of sufficiency in 1920. In the Third Supplement, Laplace reports the result of applying his method to the extension of the revolutionary Delambre-Méchain survey of the meridian from a base in Perpignan to Formentera in the Balearic Islands. The data were the discrepancies between 180° and the sums of the angles measured for each triangle. There were only twenty-six triangles in the Perpignan-Formentera chain, however, and Laplace preferred to estimate the law of error on the basis of all 700 triangles in the original survey. He could then calculate the probabilities of error of various magnitudes in the length of the meridian by the formulas already developed for his modified, or most advantageous, method of least squares. In a further article on a general method for cases involving several sources of error, Laplace obtained a paradigm equation for formulating equations of condition that relate values for observed elements to the error distributions involved. The equation served him in his later investigation of variations of the barometer as evidence for lunar atmospheric tides, the last he ever undertook" (DSB). The main part of the fourth Supplement consists of the solution of problems which may be considered as generalisations of the Problem of Points. In the simplest problem a player A draws a ball from an urn containing white balls and black balls; after the ball has been drawn it is replaced. Then a second player B draws a ball from a second urn containing white balls and black balls; after the ball has been drawn it is replaced. If a player draws a white ball he counts a point; if he draws a black ball he counts nothing. Suppose that A wants x points, and B wants x' points to complete an assigned set; required the probabilities in favour of each player. This is then generalized by allowing balls of more than two kinds, and allowing drawing without replacement. These problems are solved by the method of generating functions. This is followed by a section headed Remarque sur les fonctions génératrices which refers to some problems solved in sections 8 and 10 of the Traité, cautioning that the solutions given there cannot be replied upon; correct solutions by means of generating functions are now provided. "Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749-1827), sometimes called "the Newton of France," was a mathematician and astronomer who made many important contributions to the fields of mathematical astronomy and probability. Laplace's Mécanique Céleste (Celestial Mechanics) was the most important work in mathematical astronomy since Isaac Newton. His Théorie Analytique des Probabilités (Analytical Theory of Probability) influenced work on statistical probability for most of the nineteenth century. These two works alone guaranteed Laplace's place among the great scientists of the age" (DSB). DSB XV, 367-376; Evans, First Editions of Epochal Achievements 12; Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics 24; Honeyman 1923. [Théorie:] 4to (255 x 190 mm), pp. [vi], 464, [2, errata and blank]. Contemporary half calf. [Suppléments:] 4to (258 x 203 mm), pp. 34; 50; 36; [2], 28. Nineteenth-century half-cloth and marbled boards.

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        Säkularausgabe. 41 Bde. komplett inklusive aller Kommentarbde. und des Registerbdes. Herausgegeben von den Nationalen Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur in Weimar und dem Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris.

      Bd. 1: Gedichte 1812 - 1827. Bd. 1KI: Gedichte 1812 - 1827 Kommentar. Bd. 1KII: Gedichte 1812 - 1827 Kommentar. Bd. 2: Gedichte 1827 - 1844 und Versepen. Bd. 3: Gedichte 1845 - 1856. Bd. 4: Tragödien, frühe Prosa 1820 - 1831. Bd. 5: Reisebilder I 1824 - 1828. Bd. 6: Reisebilder II 1828 - 1831. Bd. 7: Über Frankreich 1831 - 1837. Bd. 7K: Über Frankreich 1931 - 1937 Kommentar. Bd. 8: Über Deutschland 1833 - 1836 Kunst und Philosophie. Bd. 9: Prosa 1836 - 1840. Bd. 10: Pariser Berichte 1840 - 1848. Bd. 11: Lutezia. Berichte über Politik, Kunst und Volksleben. Bd. 12: Späte Prosa 1847 - 1856. Bd. 13: Poemes et Légendes. Bd. 13: Poemes et Légendes. Kommentar. Bd. 14: Tableaux de Voyage I. Bd. 15: Tableaux de Voyage II. Italie. Bd. 14/15K: Reisebilder. Tableaux de Voyage. Kommentar. Bd. 16: De l?Allemagne I. Bd. 17: De l?Allemagne II. Bd. 18: De la France. Bd. 19: Lutèce. Bd. 20: Briefe 1815 - 1831. Bd. 20K: Briefe 1815 - 1831 Kommentar. Bd. 21: Briefe 1831 - 1841. Bd. 21K: Briefe 1831 - 1841 Kommentar. Bd. 22: Briefe 1842 - 1849. Bd. 22K: Briefe 1842 - 1849 Kommentar. Bd. 23: Briefe 1850 - 1856. Bd. 23K: Briefe 1850 - 1856 Kommentar. Bd. 24: Briefe an Heine 1823 - 1836. Bd. 24K: Briefe an Heine 1823 - 1836 Kommentar. Bd. 25: Briefe an Heine 1837 - 1841. Bd. 25K: Briefe 1837 - 1841 Kommentar. Bd. 26: Briefe an Heine 1842 - 1851. Bd. 26K: Briefe an Heine 1842 - 1851 Kommentar. Bd. 27: Briefe an Heine 1852 - 1856. Bd. 27K: Briefe an Heine 1852 - 1856 Kommentar. Bd. 20-27R: Briefwechsel 1815 - 1856 Register. - Umschläge gebräunt mit kl. o. grösseren Randläsuren, vereinzelt auch Ausrissen, teils fleckig, angeschmutzt und/oder lichtrandig, Einband vereinzelt fleckig oder lichtrandig, Schnitte teils fleckig, Bll. und Vorsätze teils gebräunt, wenige mit Knickspuren, bei wenigen Bd. sind die Kapitalbändchen defekt. Insgesamt gute Exemplare. - Einzelverkauf der Bände ist ggfs. auch möglich. Bitte fragen Sie uns.

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        The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy; Excelling Any Thing of the Kind Ever Yet Published

      Cottom and Stewart, Alexandria [Virginia] 1812 - Alexandria [Virginia]: Cottom and Stewart. 1812. H Hard Cover. Poor. Published 1912. Rough but complete copy of this hard-to-find work on cooking and food and menu selection, also a scarce pre-Civil War Virginia imprint. Unfortunately this copy does indeed appear to have been through the war, with scorched covers and smoke-darkened outer edges, a few smoke whispers in the margins, but the text complete, readable and barely touched by the smoke darkening. Full calf of the period with gilt spine ruling and old repair to the rear cover, 288, xii pages, endpapers still present but with excess creasing and a few tiny edge chips. Covers are dried and blackened, especially the front cover, with the calf curled back from the underlying composition board which has warped considerably. Text block is somewhat shaken with a few gatherings a little loosened but not detached, contents protruding from the covers at the outer edges, pages generally clean with the aforenoted minor smoke traces in the margins, some darkening to the upper corner of the title page and first page of text, names of Israel Gillett and Susan Morris on front free endpaper along with the name Regent in all caps. Good rebinding candidate but readable as is. [Attributes: Hard Cover]

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        National Songster; or, A Collection of the Most Admired Patriotic Songs, on the Brilliant Victories, Achieved by the Naval and Military Heroes of the United States of America, Over Equal and Superior Forces of the British, From the Best American Authors. [First Book Appearance of The Star-Spangled Banner]

      40 pp. Original buff wrappers, sewn binding. An early nineteenth century collection of 24 patriotic songs, most notable for including the first book appearance of The Star-Spangled Banner under its original title, Defence of Fort M'Henry [McHenry], and attributed to 'an American Gentlemen' (sic) rather than crediting Francis Scott Key. Songs included are: Hull's Victory, August, the 19th, 1812.; Columbia Victorious (set to the tune 'To Anacreon in Heaven', just as Key's work was); Sung at the Old Hob; Battle of the Peacock and Hornet.' Lawrence's Tid-Re-I.; The Pillar of Glory; John Bull and Brother Jonathan; or, The Seven Naval Victories; Perry's Victory.; The Battle of Erie.; American Perry.; Battle of the Lake.; British Prudence.; National Song.; Yankee Liquors.; MacDonouch's Victory; Ode: On Commodore MacDonough's Victory; The Battle of Baltimore.; Defence of Fort M'Henry.; The Battle of Stonington.; Harrison's Victory.; The Battle of Niagara. In Imitation of Campbell's Hohenlinden.; The Land of Heroes; Freedom, Home and Beauty.; Columbia. First Hagers-Town edition (Lowens, 'Songsters' 475; Shaw and Shoemaker 31862; BAL 11081). A rare survival in the original wrappers. Stain on front wrapper, two tears to cover and nearly all pages on fore-edge, extending 1/2 to 1 inch on most pages, and across full width of two leaves (a few words of text are affected), faint stain to top marginal corner, ink verse on front and rear blanks. Enclosed in early to mid-20th century clasped case with wear to exterior edges. A skilled restorer could mend the tears and strengthen the pages against future damage without harming the integrity of the work - we have left the item as is so these repairs can be addressed at the discretion of the book's next owner. Printed for John Gruber and Daniel May., 1814. First Edition. Fair/Not Applicable.

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        Flore pittoresque des environs de Paris, contenant la description de toutes les Plantes qui croissent naturellelement dans un rayon de dix-huit à vingt lieues de cette Capitale.

      Paris, Verfasser, Migneret , Fantin und L. Beaupré, - 1812 - 2 Teile in 1 Band. 4°. 2 nn. Bl., XXV S., 5 nn. Bl., 214 (recte 222) S., 1 nn. Bl., 1 w. Bl.; 28 S., mit 1 gefalteten altkolorierten gestochenen Karte und 69 altkolorierten Kupfertafeln. Späteres grünes Halbmaroquin mit Rückenvergoldung und goldgeprägtem Rückentitel, (minimal beschabt, Rücken verblasst). Erste Ausgabe. - Nissen, BBI 2063; Pritzel, 9767; Stafleu/Cowen 16.154; Dunthorne 318; Brunet V, 1218. - Komplett mit dem Supplement selten. - Umfassender Überblick über die im Pariser Umland vorkommenden Pflanzen zu Beginn des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. - Die ersten 6 Tafeln mit Darstellungen der Blatt-, Blüten- und Fruchtformen, die weiteren Tafeln jeweils mit 4 Pflanzendarstellungen, alle von Vigneux gezeichnet und gestochen. - Minimal stockfleckig, Ränder gering gebräunt. Unser Exemplar aus der berühmten Sammlung von Arpad Plesch; Cat. Plesch Collection 796. - Ex-Libris Arpad Plesch auf Innendeckel. Dekoratives Exemplar. [Attributes: First Edition; Hard Cover]

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        The Laws of Trade and Commerce, Designed As a Book of Reference in Mercantile Transactions

      First edition of a wide-ranging treatise, partly based on the works of Adam Smith and Lord Kames, with substantial portions devoted to international law, both in peace and war, and to insurance, principal and agent, bills of exchange, and bankruptcy. Contemporary polished calf, the spine rubbed, some mainly marginal pencil notations, else a very good fresh copy. Printed for Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, Paternoster-Row [etc.], London, 1812.

      [Bookseller: Meyer Boswell Books, Inc.]
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        Storia naturale delle Scimie. Histoire naturelle des Singes. Naturgeschichte der Affen. In cui vien rappresentata la figura di siasuma specia, accompagnata d'un testo Italiano, colla traduzione del medesimo nelle Lingue Francese e Tedesca.

      Mailand (Milano), Artaria, Bettalli, Ubicini, Hugues 1812 - Band 1 (von 2). Folio. Gestochener Titel, gestochenes Widmungsblatt, 2 gedruckte Titel, 73 gestochene Tafeln (nummeriert III-V und I-LXX), 18 gestochene Textblätter (nummeriert LXXI-LXXXVIII), 21 gedruckte Textblätter, 2 Blatt gestochener Index, 2 Bl. gedr. Index, gestochene und gedruckte Vorrede, 3 Bl. gedruckter Text (französisch und deutsch) Erklärungen der Tafeln III-V, 1 gestochenes Blatt Klassifizierungen 2 gedruckte Blatt in Französisch und Deutsch, 70 Blatt gedruckter Text in Französisch und Deutsch zu den Tafeln I-LXX. Blaues Maroquin der Zeit mit reicher Deckel- und Rückenvergoldung, Steh- und Innenkantenvergoldung, Goldschnitt, (etwas berieben, oberes Gelenk restauriert). Erste Ausgabe, sehr selten. - Nissen ZBI 2080. - Umfassende Monographie der Primaten, mit den schönen, in Punktiermanier gestochenen Tafeln von Luigi Rados nach den Zeichnungen des französischen Malers Nicolas Henri Jacob (1782-1871). - Die Affen werden in 5 Klassen eingeteilt: Orang-Utans; Paviane (Papio); Meerkatzen (Cercopithecus); Sapajus (Cebus) und Sakis (Callithrix) und auf 70 Abbildungstafeln mit gestochenem italienischen Text dargestellt. Die jeweilige Beschreibung in Französisch und Deutsch befindet sich am Ende des Bandes. Die ersten 3 Abbildungstafeln mit anatomischen Erläuterungen. Nach den Abbildungstafeln folgen 18 gestochene Texttafeln mit Erklärungen zu selteneren Affenarten. - Der hier nicht vorhandene 2. Band erschien 1814 und behandelt die Lemuren, enthält jedoch nur 15 Tafeln. - Tafel 1 mit restauriertem Randeinriss, gering stockfleckig, alter Besitzerstempel auf Innendeckel. - Sehr schönes, dekoratives Exemplar. [Attributes: First Edition]

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        Carta del Dipartimento dell'Adige e di una parte dei Dip.ti limitrofi. Disegnata ed incisa da F. Richard De Rouvre

      S. e, 1812. Carta topografica telata suddivisa in 16 riquadri, cm 80 x 103, incisa all'acquaforte, coloritura all'acquerello. Contenuta in custodia e cartella originale. Qualche piega da collaggio ad un riquadro. Rara carta in edizione originale (verra' ristampata e rivista nel 1829 ad opera dell'I. R. Istituto geografico militar . La carta comprende    tutta la Provincia di Verona e quasi tutta quella di Mantova, (Villafranca, Goito, Valeggio) la parte occidentale di quella di Vicenza, (Thiene, Schio, Lonigo), Padova e Rovigo, la parte orientale di quella di Brescia (tutto il Lago di Garda) e Cremona, qualche brano di Parma, Modena, Reggio e Ferrara, Guastalla, Viadana, Gonzaga, Revere, Finale ITA

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Coenobium]
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        Mélanges d'ornements de tous les styles Persan - Mauresque - Arabe - Grec - Gothique [-] Renaissance principalement des XVIe et XVIIe siècles ...Paris, Ducher & Cie (colophon: printed by Eugène Heutte & Cie), [ca. 1880 (engraved 1837-1838)]. Royal folio (45 x 31 cm). With 2 elaborately ornamented part-titles, 70 numbered ornament plates (all 72 plates "engraved" on litho stones, image area mostly 26.5 x 17 cm) and a letterpress list of the plates. With each plate printed in blue, green, violet, ochre, red, black or brown (several shades) and 9 printed in 2 colours. Contemporary half red cloth, rebacked and with new corners in red goatskin morocco.

      WorldCat (6 copies); not in Berlin Kat.; Hymans, Cat. Estampes d

      [Bookseller: ASHER Rare Books (Since 1830)]
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        Théorie Analytique des Probabilités. Paris: Courcier, 1812. [With:] Supplément a la Théorie Analytique des Probabilités, Paris: Courcier, n.d. [1816]; Deuxième Supplément ..., n.p., February 1818; Troisième Supplément ..., Paris: Courcier, n.d. [1819]; Quatrième Supplément ..., Paris: Huzard-Courcier, n.d. [1825].

      Paris: Courcier, 1812-25. First edition, very rare, accompanied by all four supplements (the fourth supplement is especially rare), of "the most influential book on probability and statistics ever written" (Anders Hald), which John Herschel called "the ne plus ultra of mathematical skill and power" (Essays from the Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews (1857), p. 382). "In the Théorie Laplace gave a new level of mathematical foundation and development both to probability theory and to mathematical statistics. ... [It] emerged from a long series of slow processes and once established, loomed over the landscape for a century or more." (Stephen Stigler, Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics, pp. 329-30). "It was the first full-scale study completely devoted to a new specialty, ... [and came] to have the same sort of relation to the later development of probability that, for example, Newton's Principia Mathematica had to the later science of mechanics" (DSB). "The Théorie analytique des Probabilités contains, besides an introduction, two books and four supplements: Book I. Du calcul des Fonctions génératrices; Book II. Théorie générale des Probabilités; first supplement, composed in 1816. Sur l'Application du calcul des Probabilités à la philosophie naturelle; second supplement, composed in 1817. Sur l'Application du calcul des Probabilités aux opérations géodésiques, et sur la Probabilité des résultats déduits d'un grand nombre d'observations; third supplement, composed in 1819. Application des formules géodésiques de Probabilité à la Méridienne de France; [fourth supplement, composed in 1825]" (Hoefer, Nouvelle Biographie Générale, 547). ABPC/RBH list only one copy of this first edition sold at auction since Honeyman, and that copy lacked the fourth supplement (Sotheby's, 11 December 2007, $25,000). The Honeyman copy had only the first supplement. "The first edition contains a brief introduction that was eliminated in the second and third in favor of the Essai philosophique. It is worth notice, nevertheless, for the interest that Laplace claimed for the work in bringing it before the public: "I am particularly concerned to determine the probability of causes and results, as exhibited in events that occur in large numbers, and to investigate the laws according to which that probability approaches a limit in proportion to the repetition of events. That investigation deserves the attention of mathematicians because of the analysis required. It is primarily there that the approximation of formulas that are functions of large numbers has its most important applications. The investigation will benefit observers in identifying the mean to be chosen among the results of their observations and the probability of the errors still to be apprehended. Lastly, the investigation is one that deserves the attention of philosophers in showing how in the final analysis there is a regularity underlying the very things that seem to us to pertain entirely to chance, and in unveiling the hidden but constant causes on which that regularity depends. It is on the regularity of the mean outcomes of events taken in large numbers that various institutions depend, such as annuities, tontines, and insurance policies. Questions about those subjects, as well as about inoculation with vaccine and decisions of electoral assemblies, present no further difficulty in the light of my theory. I limit myself here to resolving the most general of them, but the importance of these concerns in civil life, the moral considerations that complicate them, and the voluminous data that they presuppose require a separate work." Laplace never wrote that separate work, although the thought of it may well have been what led him to expand his old lecture for the École Normale into the Essai philosophique two years later. "The general subtitle of Book I is "Calcul des fonctions génératrices." It consists almost entirely of a republication, with some revision, of the two cardinal mathematical investigations of the early 1780's. The "Mémoire sur les suites", on generating functions themselves, has now become the basis of its first part, and that on the approximation by definite integrals of formulas containing very large numbers the basis of its second part. The introduction reiterates what Laplace had first stated in the memoir of the preceding year, that the two theories are branches of a single calculus, the one concerned with solving the difference equations in which problems of chance events are formulated, the other with evaluating the expressions that result when events are repeated many times. "Laplace says in the introduction that he is now presenting these theories in a more general manner than he had done thirty years before. The chief difference in principle is that the new calculus is held to have emerged along the main line of evolution of the analytical treatment of exponential quantities. In an opening historical chapter, Laplace traces the lineage back through the work of Lagrange, Leibniz, Newton, and Wallis to Descartes's invention of numerical indices for denoting the operations of squaring, cubing, and raising magnitudes to higher integral powers. The principal difference in practice between the two earlier memoirs and their revision in Book I is that Laplace omitted certain passages that had come to appear extraneous in the interval and gave greater prominence to others that now appeared strategic. The most important omission is three articles from the "Mémoire sur les suites" on the solution of second-order partial differential equations, which were important for problems of physics but not for theory of games of chance. On the other hand, Laplace gave greater emphasis than in the earlier memoirs to the passage from the finite to the infinitesimal and also from real to imaginary quantity. He now develops as an argument what he had merely asserted in the immediately preceding memoir on definite integrals, namely that rigor is not impaired by the necessity of neglecting in appropriate circumstances infinitesimal quantities relative to finite quantities and higher-order infinitesimals relative to those of lower order. It is in support of this proposition that he brings in the solution to the problem of vibrating strings. It affords a convincing example that discontinuous solutions of partial differential equations are possible under conditions that he specifies. He attached even greater importance to the fertility that he increasingly found in the process of passing from real to imaginary quantities and discussed those procedures in the transitional section between the first and second parts ... "In Book II, subtitled "Théorie générale des probabilités," Laplace turns from the calculus to probability itself. Indeed, it is fair to say that he constituted the subject, drawing together the main types of problems from the theory of chance already treated by many mathematicians, including himself, in a somewhat haphazard manner, and re-handling them in tandem with problems from the new areas of application in philosophy of science, astronomy, geodesy, instrumentation, error, population, and the procedures of judicial panels and electoral bodies. Unlike the two parts of Book I ..., Book II is more than a republication of earlier memoirs with minor and incidental revision. Material from earlier work is incorporated in it, to be sure, but it is revised mathematically and fortified with new material ... The first chapter gives the general principles and opens with the famous characterization of probability as a branch of knowledge both required by the limitation of the human intelligence and serving to repair its deficiencies in part. The subject is relative, therefore, both to our knowledge and to our ignorance of the laws of a determined universe. After stating the definition of probability itself and the rule for multiplying the probabilities of independent events, Laplace includes as the third basic principle a verbal statement of his theorem on the probability of cause, still without mentioning Bayes. Thereupon, he takes the example of the unsuspected asymmetries of a coin to consider the effect of unequal prior probabilities mistakenly taken for equal. Finally, he distinguishes between mathematical and moral expectation ... "The actual problems discussed in the early chapters also consist in part of examples reworked from ... early papers on theory of chance. Laplace solved them by using generating functions and arranged them, not for their own sake, but to illustrate the typology of problems in probability at large, interspersing new subject matter where the methodology made it appropriate. Chapter 2, which is concerned with the probability of compound events composed of simple events of known probability, is much the most considerable, occupying about one-quarter of Book II. In a discussion of the old problem of determining the probability that all n numbers in a lottery will turn up at least once in i draws when r slips are chosen on each draw, he adduced the case of the French national lottery, composed of ninety numbers drawn five at a time. Laplace went on to other classic problems in direct probability: of odds and evens in extracting balls from an urn, of extracting given numbers of balls of a particular color from mixtures in several urns, of order and sequence in the retrieval of numbered balls, of the division of stakes and of the ruin or victory of one of a pair of gamblers in standard games ... "We shall not follow Laplace into yet another calculation (his last on this phenomenon) that the orbital arrangement of the planets results from a single cause and that the comets escape its compass, nor from that back to a variation on the original problem, in which any number of balls in the urn may be designated by the same integer, nor even into his derivation by the same method that the sum of the errors in a series of observations will be contained within given limits. Suffice it to indicate the sequence and the virtuosity it bespeaks. But we must notice his earliest venture, this late in life, into judicial probability. Imagine a number i of points along a straight line, at each of which an ordinate is erected. The first ordinate must be at least equal to the second, the second at least equal to the third, and so on; and the sum of these i ordinates is s. The problem is to determine, among all the values that each ordinate can assume, the mean value ... Suppose now, however, that an event is produced by one of the i causes A, B, C, ..., and that a panel of judges is to reach a verdict on which of the causes was responsible. Each member of the panel might write on a ballot the various letters in the order that appeared most probable to him ... If all members of the tribunal follow that procedure, and the values for each cause are summed, the largest sum will point to the most probable cause in the view of that panel. Laplace hastened to add that since electors, unlike judges, are not constrained to decide for or against a candidate but impute to him all degrees of merit in making their choices, the above procedure may not be applied to elections. He proceeded to outline a probabilistic scheme for a preferential ballot that would produce the most mathematically exact expression of electoral will. Unfortunately, however, electors would not in fact make their choices on the basis of merit but would rank lowest the candidate who presented the greatest threat to their own man. In practice, therefore, preferential ballots favor mediocrity and had been abandoned wherever tried. "The third chapter deals with limits, in the sense in which the idea figures in the frequency definitions of the discipline of probability that have developed out of it. In his own terminology, his concern was with the laws of probability that result from the indefinite multiplication of events. No single passage is as clear and definite as his derivation of the central limit theorem in the memoir on approximating the values of formulas containing large numbers that had brought him back to probability several years before, but the examples he adduces are much more various ... Laplace points out that two sorts of approximations are involved. The first is relative to the limits of the a priori probability (facilité) of the event A, and the second to the probability that the ratio of the occurrences of A to the total number of events will be contained within certain limits. As the events are repeated, the latter probability increases so long as the limits remain the same. On the other hand, so long as the probability remains the same, the limits grow closer together. When the number of events reaches infinity, the limits converge in a point and the probability becomes a certainty. Just as he had done in his earliest general memoir on probability, Laplace turned to birth records to illustrate how the ratio of boys to girls gives figures from experience for prior probabilities, or facilitiés. "The latter part of the discussion contains another of the many passages scattered throughout his writings that have led modern readers to feel that Laplace must somehow have had an inkling (or perhaps a repressed belief) that random processes occur in nature itself and not merely as a function of our ignorance. The mathematical occasion here is the use ... of partial differential equations in solving certain limit problems. The concluding example turns on a ring of urns, one containing only white and another only black balls, and the rest mixtures of very different proportions. Laplace proves that if a ball is drawn from any urn and placed in its neighbor, and if that urn is well shaken and a ball drawn from it and placed in the next further on, and so on an indefinite number of times around the circle, the ratio of white to black balls in each urn will eventually be the same as the ratio of white to black balls in all of them. But what Laplace really thought to show by such examples was the tendency of constant forces in nature to bring order into the most chaotic systems. "By comparison to the early probabilistic memoirs of the 1770's, and 1780's, the fourth chapter on probability of error certainly represents the most significant development in the subject as a whole. It contains, of course, a derivation of the least-square law for taking the mean in a series of observations ... The chapter opens with determinations that the sum of errors of a large number of errors - equivalent to the distribution of sums of random variables - will be contained within given limits, on the assumption of a known and equipossible law of errors. It continues with the probability that the sum of the errors (again amounting to random variables), all considered as positive, and of their squares and cubes, will be contained within given limits. This is equivalent to considering the distribution of the sum of moduli. That leads to the problem of correcting values known approximately by the results of a great number of observations, which is to say by least squares, first in the case of a single element and then of two or more elements. Mathematically, this involves a discussion of linearized equations with one unknown and with two unknowns, respectively. Laplace includes instructions on application of the analysis to the correction of astronomical data by comparison of the values given in a number of tables. He then considers the case in which the probability of positive and negative error is unequal, and derives the distribution that results. The next-to-last section deals with the statistical prediction of error and methods of allowing for it on the basis of experience. At least, that seems to be a fair statement of what Laplace had in mind in speaking of "the mean result of observations large in number and not yet made," on the basis of the mean determined for past observations of which the respective departures from the mean are known. The chapter closes with a historical sketch of the methods used by astronomers to minimize error up to the formulation of least squares, in which account Laplace renders Legendre and Gauss each his due. "In the fifth chapter, Laplace discussed the application of probability to the investigation of phenomena themselves and of their causes, wherein it might serve to establish the physical significance of data amid all the complexities of the world. The approach offers practical instances of his sense of the relativity of the subject to knowledge and to ignorance, to science and to nature. In the analysis of error, it is the phenomena that are considered certain, whereas here the existence and boundaries of the phenomena themselves are the object of the calculation. The main example is the daily variation of the barometer, which long and frequent observation shows to be normally at its highest at 9:00 a.m. and lowest at 4:00 p.m., after which it rises to a lower peak at 11:00 p.m. and sinks until 4:00 p.m. Laplace calculated the probability that this diurnal pattern is due to some regular cause, namely the action of the sun, and determined its mean extent. He then raised a further question which, for lack of data, he could not resolve mathematically here, but which is interesting since it came to occupy the very last calculation of his life. For in theory, atmospheric tides would constitute a second and independent cause contributing to the daily variations of barometric pressure ... The detection of such a small effect was not yet possible, although Laplace expressed his confidence that observations would one day become sufficiently extensive and precise to permit its isolation. "In short, it was calculations of this sort that Laplace had in mind when he claimed, as he here remarked again, that on the cosmic scale probability had permitted him to identify the great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn, even as it had enabled him to detect the minuscule deviation from the vertical of a body falling toward a rotating earth. He even had hopes for its calculus in physiological investigations, imagining that application to a large number of observations might suffice to determine whether electrical or magnetic charges have detectable effects upon the nervous system, and whether animal magnetism reflects reality or suggestibility. In general - he felt confident - the same analysis could in principle be applied to medical and economic questions, and even to problems of morality, for the operations of causes many times repeated are as regular in those domains as in physics. Laplace had no examples to propose, however, and closed the chapter with a mathematical problem extraneous in subject matter but not in methodology. The problem had been imagined by Buffon in order to show the applicability of geometry to probability. It consists of tossing a needle onto a grid of parallel lines, and then onto a grid ruled in rectangles, of which the optimal dimensions relative to the length of the needle constitute the problem. Laplace adapted it to a probabilistic, or in this instance a statistical, method for approximating to the value of ?. It would be possible, he points out, although not mathematically inviting, to apply a similar approach to the rectification of curves and squaring of surfaces in general. "Chapter 6, "On the Probability of Causes and Future Events, Drawn From Observed Events," is in effect concerned with problems of statistical inference. In practice, the material represents a reworking of his early memoir on probability of cause and of the application of inverse probability by means of approximations of definite integrals to calculations involving births of boys and girls and also to population problems at large. He now had figures for Naples as well as for Paris and London. In calculating the probable error in estimates of the population of France based on the available samples, he made use of the partial census which, at his request, the government had instituted in 1801. "The next, very brief, chapter also starts with old material, to which he gave a new turn. He recurs to his own discovery of the effect of inequalities in the prior probabilities that are mistakenly supposed to be equal. He always attached great importance to that finding, so much so that he alluded to it in the opening chapter of Book II, where definitions were laid down. The significance was that it brought out the care that needed to be taken when mathematical calculations of probability were applied to physical events. In effect, there are no perfect symmetries in the real world, and what Laplace was saying was that allowance has to be made for slight deviations of parameters from assumed values in making predictions. He discussed the problem in the same connection in which he had started it, in relation to the unfairness to one of two players of unsuspected asymmetries in a coin to be tossed. That could be mitigated, he now suggested, by submitting the chance of asymmetry itself to calculation ... "In chapters 8, 9, and 10, all of them quite brief, Laplace took up life expectancy, annuities, insurance, and moral expectation (or prudence). We do not know where he obtained his information, but it is reasonable to suppose that some of it must have been derived from occasional service on commissions appointed to review writings in this area and various actuarial schemes submitted to the government. The procès-verbaux of the Academy in its last years and of the Institute contain record of his having thus been called on from time to time. Moreover, the "Notice sur les probabilités" (1800) was published as a rationale of the application that it was legitimate to make to tables of mortality. This piece was an expansion of his École Normale lecture of 1795. It was then further expanded to become the first edition of the Essai philosophique and concludes with a summons to governments to license and regulate underwriters of insurance, annuities, and tontines, and to encourage investment in soundly managed associations. For an insurance industry and a literature did exist, although Laplace does not refer either to actual practice or to authorities. Comparison of his chapters with both would be required before a judgment could be made of what his contribution may have been. "Mathematically, his model for calculations of the "mean duration," both of life and marriage, is error theory. Given the tables of mortality covering a large population, a value for the mean length of life may be taken and the probability calculated that the mean life of a sample of stated size will fall within given limits. Calculation of life expectancy at any age follows directly. Laplace also gave a calculation for estimating the effect of smallpox on the death rate and of vaccination on life expectancy. The conclusion is that the eradication of smallpox would increase life expectancy by three years, if the growth in the population did not diminish the improvement by outrunning the food supply. Laplace did not give the data or provide numerical examples here, as he had done in his population studies. The succeeding chapter on annuities and tontines is equally abstract and gives expressions for the capital required to create annuities on one or several lives, for the investment needed to build an estate of given size, and for the advantages to be expected from participation in mutual benefit societies. "In the tenth chapter, with which Laplace concluded the first edition, he softened the asperity he had once expressed about Daniel Bernoulli's calculation of a value for moral expectation in distinguishing that notion from mathematical expectation. Bernoulli had proposed that prospective benefits, in practice financial ones, may be quantified as the quotient of their amount divided by the total worth of the beneficiary. Laplace now adopted that principle as a useful guide to conduct-without attributing it this time to Bernoulli ... Laplace concluded that in the most mathematically advantageous games of chance the odds are always unfavorable over time, and that diversification is a prudent practice in the investment of wealth ... "Laplace extended the application of inverse probability to the analysis of criminal procedures in a supplement to the Théorie analytique, the first of four, composed in 1816. For this purpose a condemnation is an event, and the probability is required that it was caused by the guilt of the accused. As always in the probability of cause, prior probabilities had to be known or assumed, and Laplace again supposed that the probability of a truthful juror or judge lies between 1/2 and 1. In a panel of eight members of whom five suffice to convict, the probability of error came to 65/256. He felt that the English jury system with its requirement for unanimity weighted the odds too heavily against the security of society, but that the French criminal code was unjust to the accused. By one provision, if a defendant was found guilty by a majority of 7 to 5 in a court of first instance, it required a vote of 4 to 1 to overturn the verdict in a court of appeal, since a majority of only 3 to 2 there still left a plurality against him in the two courts taken together. That rule was as offensive to common sense as to common humanity ... "Between 1817 and 1819, Laplace investigated the application of probability to sharpening the precision of geodesic data and gathered these studies for publication as the second and third supplements of the Théorie analytique. In recent years scholars concerned with the history of statistics have been especially interested in these two pieces, which Laplace himself saw in the context of his theory of error. His intention was to improve on the method of least squares in the minimization of instrumental and observational error. That had also been his motivation in the opening articles of the First Supplement, where before taking up judicial probabilities, he further developed what he called the "most advantageous" method of combining equations of condition formed from observations of a single element, like those exemplified in his initial justification of the least-squares method. He then applied the method to estimating the probable error in Bouvard's recent, highly refined calculations of the masses of Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter. "In the Second Supplement, Laplace turned to geodesy and compared the results of his method with the so-called method of situation of Boskovic. Stigler considers that this discussion contains the earliest instance of a comparison of two well-elaborated methods of estimation for a general population, in which the conditions that make one of them preferable are specified. He is particularly enthusiastic about the growing statistical sophistication, as he sees it, of Laplace's later work in probability and argues that the analysis here is strikingly similar to that which led R. A. Fisher to the discovery of the concept of sufficiency in 1920. In the Third Supplement, Laplace reports the result of applying his method to the extension of the revolutionary Delambre-Méchain survey of the meridian from a base in Perpignan to Formentera in the Balearic Islands. The data were the discrepancies between 180° and the sums of the angles measured for each triangle. There were only twenty-six triangles in the Perpignan-Formentera chain, however, and Laplace preferred to estimate the law of error on the basis of all 700 triangles in the original survey. He could then calculate the probabilities of error of various magnitudes in the length of the meridian by the formulas already developed for his modified, or most advantageous, method of least squares. In a further article on a general method for cases involving several sources of error, Laplace obtained a paradigm equation for formulating equations of condition that relate values for observed elements to the error distributions involved. The equation served him in his later investigation of variations of the barometer as evidence for lunar atmospheric tides, the last he ever undertook" (DSB). The main part of the fourth Supplement consists of the solution of problems which may be considered as generalisations of the Problem of Points. In the simplest problem a player A draws a ball from an urn containing white balls and black balls; after the ball has been drawn it is replaced. Then a second player B draws a ball from a second urn containing white balls and black balls; after the ball has been drawn it is replaced. If a player draws a white ball he counts a point; if he draws a black ball he counts nothing. Suppose that A wants x points, and B wants x' points to complete an assigned set; required the probabilities in favour of each player. This is then generalized by allowing balls of more than two kinds, and allowing drawing without replacement. These problems are solved by the method of generating functions. This is followed by a section headed Remarque sur les fonctions génératrices which refers to some problems solved in sections 8 and 10 of the Traité, cautioning that the solutions given there cannot be replied upon; correct solutions by means of generating functions are now provided. "Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749-1827), sometimes called "the Newton of France," was a mathematician and astronomer who made many important contributions to the fields of mathematical astronomy and probability. Laplace's Mécanique Céleste (Celestial Mechanics) was the most important work in mathematical astronomy since Isaac Newton. His Théorie Analytique des Probabilités (Analytical Theory of Probability) influenced work on statistical probability for most of the nineteenth century. These two works alone guaranteed Laplace's place among the great scientists of the age" (DSB). DSB XV, 367-376; Evans, First Editions of Epochal Achievements 12; Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics 24; Honeyman 1923. [Théorie:] 4to (255 x 190 mm), pp. [vi], 464, [2, errata and blank]. Contemporary half calf. [Suppléments:] 4to (258 x 203 mm), pp. 34; 50; 36; [2], 28. Nineteenth-century half-cloth and marbled boards.

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        The British Sportsman.

      London, E.Orme 1812 - New edition. 4°. Mit 72 kolorierten radierten Tafeln. Roter langgenarbter geglätteter Maroquinband der Zeit mit reicher Gold- u. Blindprägung, Steh- u. Innenkantenvergoldung, Goldschnitt. Deckel mit Rahmen aus Goldfileten, daran anschließend eine blindgeprägte Einfassung. Im Mittelfeld ineinander verschlungene Bänder aus Goldfileten, zwei spitze Dreiecke darstellend. Die Bänder gefüllt und am Rand eingefasst von Blindprägung. Rücken mit ornamentalen u. einfachen Goldfileten, in 2 Feldern Titelprägung, (Gelenke restauriert, Ecken und Kanten etwas berieben). Neue Ausgabe dieses selten komplett zu findenden Werkes. - Schwerdt IV 48; vgl. Tooley 272. -"Interesting series of sporting etchings covering the whole range of British field sports. The best of these are again in the active hunting, coursing, shooting, hawking, fishing and racing scenes." (Schwerdt). - Mit den gesuchten Darstellungen zur Fuchs-, Hirsch und Vogeljagd, zum Angeln bzw. Fischen, Pferderennen usw. - An den Rändern etwas gebräunt und leicht stockfleckig. - Sehr schönes Exemplar in einem vermutlich Londoner Einband der Zeit. [Attributes: Hard Cover]

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        Questions de Littérature Légale. Du Plagiat. De La Supposition D'Auteurs, Des Supercheries qui ont Rapport aux Livres.

      Paris: Barba, Libraire, 1812. 8vo, later tan boards, red leather label, gilt rules and lettering. Half-title present. ¶ A scarce study of literary forgery by French author, antiquary and bibliophile Charles Nodier (1780-1844), who was also apparently well versed in the subject: "The French C19 saw Charles Nodier, whose Questions de Littérature Légale . . . is a minor classic of forgery criticism, repeatedly poise on the borderlines of fiction and fraud - another gamekeeper turned poacher." - Freeman, page 62. ¶ Contemporary signature on the title-page of Greek scholar and publisher Jean-François Boissonade (1774-1857). Boards darkened; some light foxing; very good copy.

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        Le Maïs ou blé de Turquie apprécié sous tous ses rapports, mémoire couronné le 25 août 1784 par l'Académie royale des Sciences, Belles Lettres & Arts de Bordeaux. Nouvelle édition revue & corrigée, imprimée par ordre du Gouvernement.

      Paris, impr. Impériale, 1812, in 8°, de VIII-303pp., pl. basane racinée époque, dos lisse orné, qq. rousseurs sinon bel exemplaire avec en tête un envoi à "M. Benj(amin) Delesser(t) de la part de Son (Excellence) le Ministre des Manufactures" (à l'époque le Comte Collin de Sussy), envoi en partie coupé. Précieuse provenance. Seconde édition augmentée, mais en fait la première destinée à la vente. Comme Parmentier le dit lui-même dans son avertissement, il avait fait édité ce texte une première fois en 1785 mais à si petit nombre que personne n'a pu le lire ! C'est le premier ouvrage consacré au maïs en Europe. Le pharmacien Parmentier est un nutritionniste et un hygiéniste, traitant aussi bien des fécules, que du pain ou du sucre. Il est l'un des créateurs de l'École de boulangerie en France en 1800. C'est aussi grâce à Parmentier que la première raffinerie de sucre de betterave fut mise en service par Delessert en 1801. Benjamin Delessert (1773 - 1847) homme d'affaires, naturaliste et philanthrope, fonde en 1812 une fabrique de sucre de betterave où il introduit des procédés nouveaux. Lors du blocus de la France, c'est Delessert qui, en se basant sur les recherches du chimiste allemand Franz Karl Achard (1753-1821), met au point la méthode d'extraction du sucre à partir de la betterave, méthode qu'il nomme Bonmatin. Vers 1800, il fonde aussi des soupes populaires qui distribuent, durant certains hivers, jusqu'à quatre millions de repas. Il participe en 1818 à la création des Caisses d'épargne et de prévoyance dans l'optique de secourir les plus démunis ; il les dirige durant près de vingt ans et y fonde le livret A. Il offre le contrôle de l'établissement au gouvernement en 1835. A sa mort, il existait en France 350 caisses d'épargne ayant récolté quatre cent millions de francs. Fervent propagateur de l'instruction primaire, il est le patron des salles d'asile. Surnommé le « père des ouvriers », il lègue 160 000 francs à la Caisse d'épargne, à charge de donner des livrets de cinquante francs à trois mille ouvriers choisis chaque année. ¶ Oberlé fastes de Bacchus n°816.

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        Säkularausgabe. 41 Bde. komplett inklusive aller Kommentarbde. und des Registerbdes. Herausgegeben von den Nationalen Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur in Weimar und dem Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris.

      Bd. 1: Gedichte 1812 - 1827. Bd. 1KI: Gedichte 1812 - 1827 Kommentar. Bd. 1KII: Gedichte 1812 - 1827 Kommentar. Bd. 2: Gedichte 1827 - 1844 und Versepen. Bd. 3: Gedichte 1845 - 1856. Bd. 4: Tragödien, frühe Prosa 1820 - 1831. Bd. 5: Reisebilder I 1824 - 1828. Bd. 6: Reisebilder II 1828 - 1831. Bd. 7: Über Frankreich 1831 - 1837. Bd. 7K: Über Frankreich 1931 - 1937 Kommentar. Bd. 8: Über Deutschland 1833 - 1836 Kunst und Philosophie. Bd. 9: Prosa 1836 - 1840. Bd. 10: Pariser Berichte 1840 - 1848. Bd. 11: Lutezia. Berichte über Politik, Kunst und Volksleben. Bd. 12: Späte Prosa 1847 - 1856. Bd. 13: Poemes et Légendes. Bd. 13: Poemes et Légendes. Kommentar. Bd. 14: Tableaux de Voyage I. Bd. 15: Tableaux de Voyage II. Italie. Bd. 14/15K: Reisebilder. Tableaux de Voyage. Kommentar. Bd. 16: De l?Allemagne I. Bd. 17: De l?Allemagne II. Bd. 18: De la France. Bd. 19: Lutèce. Bd. 20: Briefe 1815 - 1831. Bd. 20K: Briefe 1815 - 1831 Kommentar. Bd. 21: Briefe 1831 - 1841. Bd. 21K: Briefe 1831 - 1841 Kommentar. Bd. 22: Briefe 1842 - 1849. Bd. 22K: Briefe 1842 - 1849 Kommentar. Bd. 23: Briefe 1850 - 1856. Bd. 23K: Briefe 1850 - 1856 Kommentar. Bd. 24: Briefe an Heine 1823 - 1836. Bd. 24K: Briefe an Heine 1823 - 1836 Kommentar. Bd. 25: Briefe an Heine 1837 - 1841. Bd. 25K: Briefe 1837 - 1841 Kommentar. Bd. 26: Briefe an Heine 1842 - 1851. Bd. 26K: Briefe an Heine 1842 - 1851 Kommentar. Bd. 27: Briefe an Heine 1852 - 1856. Bd. 27K: Briefe an Heine 1852 - 1856 Kommentar. Bd. 20-27R: Briefwechsel 1815 - 1856 Register. - Umschläge gebräunt mit kl. o. grösseren Randläsuren, vereinzelt auch Ausrissen, teils fleckig, angeschmutzt und/oder lichtrandig, Einband vereinzelt fleckig oder lichtrandig, Schnitte teils fleckig, Bll. und Vorsätze teils gebräunt, wenige mit Knickspuren, bei wenigen Bd. sind die Kapitalbändchen defekt. Insgesamt gute Exemplare. - Einzelverkauf der Bände ist ggfs. auch möglich. Bitte fragen Sie uns.

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        Recherches sur les eaux publiques de Paris : les distributions successives qui en ont été faites et les divers projets qui ont été proposés pour en augmenter le volume.

      Paris, Imprimerie Impériale, 1812. ____ Première édition. Pierre-Simon Girard (1765-1836), ingénieur en chef des Ponts et Chaussées, membre de l'expédition d'Egypte, directeur des Eaux de Paris à partir de 1807, prit la direction des travaux du canal de l'Ourcq. Cet ouvrage expose l'histoire de la distribution des eaux dans Paris, les projets présentés pour en augmenter le volume, et "une description raisonnée de la distribution des eaux de l'Ourcq, telle que le projet en a été conçu et que l'on en poursuit l'exécution." Illustré par 4 cartes dépliantes. Envoi autographe signé sur une page de garde à Maximilien Sébastien Foy, général du Premier Empire (1775-1825) : "Offert à Monsieur le Général Foy de la part de l'auteur. Girard." Rare. Bon exemplaire. *****. Grand in-4. Collation : VII, 329 pp., 4 planches dépl. Demi-vélin à coins, pièce de titre noire. (Reliure de la fin du XIXe.).

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        AN ILLUSTRATED RECORD OF IMPORTANT EVENTS IN THE ANNALS OF EUROPE DURING THE YEARS 1812, 1813, 1814, & 1815. Comprising a Series of Views of Paris, Moscow, the Kremlin, Dresden, Berlin, The BattleS of Leipsic etc.

      London, printed by T. Bensley for R. Bowyer, Marlborough Place, Pall Mall, 1815, 1812. Together with a History of those Momentous Transactions in 2 parts,1815. BOUND WITH: THE CAMPAIGN OF WATERLOO ILLUSTRATED WITH ENGRAVINGS OF LES QUATRE BRAS ETC, 1816. Folio, 515 x 370 mm, 20 x 14½ inches. AN ILLUSTRATED RECORD: 19 LARGE FINE HANDCOLOURED PLATES IN AQUATINT, 4 FOLDING, full page map, plate of facsimile signatures and plate with ten medallion portraits all uncoloured, pages 1-76, followed by 28 unnumbered page on Moscow, followed by 10 pages of Biographical Notices of Sovereigns, Warriors and Statesmen with 2 uncoloured plates of portraits. THE CAMPAIGN OF WATERLOO WITH 4 HAND COLOURED AQUATINT PLATES, 1 FOLDING, 2 WITH 2 IMAGES TO EACH PLATE, AND AN UNCOLOURED MAP, pages 1-34, last page has an uncoloured vignette of St Helena. Making a total of 23 hand coloured plates, 2 maps and 4 uncoloured plates plus vignette. Bound in half modern green morocco with flat spine and cloth covered boards, new cream endpapers, gilt lettering to spine. Binding rather crude, spine slightly concave, boards scratched and rubbed, 2 colour plates have very light offset, 3 colour plates have pale age-browning to margins only, the folding colour plate in the Campaign of Waterloo has a shallow crease to top blank corner, not affecting image, 3 of the uncoloured plates are foxed, occasional age-browning and fox spot to text, mostly to margins, otherwise a very clean copy. Views of Moscow, The Kremlin, Smolensko, Frankfurt, Dresden, Amsterdam, Berlin, Hamburg, View from Mont St. Jean of the Battle of Waterloo, Map of Elba, portrait of Napoleon and view of Porto Ferrajo on 1 plate etc. See: R.V. Tooley, English Books with Coloured Plates 1790-1860, page 104, No. 97; J. R. Abbey, Life in England in Aquatint and Lithography 1770-1860, pages 301-303, No.351--354. We have all the plates listed in Tooley and Abbey but placed in a different order. MORE IMAGES ATTACHED TO THIS LISTING, ALL ZOOMABLE, FURTHER IMAGES ON REQUEST. POSTAGE AT COST.

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        Anno 2065. Een blik in de toekomst, door Dr. Dioscorides. Tweede druk.Utrecht, J. Greven (back of title-page: printed by P.W. van de Weijer), 1865. 8vo. Modern black calf (faux morocco).

      - NCC (6 copies of this ed. & 6 copies of the first); cf. G. Lindberg-Wada (ed.), Literary history: towards a global perspective I, p. 104. Very rare second edition, published in the same year as the first, of an early Dutch science fiction novel, written by Pieter Harting (1812-1885), a Dutch biologist and early supporter of Charles Darwin’s theories. While marvelling at the technological advances of the 19th-century, the main character suddenly finds himself in the year 2065, on a city square in "Londinia", the future London. There he meets a reincarnation of the 13th-century Roger Bacon, who guides him along a selection of several interesting scientific advancements. It was "the very first [literary] work to be translated [into Japanese] in the Meiji Era" (Lindberg-Wada), appearing in its first year 1868.With a small note about the author in pencil. Very slightly browned, some minor spots and the outer margins of the title-page slightly soiled, otherwise in good condition and wholly untrimmed.

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        DICKENS Charles 1812 1870 Writer

      

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        DICKENS Charles 1812 1870 Novelist

      

      [Bookseller: Maggs Bros. Ltd.]
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        De linstitution de lorateur, traduit par M. labbé Gédoyn

      Amable Leroy, 1812 - 6 vol. in-12, nouvelle édition avec le texte latin, revue, corrigée et augmentée, pleine basane mouchetée, dos ornés, pièces de titre et de tom., roulettes or sur les plats, bel ex. [Attributes: Soft Cover]

      [Bookseller: Chapitre livres et presse ancienne]
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        Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.

      London: printed for John Murray, and William Blackwood, Edinburgh, and John Cumming, Dublin, , 1812. A Romaunt. Octavo (210 x 129). Contemporary blue straight-grained full morocco, spine elaborately gilt-tooled in compartments with rolled raised bands and titles direct, sides bordered with gilt rules and rolls, and panelled with a blind roll, gilt-rolled board edges and turn-ins, brown coated endpapers, all edges gilt. Folding plate at rear with facsimile of Romaic text. A few scuffs to covers at corners and extremities, internally spotted, but sound, unsophisticated, and very handsome indeed. An excellent copy. Second edition (the same year as the first), in a very handsome regency gift binding, enlarged with six new poems, of Byron's first major work, the book that launched the "Byronic hero", presenting Cantos 1 and 2 of Byron's autobiographical poetic romance covering his travels in Portugal, Spain, Albania and Greece, at the publication of which he "awoke, and found myself famous!". This copy has a charming ink gift inscription to the first blank (denoting this very handsome binding to have been likely done for gift presentation), "To Miss Fanny Fremantle - Gage d'Amitiè. 1812". Francis Arabella Fremantle (d.1850) was the daughter of Colonel Stephen Francis William Fremantle and Albinia Jane Jefferyes - in 1815 she married George John Danvers Butler (1794-1866), 5th Earl of Lanesborough. His armorial bookplate is on the front pastedown.

      [Bookseller: Peter Harrington]
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        LETTERE SCRITTE DI PIETROBURGO CORRENDO GLI ANNI 1811 E 1812.

      dai torchj di Giovanni Pirotta, 1812. In-16 gr. (mm. 198 x 130), mz. pelle coeva, tagli gialli, pp. (2),166, con una bellissima pianta della città di Pietroburgo, inc. in rame e più volte ripieg. (dettagliatamente descritta) e 5 tavv. f.t., pure inc. in rame, che rappresentano "la stufa di cui si ragiona nella lettera terza" con relativa spiegazione. Raccolta di 6 importanti lettere scritte dal Conte Fagnani, Consigliere di Stato e Ciambellano del Re d'Italia, nel 1811 e 1812. Solo qualche lieve fiorit. margin., altrimenti ben conservato.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Malavasi]
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        Expériences sur le principe de la vie, notamment sur celui des mouvemens du coeur, et sur le siège de ce principe; suivies du rapport fait a la premiere classe de l'Institut sur celles relatives aux mouvemens du coeur.

      Paris: D'Hautel, 1812. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 8vo (203x127 mm). [6], [i] ii-xxiv, [1] 2-364, [2] pp., including half title, one large folding engraved plate and errata leave bound at end. Minor occasional spotting and browning to text. Full sheepskin with plain spine tooled in gilt and with red morocco label (little wear to hinges and head of spine), marbled endpapers and edges. Fine, wide-margined copy. Collated complete. ----Norman 1324; Heirs of Hippocrates 1251; Wellcome III, p. 479; Waller 5679; Cushing L31; DSB VIII, p.132; Garrison-M. 928. Le Gallois (1770-1814) was one of the earliest of the experimental physiologists. In this, his principal work, he was the first, after Borelli, to revive the neurogenic theory of the heart's action. He describes the action of the vagus nerve on respiration. He showed that bilateral section of the vagus can produce fatal broncho-pneumonia. Le Gallois discovered the site of the respiratory center in a circumscribed area of the medulla oblongata, a discovery that replaced the belief that respiration depended on the entire brain. He also described the action of the vagus nerve on respiration, showed that bilateral section of the vagus can produce fatal broncho- pneumonia, and revived the neurogenic theory of the heart's action which states that the motor power of the heart comes from the spinal cord via the branches of the sympathetic nervous system (Norman 1324). "His experiments were remarkable in the diversity and ingenuity of their design and arranged in a logical sequence. Le Gallois's unshakable belief in the supreme importance of observations and well-performed experiments, together with his reserve in interpreting his data, indicate that he was a scientist of great stature." (DSB VIII, p.134). Il fut un des premiers physiologistes à pratiquer la méthode expérimentale et l'expérimentation animale. Il mena notamment une série d'expériences sur des animaux pour clarifier le mécanisme de la respiration. Par décapitation de vertébrés ou d'autres types de destruction ciblée des connexions nerveuses dans le cerveau et la moelle épinière, il est venu à la conclusion que la respiration est contrôlée par un centre respiratoire, qui est situé dans le bulbe rachidien. Il fut le premier à étudier le problème de la théorie neurogénique par la méthode de destruction progressive des portions successives du système nerveux central. Le Gallois fit des expériences sur le système vasculaire, la respiration artificielle, l'oxygénation et la conservation du sang. Near Fine.

      [Bookseller: Milestones of Science Books]
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        A NEW HISTORY OF ENGLAND, from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Present Time. In two parts.

      Two volumes, each 64pp., illustrated with engravings; original printed wrappers. 12mo. Covers dated 1818. Price on front covers changed in ink from 'Price One Shilling' (each Part) to 'Sixpence.' Small outer corner on lower wrapper missing; last line of text in Part Second a little faint; else a very good set indeed of a title rarely found complete and in anything resembling good condition. Darton H1146

      [Bookseller: David Miles]
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        LONDON: A Descriptive Poem, In Four Parts. Adorned with eight Copper Plates. A new Edition corrected and enlarg'd with occasional notes. By a well known Cockney. Price One Shilling.

      [3], 4-28,[1 index], [3ad's.] pages. 8 engraved plates. Original rose-coloured wrappers. [Ad's on lower wrap.] H987(3). First published in 1812 Some wear to spine with a short split at heel and some loss of paper; somer ;light spotting; else a very nice copy.

      [Bookseller: David Miles]
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        Säkularausgabe. 41 Bde. komplett inklusive aller Kommentarbde. und des Registerbdes. Herausgegeben von den Nationalen Forschungs- und Gedenkstätten der klassischen deutschen Literatur in Weimar und dem Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris.

      Bd. 1: Gedichte 1812 - 1827. Bd. 1KI: Gedichte 1812 - 1827 Kommentar. Bd. 1KII: Gedichte 1812 - 1827 Kommentar. Bd. 2: Gedichte 1827 - 1844 und Versepen. Bd. 3: Gedichte 1845 - 1856. Bd. 4: Tragödien, frühe Prosa 1820 - 1831. Bd. 5: Reisebilder I 1824 - 1828. Bd. 6: Reisebilder II 1828 - 1831. Bd. 7: Über Frankreich 1831 - 1837. Bd. 7K: Über Frankreich 1931 - 1937 Kommentar. Bd. 8: Über Deutschland 1833 - 1836 Kunst und Philosophie. Bd. 9: Prosa 1836 - 1840. Bd. 10: Pariser Berichte 1840 - 1848. Bd. 11: Lutezia. Berichte über Politik, Kunst und Volksleben. Bd. 12: Späte Prosa 1847 - 1856. Bd. 13: Poemes et Légendes. Bd. 13: Poemes et Légendes. Kommentar. Bd. 14: Tableaux de Voyage I. Bd. 15: Tableaux de Voyage II. Italie. Bd. 14/15K: Reisebilder. Tableaux de Voyage. Kommentar. Bd. 16: De l?Allemagne I. Bd. 17: De l?Allemagne II. Bd. 18: De la France. Bd. 19: Lutèce. Bd. 20: Briefe 1815 - 1831. Bd. 20K: Briefe 1815 - 1831 Kommentar. Bd. 21: Briefe 1831 - 1841. Bd. 21K: Briefe 1831 - 1841 Kommentar. Bd. 22: Briefe 1842 - 1849. Bd. 22K: Briefe 1842 - 1849 Kommentar. Bd. 23: Briefe 1850 - 1856. Bd. 23K: Briefe 1850 - 1856 Kommentar. Bd. 24: Briefe an Heine 1823 - 1836. Bd. 24K: Briefe an Heine 1823 - 1836 Kommentar. Bd. 25: Briefe an Heine 1837 - 1841. Bd. 25K: Briefe 1837 - 1841 Kommentar. Bd. 26: Briefe an Heine 1842 - 1851. Bd. 26K: Briefe an Heine 1842 - 1851 Kommentar. Bd. 27: Briefe an Heine 1852 - 1856. Bd. 27K: Briefe an Heine 1852 - 1856 Kommentar. Bd. 20-27R: Briefwechsel 1815 - 1856 Register. - Umschläge gebräunt mit kl. o. grösseren Randläsuren, vereinzelt auch Ausrissen, teils fleckig, angeschmutzt und/oder lichtrandig, Einband vereinzelt fleckig oder lichtrandig, Schnitte teils fleckig, Bll. und Vorsätze teils gebräunt, wenige mit Knickspuren, bei wenigen Bd. sind die Kapitalbändchen defekt. Insgesamt gute Exemplare. - Einzelverkauf der Bände ist ggfs. auch möglich. Bitte fragen Sie uns.

      [Bookseller: Rotes Antiquariat]
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        The History of England.

      London: Cadell and Davies et al. 1812 - 13 volume set, 9 inches tall. A beautiful Regency full calf set with gilt raised bands, delicate gilt tooling to the panels and gilt and blind rolls framing the boards. Hume's History takes us from the invasion of Julius Caesar to the revolution of 1688 and is complete in 8 volumes. Smollett's History continues up to the death of King George The Second in 1760 and is complete in 5 volumes. A wonderful clean set. [Attributes: Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: McConnell Fine Books ABA & ILAB]
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        An Essay on the Organic Diseases and Lesions of the Heart and Great Vessels. Published under his inspection by C.E.Horeau. Translated from the French with Notes by Jacob Gates.

      Anthony Finley,, 1812. Philadelphia, Anthony Finley, 1812. Octavo. XII, [v]-xiv, [15]-344 pages. Contemporary Hardcover. Early 19th century library binding of the Birmingham Medical Institute. Very good condition with only minor signs of external wear. Three smaller library stamps. Internally besides very few signs of foxing a very clean and fine example of this important work. Garrison-Morton 2737 - "The first edition of Corvisart's treatise on heart diseases was written by C. E. Horeau from notes based upon Corvisart's course of clinical lectures. . . . Corvisart differentiated between cardiac and pulmonary diseases, provided the first adequate classification of the symptoms of heart disease, distinguished between functional and organic disturbances of the heart, and was the first to divide the course of heart failure into three stages. He dealt with the pathology of the pericardial sac and the muscular and fibrous tissues of the heart, gave the first description of carditis, and pointed out the relationship between valvular lesions and the development of heart failure" nnWillius & Dry - pages 108-109: "Corvisart was one of the first to mention and interpret palpable thrills over the precordium in the diagnosis of carduiac disease (un bruissement particulier difficile a decrire) and he particularly stressed the diagnostic importance of the thrill in mitral stenosis. He described fibrinous pericarditis, stating that the massive deposition of fibrin caused the pericardium to resemble the reticulum of the second stomach of the calf. Corvisart also recognized tubercles of the pericardium and recorded an instance of massive pericardial effusion in which 4 litres of fluid were present"

      [Bookseller: The Time Traveller's Bookshop ]
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        A Book for Recording Marks for the Respective Inhabitants of the Town of Massena

      1812-1829, Massena, NY 1812 - Small 4to. 12 pp. Stitched. Primary source material for the study of animals as property in rural America at the turn of the 19th-century. This small but fascinating manuscript is of a type that is rarely encountered. It describes the distinctive markings of animals belonging to 47 different owners, all residing in an upstate New York village located on the Canadian border. The MS entries are dated from April 7, 1812 to June 13, 1829. The compiler of the MS was the Town Clerk, J.B. Andrews, Jr. The 1810 New York State Census records just 144 families in Massena; that the present MS record owners' marks for one third of the town is extraordinary. Some of the MS entries include:"Ebenezar Hitchcock's Mark is a Swallow fork on each ear. Recorded April 7th, 1812."Jacob Chase's Mark is a Crop off the Right Ear and a Slit in the Same Ear. Recorded April 7th, 1812."Rodwick Messenger's Mark a Slope on the upper side of the left Ear and the same on the under side of the right Ear. Recorded April 4th, 1818."On the final leaf is a certified attestation that a "deep red heifer calf without any white about it" came into the enclosure of one James Abellwood on 20 Dec. 1828. Evidently the calf had no owner's markings about it either, thereby attesting to the importance of such a document as this. Very good antiquarian condition

      [Bookseller: Michael Laird Rare Books LLC]
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         Manuel d'un cours de chimie ou principes élémentaires théoriques et pratiques de cette science. 5e édition.

      Paris, J. Klostermann fils, 1812, 3 vol. in 8°, ill. de 7 tableaux dépl. et de 25 planches gravées d'instruments h.t., demi-veau blond époque, dos lisse orné de fleurons et filets dorés, tr. marbrées, rousseurs sinon bel exemplaire décoratif. Important cours de chimie fait à partir des leçons données à l'Ecole Polytechnique. Bouillon-Lagrange fut l'assistant de Fourcroy, puis devint directeur de l'Ecole de Pharmacie. Il découvrit l'anhydride de camphre et décrivit la préparation du nitrate d'éther. Le cours comprend des parties sur les gaz, l'attraction chimique, la lumière, la chaleur, l'air, le carbone, le phosphore, les acides, sulfures, nitrates, de l'alcool, des métaux, minéraux etc...¶ Duveen p. 334 - Bolton p. 598 - Partington III.p. 179 - Ferchl p. 60 - Cole Chemical Literature 186.

      [Bookseller: L'intersigne Livres anciens]
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        The First Tour of Doctor Syntax, in search of the picturesque; [with] The Second Tour of Doctor Syntax, in search of consolation; [and] The Third Tour of Doctor Syntax, in search of a wife

      Early Reprint London Nattali and Bond, Bedford Street, Covent Garden [through 1855] 1812 Ninth Edition, complete in three volumes with 80 hand-colored aquatints by Thomas Rowlandson. (Eighty-one plates are called for on the title pages, but the plate lists contain a total of only 79, with the illustrated title page in Vol. 3 unlisted. Presumably, there was an illustrated title page planned for the Second Tour but never included.) Tall 8vo's: [6],272,[6, catalog of books published by Nattali and Bond]; [4],277,[1]; [6],279,[1]pp. Hand-marbled paper-covered boards, finely woven green cloth spines, matching morocco lettering pieces gilt, recently bound by Fitterer, a truly splendid production. Fine bindings; clean, wide-margined pages with only occasional offsetting; vibrant, deep, rich, fresh coloring. Abbey, Life, 265-67. Tooley 427-29. Fine ¶The three tours of Doctor Syntax, featuring the comic, skin-and-bone cleric at the mercy of all manner of misadventures was supposedly based on an idea of Rowlandson's close friend, the actor Jack Bannister, and with verses by William Combe, first appeared in 1812, 1820, and 1821, respectively. Combe's letterpress for Rowlandson's illustrations, produced by the prestigious publisher and art dealer Rudolph Ackermann, earned Combe his soubrette, Doctor Syntax. "Combining a light-hearted satire of William Gilpin's theory of the picturesque in art with a central character modelled on Cervantes' Don Quixote and Henry Fielding's Parson Adams, Combe created a lovable eccentric whose misadventures on the road structure the Tour. [Other sources for Syntax, drawn from the picturesque tradition, were probably Le Sage's Gil Blas and Smollett's Peregrine Pickle, as well as Samuel Butler's earlier Hudibras.] For over a century the many editions and numerous imitations of the Tour attested to the popularity of Combe's humorous hero." (ODNB) "Combe's first Dr. Syntax book (originally published in the Poetical Magazine in 1809) and its successors . . . satirize the many 18th- and early 19th-century writers whose "Tours," "Travels," and "Journeys" were vehicles for sententious moralizing, uninspired raptures, and sentimental accounts of amorous adventures. The popularity of Combe's work owed much to the illustrations of Thomas Rowlandson." (Britannica) N. B. With few exceptions (always identified), we only stock books in exceptional condition. All orders are packaged with care and posted promptly. Satisfaction guaranteed.

      [Bookseller: Fine Editions Ltd.]
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        Description de l'Egypte. Etat moderne. Tome second.

      De l'imprimerie Impériale. This volume contains: Notice on the physical conformation of the Egyptian and different races who live in Egypt, followed by some reflections on the mummy embalming; by Baron Larrey. Memory on the western part of the province of Bahyreh Mr. Gratien the Father. Instructions on the preparation of skins in Egypt; Mr. Boudet. Memory on the Meqyâs Island Roudah and entries contained in this Momument. First Edition. Brochure blue tie. Good condition, because the copy is as published, wide-margined on vellum paper. A tear in the back. Record the physical conformations of the peoples of Egypt spring to more aesthetic considerations. the second text evokes the story of a forgotten province of Egypt and recounts the journey of the author. Interesting considerations on the tanned skins in Egypt, particularly in morocco. The Meqyâs is the famous nilomère located on the island of Roudah. The book begins with a history of travelers in Egypt and the interest can be found by reading these trips. Numerous bibliographic notes are very useful. --- Please note that the translation in english is done automatically, we apologize if the formulas are inaccurate. Contact us for any information! De l'imprimerie Impériale Paris 1812 In Folio (26,5x43cm) 40p. Un Vol. broché

      [Bookseller: Librairie Le Feu Follet]
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        Temple of Flora, or Garden of the Botanist, Poet, Painter, and Philosopher.

      London: Robert Thornton, 1812. Large quarto (in twos) measuring 376 x 303 mm., with a total of 29 handcoloured aquatint plates including the frontispiece, two uncoloured engraved plates and two engraved title-page leaves; a fine copy in contemporary full straight-grained crimson morocco, ornate gilt tooled borders and spine ornament. The greatest botanical book of the romantic era, and 'probably the most unconventional flower book ever published' (Tomasi). The Temple of Flora was the extraordinary invention of physician Robert Thornton (1768-1837) who ran a private practise and lectured on medical botany at two London hospitals. It is a visual tour-de-force, featuring individual flower portraits in moody and evocative settings. Arresting and irresistible, the 29 plates are 'the most overtly dramatic in the history of botany' (ODB). This is an example of the so-called "Lottery edition", produced by Thornton in 1812 as one of the series of prizes in the lottery designed to save him from bankruptcy. This edition follows the earlier large folio version which began publishing in parts in 1799 under the title New Illustration of the Sexual System of Linnaeus. The ambitious project was aptly renamed Temple of Flora in 1804. The first edition was in a very large format: this subsequent edition, which contains an additional plate (the "Artichoke Protea"), appeared as a more manageable large quarto (in fact technically made up as a folio) with engraved title pages dated 1812. The stupendous price of 20 guineas when the series of plates with text was first offered for sale reflected the exorbitant cost of production. Each flower portrait began as an oil painting commissioned from leading artists of the era; the paintings were in due course rendered as magnificent aquatints by Stadler and Sutherland. Although the retinue of artists included great names such as John Russell and Sir William Beechey, Thornton favoured the work of professional botanical illustrators Peter Henderson and Philip Reinagle who contributed the majority of images to the Temple of Flora. Not surprisingly, Thornton's ambitious and eccentric publishing project destroyed him financially. Not even the public lottery ordained by Act of Parliament, wherein the winner claimed the suite of original artworks, could save him from ruin. The first prize in the lottery was original artworks, the second enhanced sets of the first edition; the third series of prizes was 200 sets of coloured plates, while the fourth series of prizes were copies of this quarto edition. The text is really curious to modern sensibilities, combining scientific botany with a seemingly disparate range of emotional, spiritual and political themes, all generously interspersed with poetry from ancient and contemporary sources. For Thornton, flowers not only manifested divine perfection but represented an ideal of earthly love and purity which could - and should - be emulated in human affairs. It was a universalising vision of material abundance derived from the plants of the earth and trade in their products, ultimately intended to eclipse human strife and conflict. The dream of peace through botanical curiosity is remarkably idealistic given the atmosphere of the times: Thornton's publishing career was overshadowed by the Napoleonic wars in Europe. Very slight age-darkening to plates but in generally fine condition in well-preserved contemporary binding.

      [Bookseller: Hordern House]
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        Elements of Chemical Philosophy, Part I. Vol. I (all published).

      London: J. Johnson, 1812. 1st Edition. Hardcover. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. xiv, [2], 505 [3], [506]-507, [508]-509, [510]-511, [2] pp. including errata leaf, leaf at end with notice of other works by Davy, and 12 engraved plates. 20th century cloth, spine with gilt lettering pieces. Internally only little age-toned, light foxing to plates. Provenance: The library of Hugh Selbourne; Birmingham University Library (shelf-mark label to front pastedown and stamp to p.51 and title verso). ----Norman 609; Duveen, p.160-61; Wellcome II, p.436. - FIRST EDITION. "One of the earliest connected treatises on physical chemistry, as known at the date of publication and incorporating the results of important discoveries made by the author. These include a description of fluor spar, the origin of fluoric compounds, the naming of hydrofluoric acid, and a modification of Lavoisier's classification of the elements." (Duveen). Very Good.

      [Bookseller: Milestones of Science Books]
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        Portrait of Arthur Phillip Esq. Vice Admiral of the Red Squadron.

      London: Joyce Gold, 31 January, 1812. Engraved oval portrait, 95 x 75 mm.; tipped onto an early album leaf, with ink border. Uncommon: one of the last published portraits of Arthur Phillip, issued two years before his death, and updated to reflect his promotion in July 1810 to the new rank of Vice Admiral of the Red.The portrait is evidently based on the original by Francis Wheatley of 1786, which was first published as the frontispiece to Phillip's Voyage to Botany Bay in 1789. However, what is most significant about the present example is that the naval uniform of Phillip has been updated to reflect his 1812 naval rank of Vice Admiral of the Red Squadron. On his return to England Phillip had a distinguished naval career which saw him promoted as commander of the Hampshire Sea Fencibles in 1798, charged with the responsibility of defending the coast against invasion by Napoleon. The following year he became a rear admiral of the Blue, and he retired in 1805. The last nine years of his life saw him steadily advancing in the naval hierarchy while living in retirement in Bath, with his second wife Isabella. He died on 31 August 1814 three months after receiving his promotion to admiral of the Blue.This is an uncommon version of the famous Phillip portrait, known to be held in the Nan Kivell collection of the National Library of Australia, as well as apparently in an album associated with Ernest Favenc now held at the State Library of New South Wales. The publisher Joyce Gold was associated with the Naval Chronicle, and this portrait was originally published in that journal to accompany the short biography of Phillip published there in 1812. Fine.

      [Bookseller: Hordern House]
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        Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803, 1804, 1805 und 1806 auf Befehl Seiner Kaiserl. Majestat Alesxanders des Ersten auf den Schiffen Nadeshda und Newa...

      Berlin: Haude und Spener, 1811-1812. Two parts in three volumes, duodecimo, stipple-engraved portrait of Krusenstern and two other frontispieces both finely coloured by hand, folding engraved map and 11 double-page engraved views and a large folding map; a fine set in original papered boards, orange labels, red edges, preserved in a cloth slipcase. The first Russian circumnavigation: its captain, Krusenstern, was accompanied by a brilliant corps of officers, which included men like Lisiansky, Langsdorff, and Kotzebue. This Russian voyage was of great importance to Pacific history for the attempt to open Japan to commerce, and for the observations made on the Russian-Chinese trade. The Nadeshda and the Neva were together at the Marquesas and Hawaii; there they separated and from this point on Krusenstern's narrative concerns the western Pacific. The book includes a view of Nagasaki Harbour, one of the earliest views of Japan published in the west, as well as views of Nukahiva (three), Japan (three), Macao, Canton, St Helena and St Catherine, Brazil.This was the first popular account of this important voyage to be made available to the public, and the first edition to have been printed in Germany, published at the same time as the more costly St Petersburg quarto edition. No English edition appeared until 1813.This is an excellent copy of this scarce edition, in which an extra piece was added (at the start of volume 3) by the publisher in the form of the Nachricht by Langsdorff on the practice of tattooing in Nuku Hiva and the Washington islands, including a small woodcut showing the instruments used. There is also a Prospectus by Langsdorff and his publisher Wilmans for the German publication of his Bemerkungen. Bindings a little worn at joints and extremities, but still quite tight; several small private library stamps throughout.

      [Bookseller: Hordern House]
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        The Works of William Robertson. To which is prefixed, An Account of his Life and Writings, by Dugald Stewart. [Containing: History of America, History of Scotland, Ancient India, and History of the Reign of Charles V].

      London: Printed for Cadell and Davies, 1812. 12 volumes. Complete. Contemporary full calf with gilt titles and gilt to spines, raised bands tinted; gilt rule to boards with decorative border in blind; marbled end papers and edges. Frontispieces and folding maps to several volumes. Darkening to spines, corners bumped, a couple of joints starting. A little foxing to first and last blanks otherwise content fresh. Bookplate of William Courtenay Morland to paste downs. A handsome set.

      [Bookseller: Adrian Harrington]
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        The Botanical Magazine; or Flower-Garden displayed...

      London. W. Curtis. Copyright 1793. This issue circa 1812. 2 volumes bound in one, 72 handcolored engraved plates each with facing page of text, 10 3/4 x 6 3/4 inches (26x17.5cm), decorative embossed cloth-covered boards. Plates on wove paper, generally very clean and bright, occasional light foxing or spotting (spot and pinhole to centre of plate 16, the Variegated Iris), some foxing to text pages. Front joint broken, white tape mend to interior hinge at Preface. This is an early 1800s reprint of the first two volumes of William Curtis' periodical "The Botanical Magazine." This publication proved so popular that plates from the earlier volumes were reissued to satisfy the demand of later subscribers who desired a complete set. Curtis featured some of the most decorative and popular imported plants in these early volumes, making these volumes an absolute treat for the eye. Plants include Moss Rose, several varieties of Iris, Daffodil, Gentian, Eastern Poppy, Cyclamen, and, from China: #64 Tawny Day-Lily; #25 China Pink, #42 Rose Camellia. These are very strong impressions, which are particularly pleasing contrasted against the white color of the wove paper.

      [Bookseller: oldimprints.com]
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        Les essais

      Pierre & Firmin Didot. Edition stereotype, printed on thin paper, and the first giving the actual text from the copy Montaigne Bordeaux. Binders half green sheepskin, back smooth decorated double nets and golden floral motifs, traces of friction on the mor, marbled paper boards, yellow sprinkled edges, bindings editor. Rare copy and pleasant. Pierre & Firmin Didot Paris An X (1812) 11,5x20cm 4 volumes reliés

      [Bookseller: Librairie Le Feu Follet]
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        Bemerkungen auf einer Reise um die Welt [with] Kupfer zu G.H. v. Langsdorff's Bemerkungen auf einer Reise um die Welt...

      Frankfurt am Mayn: Friedrich Wilmans, 1812. Two volumes quarto bound in one,; with accompanying two part atlas bound as one quarto volume with two frontispiece portraits and 43 other engraved plates (one folding) and a folding leaf of music, title-page to each part and a leaf with explanatory text each side to face each of the plates; non-uniform binding comprising the text in contemporary half calf with double labels, the atlas in original marbled boards, leather label on spine. The uncommon first edition of the Langsdorff account of the Krusenstern voyage to the north Pacific and Japan, in its preferred form with separate atlas. The small atlas, with its marvellous series of plates after Langsdorff's original sketches, is seldom seen in this form as the plates were more often bound into copies of the text, usually with the leaves of explanatory text (here present) discarded by the binder on account of the complication that they present: the text on recto and verso of each leaf describes two different plates which are not always to be bound near each other. This copy contains both the two separate title-pages ("27 Kupfer... " and "17 Kupfer... ") to each part which are also more often discarded.The plates include eight of the Marquesas, five of Japan, three of Alaska, and two of California, and this original edition also includes the earliest known view of San Francisco - which was one of the images that was dropped and did not re-appear in the subsequent English version.The Marquesas plates are of particular interest for the images of tattooing in the islands, and especially for the engraving of Jean Baptiste Cabri, the French deserter who had been living there for some time and had taken a Marquesan wife and become extensively tattooed. Cabri went back with the expedition to Russia and made a living exhibiting himself and telling tales of his life among the "savages" of the islands. He toured widely in Russia and then in Europe for some years. He is noteworthy as one of the first extensively tattooed Europeans to exhibit himself: since the late seventeenth century such exhibitions were almost exclusively of native people, such as Giolo who came back with Dampier, and Omai who came to England on Cook's Endeavour.'When the Russian explorer Ivan Fedorovich Krusenstern arrived in the Marquesas in 1804 he found two Europeans living among the natives. They were a Frenchman, Jean Baptiste Cabri, and an Englishman, Edward Robarts. Both men had lived in the islands for several years and had been tattooed in the Marquesan fashion. Krusenstern employed them as guides and interpreters, and George Heinrich von Langsdorff, the German naturalist who accompanied Krusenstern, used them as informants when he wrote the first published account of native life and customs. The tattoo culture was reintroduced in the country when 18th-century European sailors travelled to Pacific islands and got fascinated by this art. They brought some form of exotic art back to Europe. French sailors were most fascinated from the art. The Frenchmen Jean Baptiste Cabri was the first person to get his entire body tattooed and display himself for an admission fee at fairs. However till the late eighteenth century this art was considered to be nomadic and lower class art basically symbolizing the criminals and uneducated class people... ' (Tricia Allen and Steve Gilbert, Tattoo History Source Book: The Marquesas). See also 'Speckled Bodies: Russian Voyagers and Nuku Hivans, 1804' in N. Thomas et al, eds., Tattoo: Bodies, Art and Exchange in the Pacific and the West, London, 2005. Provenance: Old library stamp and shelf-mark on first title; a very good set. Some foxing.

      [Bookseller: Hordern House]
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