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Displayed below are some selected recent viaLibri matches for books published in 1591

        Examen des oeuvres de Sr. Desargues; Foiblesse pitoyable du Sr. Desargues employée contre l'examen fait de ses oeuvres.Paris: de l'imprimerie de M. & I. Henault, et se vendent, chez F. l'Anglois dit Chartres, 1644.

      First edition, complete with its very rare supplement, of this polemic against Girard Desargues (1591-1661). Important for containing literal extracts from Desargues' <i>Brouillon Projet</i>, the work also contains the first printed reference to 'La Pasqualle', the mystic hexagram, published in 1640 by the sixteen year-old Pascal in a broadside of which only one copy survives.<br/><br/> Desargues' most important work, which constitutes the birth of modern projective geometry, was <i>Brouillon projet d'une atteinte aux événemens des rencontres du Cone avec un Plan.</i> "The <i>Brouillon Projet</i> on conics, of which he published fifty copies in 1639, is a daring projective presentation of the theory of conic sections; although considered at first in three-dimensional space, as plane sections of a cone of revolution, these curves are in fact studied as plane perspective figures by means of involution, a transformation that holds a place of distinction in the series of demonstrations" (DSB IV 47). Desargues intended his work to appeal not only to theoreticians but also practical men, and this perhaps explains his use of an original vocabulary which, however, made the pamphlet very difficult to read. It exerted little influence at the time, and disappeared from view (in fact, it was thought to be lost until a copy was found in 1951). Nevertheless, its methods formed the basis of the new techniques of projective geometry developed in the nineteenth century by Poncelet and his followers.<br/><br/> "In August 1640, Desargues published, again under the general title <i>Brouillon Projet</i>, an essay on techniques of stone-cutting and gnomonics. While refining certain points of his method of perspective presented in 1636 [in a pamphlet now lost], he gives an example of a new graphical method... In attempting thus to improve the graphical procedures employed by many technicians, Desargues was in fact attacking an area of activity governed by the laws of the trade guilds; he also drew the open hostility of those who were attached to the old methods and felt they were being injured by his preference for theory rather than practice" (ibid.) <br/><br/> One of these technicians was Curabelle, who published in the present work a violent attack on Desargues' methods, "finding nothing in them but mediocrity, errors, plagiarism and information of no practical use" (ibid.). Desargues replied with a pamphlet defending his work, to which Curabelle responded with <i>Foiblesse pitoyable</i>. This experience so affected Desargues that he published virtually no scientific work after 1644, turning instead to a career in architecture. <br/><br/> In <i>Oeuvres de Desargues</i> (II, 389), Poudra notes that the <i>Foiblesse pitoyable</i> is bound at the end of the <i>Examen</i> and, because of its rarity, transcribes it in full. <br/><br/> For a detailed account of Desargues' work, see J V Field and J J Gray, <i>The geometrical work of Girard Desargues</i>, 1987. <br/><br/> Macclesfield 581 (this copy); Arnaud de Vitry 165; Vagnetti EIIIb39.. 4to (285 x 206 mm), pp [1-2] 3-81 [1:blank] with 16 engravings printed in the text (several full-page); pp 9 [1] with an engraving printed on one page, 18th century vallum-backed blue paper boards (calf spine showing under the vellum which is cracking), lower inner corner of the first eight pages with some damage (but not affecting the printing area). Provenance: with the book plate and blind stamp of the Macclesfiled library

      [Bookseller: Sophia Rare Books]
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        De homine sano libri III; in quorum primo agitur de natura et substantia hominis; in altero, de his quae ad ipsam substantiam labefactandam, eiusque functiones violandas, valent; in tertio denique de facultate, qua haec propulsare , & proinde illam tueri valemus. Omnibus philosophiae & medidinae studiosis quam maxime utiles & necessarii. Cum indice rerum & verborum copiosissime.

      8°. 8 n.n. Bl., 506 (recte 496) S., 7 n.n. Bl. Etwas späterer Halbpergamentband mit handschriftlichem Rückentitel. VD16 M 6183. - Adam M-1626. - Nicht bei Hirsch-H. - Durling 3229. - Einzige Ausgabe. Für die Renaissance typischer medizin-philosophischer Text in drei Teilen über die Entstehung, Herkunft und Konstitution des Körpers, im zweiten Teil über die Formen der Vergänglichkeit des Körpers und im dritten Teil über die Behandlung und Erhaltung des Körpers. Der Autor stammte aus Cremona und wird von Hirsch nicht erwähnt. - Durchgehend leicht stockfleckig.

      [Bookseller: Daniel Thierstein Buchantiquariat]
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        Rei medicae studio stipendia sex. .. Nunc primum in Germania in lucem edita.

      6 Tle. in 1 Bd. Mit 6 Holzschn.-Druckermarken, 112, 360 S. Halbpergament-Band. Erste Sammelausgabe. - VD 16 D 2203; Durling 1189; Hirsch/H. II, 291. - Enthält u. a. einen medizingeschichtlich interessanten Kommentar zu Hippocrates' Buch über die Krankheiten der Jungfrauen, nachgewiesen in Blas Bruni Cellis Bibliografia Hipócratica, S. 130, Nr. 1146. - G. B. Donati aus Lucca praktizierte in Lyon und Bordeaux und wurde später Stadtarzt in Lucca. Wie zahlreiche andere Ärzte der italienischen Renaissance (z. B. Bernardo Donati und Cornarius) kommentierte er die antiken Schriftsteller, darunter Galenus. - Sehr gut erhaltenes, nur minmal gebräuntes Exemplar.

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat im Hufelandhaus GmbH vorm. L]
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        Hortus Eystettensis: I. Helenium. II. Origanum Onites dictum. III. Origanum vulgare.

      Copper-engraved on folio sheet(18 3/4" x 15 3/4" plus margins), hand colored. Hand coloring probably done later, two corners creased, some edgewear, minor archival tape repairs, remnant of attachment tape in one margin, not particularly visible, slight soiling and foxing; but still a very bright, colorful, and attractive plate. Basilius Besler (1591-1629) was a pharmacist by training and worked in Nuremberg. He set up a garden in Nuremberg, and became a well known botanist where he lived. After being instructed by the Bishop of Eichstatt to create a botanical garden, he wrote about the garden, and produced his famous botanical atlas "Hortus Eystettenis" in 1613. This work contained a total of 1086 illustrations on 367 engraved plates. This illustration features common Oregano in a very colorful layout.

      [Bookseller: Nicholas D. Riccio Rare Books & Prints]
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        Colloqvia, Oder, Christliche, nützliche Tischreden und andern Christlichen und nützlichen Sachen, gegen Gelerten Leuten, gegen seinen getrewen Mithülffen, auc gegen seinen Tischgenossen...Erstlich durch Joannem Aurifabrum...1566... jetzt affs richtige Ordnung bracht mit mehreren Tischreden und Gesprechen vermehret...

      Jena, Tobiam Steinman, 1591. Small folio. Full later pigskin, title-and tomelabels in red, 4 raised bands (from ab. 1850). Title in red and black. Titlepage mounted and marginal repairs, no loss of letters. (20),589,(4) leaves. Last 10 leaves dampstained in upper margins. Last leaf, having a large printers woodcut

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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        [Greek title]. Romanarum historiarum libri XXV. Ex Guilelmi Xylandri interpretatione

      [Paris:] Stephanus, 1591 The editio princeps of Dio Cassius&#39;s (c. A.D. 150-235) Roman history was published by Robert Estienne in 1548. The present edition is a reprint, with corrections. It incorporates the notes of the great German scholar, William Xylander (1532-1576), whose edition of Dio Cassio appeared in 1558. Recent antique-style calf, decoratively stamped in blind. New endpapers. Folio. Text in parallel columns, in Greek and Latin. Woodcut printer&#39;s device on title-page, woodcut headbands and decorative initials. Old ink signature ("R. Snellius") on title-page. A very good copy, tall and clean. The former owner, "R. Snellius" may be Rudolph Snel (1546-1613), a Dutch linguist and mathematician who held appointments at the University of Marburg and the University of Leiden, who was influential to some of the leading political and intellectual forces of the Dutch Golden Age.

      [Bookseller: Michael R. Thompson, Booksellers, ABAA/I]
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      Historie et descrittione del Regno di Sicilia. Divise in due Libri. Nel primo si contiene l'origine, e la fertilità del paese, i popoli che vi sono habitati e i lor costumi, le guerre, le mutationi delle signorie, da' primi possessori à di nostri; i nomi dè Vicerè, Prencipi, Duchi, Marchesi, Conti e Baroni; degli arcivescovati, vescovati e abbatie con la cognitione d'altri successi nel Mondo accaduti. Nel secondo si tratta distintamente di tutte le città, castella, tempij, monti, laghi, fiumi e fonti con le cose mirabili della natura. Napoli, Orazio Salviani, 1591. In 8vo; cc.10n.nn; pp.253. Stemma al primo frontespizio del Principe di Paternò a cui l'opera è dedicata. Stemma dell'autore al frontespizio del secondo libro. In fine vignetta incisa raffigurante il Bambino Gesù che cavalca un'aquila. Pergamena coeva. Timbro d'appartenenza. Edizione originale. Moncada, 493; Lozzi, 5017; Manzi, Annali di Orazio Salviani, 157; Mira I, pag.181: "Raro". 5 immagini allegate.

      [Bookseller: Studio Bibliografico Casella]
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        Del Compendio de Secreti Rationali... Libri Cinque

      Venice: Giacomo Cornetti, 1591. paperback. very good. Printer&#39;s device on title page; 1 portrait and various decorative elements throughout. [24], 187 leaves. Thick 12mo, bound in recent plain brown wrappers with hand-written title on spine (light but persistent dampstains throughout; still solid and very usable). Venetia: Giacomo Cornetti, 1591. First published in 1564, this is likely the fifth edition. Overall a very good copy, with the small ownership label of art historian Meyer Schapiro. He (Fioravanti) studied medicine and practiced in Parlemo, but returned to Bologna where he was made a doctor. He published a number of works on medicine... Fioravanti was a chemist and pharmacist, and in his practice put unbounded faith in his specifics." This compendium includes his &#39;secrets&#39; on medicine, surgery, and alchemy. The first book deals with the major diseases. The second book deals with surgery and treatment of wounds. The third book deals with alchemy. The fourth book deals with cosmetics for the beautification of women. The fifth book deals with recipes for pills, syrups and other useful preparations. Bibliotheca Osleriana, 2593. Later edition of STC (British Museum) p. 252, Wellcome I, 2293, and Durling, p. 188. Earlier edition of Waller 3050.

      [Bookseller: Argosy Book Store]
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        Brevis Narratio eorum quae in florida Americae provi[n]cia Gallis acciderunt ... quae est seconda pars Americae

      Frankfurt: Theodor De Bry, 1591. Folio. (13 1/2 x 9 5/8 inches). Engraved title, engraved section title, folding engraved map "Florida Americae Provinciae ... descriptio", 42 plates after Le Moyne with letterpress titling above and text beneath, 2 engraved illustrations. Contemporary limp vellum, cloth ties, contained within a modern morocco backed cloth box. A fine wide-margined copy of the first Latin edition of a seminal illustrated work for early North America, with Jacques Le Moyne&#39;s spectacular images of the region&#39;s Native American and a very important map of Florida. With the publication of this work, together with Hariot&#39;s Virginia, De Bry launched what would later become known as his Grand Voyages. These first two works are without question the most important of the series both in terms of their contemporary influence and their historical and ethnographic value to modern scholars and collectors. The text of the Brevis narratio... describes the earliest French settlements of what are now portions of the United States and are here united by De Bry with engravings based on watercolours by a member of the expedition to the New World. To most of the Old World, this work presented the first accurate eyewitness depiction and account of Native Americans. In the mid-1560s two French expeditions led by Jean Ribault and René Goulaine de Laudonnière sought to establish a Hugenot settlement in Florida. Among those accompanying Laudonnière was Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues: born in Dieppe, France in about 1533, he was appointed artist to the expedition which sailed in April 1564. Arguably the first western artist to visit the New World, Le Moyne recorded the scenery of Florida and the lives of the Timucua Indians in great detail, as well as charting the coastline of Florida and much of present-day South Carolina. Unfortunately, the nascent French colony was seen as a threat by the Spanish, the dominant European power in the region, and in September 1565 a force led by Pedro Menendez massacred the French colonists at Fort Caroline. Le Moyne and several others, however, made a miraculous escape. The story of their struggles was not published until 1588, when, at the instigation of Richard Hakluyt, Laudonnière&#39;s journal was published in Paris. Later that year, master engraver and publisher Theodor De Bry traveled to London, and met with Le Moyne in an unsuccessful attempt to obtain illustrations of the region to accompany a new edition of Laudonnière&#39;s journal. Following Le Moyne&#39;s death the following year, De Bry returned to London and purchased the watercolours from his widow. It was on this trip to London that De Bry met Hakluyt, who informed him of the British expeditions to Virginia, shared with him both Hariot&#39;s journal and White&#39;s watercolours from the expedition and suggested the publication of a series of illustrated voyages to America, beginning with Hariot/White and Laudonnière/Le Moyne. De Bry returned to Frankfurt and in 1590 published the former in Latin, German, French and English; the following year he published the latter in Latin and German, presumably having found that there was only a small market for the other languages. Le Moyne&#39;s extraordinary illustrations of the Florida Indians, which appear on forty- two leaves of this work in their first published form, rank with those of John White as the best visual record of American Indians before the 19th century. They show all aspects of Indian life, including settlements, ceremonies, wars, agriculture, hunting, and preparation of food. They also show scenes of the French settlement and their involvement with the Indians. These images were widely copied for centuries, and many later supposedly original illustrations of American Indians are actually copies of Le Moyne&#39;s illustrations. A full list of the plates appears in Church. The map, which appeared for the first time with this text, is one of the most elaborate of the Florida peninsula to appear in the 16th century, giving the names assigned by the French and Spanish. Cumming provides an elaborate description, and John Matthew Baxter describes it as "&#133;the most remarkable and important map, which has been preserved from the sixteenth century maps, of that part of the East Coast which lies between Cape Hatteras and Cape Florida &#133; [It is] the first French map to show Florida &#133; [and is] considered the most important map of Florida." Some copies of this first Latin edition include a leaf bound after the last of the plates which includes a colophon with the same wording as the final colophon -- it is not present in this copy, but Sabin notes that it is only found in "some copies." Arents 39; Brunet I, 1320; Burden Mapping of North America 79; Church 145; Cumming & De Vorsey 14; Clark I:16; European Americana 591/39; JCB (3) I:387-88; cf. Sabin 8784; cf. Schwartz & Ehrenberg pp.64- 7; Streeter II, 1172.

      [Bookseller: Donald Heald Rare Books]
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        Francisco Patricio De Reyno y de la Institucion del que ha de Reynar, y de como deve averse con los subditos, y ellos con el. Donde se traen notables exemplos e historias , y dichos agudos y peregrinos. Materia gustosissima para todo genero de gentes. Traduzido por Henrique Garces de Latin en Castellano. Dirigido a Philippo Segundo deste nombre, y primer Monarca de las Españas y de las Indias

      En Madrid, por Luis Sanchez, 1591. 4to.; 8 hs., 412 folios. Encuadernación en pergamino, de la época. Rarísima traducción española de un clásico político del humanismo. La obra de Francesco Patrizzi, de Siena, Obispo de Gaeta, publicada originalmente en latín en Paris, Pierre Vidone, 1519, bajo el título «De Regno & Institutione Regis», y tal como registra Thomas Elyot (1490-1546) en su obra ««The Boke Named The Governour», publicada en Londres, 1580, fue junto a «Il Cortegiano» de Castiglione uno de los modelos utilizados por Erasmo para la redacción de su «Institutio Principis Christiani». La traducción al castellano de la obra de Patrizi aparece aquí realizada por Henrique Garcés «vezino de la ciudad de los Reyes, en el Piru», un curioso personaje que declara, en la dedicatoria a Felipe II, haber pretendido siempre ocuparse en Su Servicio «y con mas eficacia quando entendia podia dello redundar algun buen fruto al estado publico», confesando paladinamente que «ansi gasté no poca parte de vida y hazienda en descubrir y entablar en el Pirú el azogue y beneficio de plata con él». En medio del ajetreo de su actividad minera y especulativa se dedica a traducir la presente obra «por parecerme provechoso entretenimiento para herederos de grandes Reynos y Señorios, para que los que nuestro Señor os huviere dado comiencen desde los primeros rudimentos a habituarse en lo que a tan grande estado como les espera conviene». Ha sido el académico peruano Estuardo Núñez quien recientemente hizo luz sobre la figura de Henrique Garcés a quien revela como un lusitano del siglo XVI que estuvo afincado por cerca de cuarenta años en el Virreinato del Perú donde desarrolló una exitosa labor como minero, metalurgista y recaudador de arbitrios, ejerciendo también el negocio de librería y papelería en Lima y siendo a lo largo de toda su vida un activo promotor intelectual. A su regreso a la Península, en 1591, pudo darse el gusto de publicar tres traducciones propias al castellano: de las obras de Petrarca, de Camoens y de Francesco Patrizzi. Estas traducciones van acompañadas de composiciones poéticas propias. En la presente aparece un soneto dedicado a Felipe II en el que se lee: «Assi Señor andais siempre ocupado / en amparar la Fee, que la han corrido / de mil partes, y vos la aveis tenido / en pie, sin della un punto aver faltado».

      [Bookseller: Hesperia Libros]
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        De medicina Aegyptiorum, libri quatuor

      Venice: Francesco dei Franceschi, 1591 Book. Good. Hardcover. 1st Edition. 4to - over 9¾ - 12" tall. 4to. (240 x 170 mm). [12], 150, [25] leaves. Roman and italic types, woodcut initials, publisher's woodcut device on title, 5 text woodcuts, 2 of which are full-page. Pages browned (in margins stronger) and somewhat spotted, mainly marginal dampstaining, larger worm holes affecting about 20 leaves with loss of few letters, paper repairs to margins and worm holes, ink underlining and annotations in old hand to a few pages, endpapers renewed, title with small tear to foremargin. Modern quarter vellum. ---- Adams A-802; Cushing A146; Garrison-Morton 6468; Harvard/Mortimer Italian 16; Heirs of Hippocrates 240 (1646 edn.); NLM/Durling 178; Norman 39; Osler 1796; Waller 12509; Wellcome 232. - FIRST EDITION, title in corrected state (see Mortimer). An important work on the practice of medicine in Egypt. "One of the earliest European studies of non-Western medicine. Alpini's work dealt primarily with contemporary (i.e. Turkish) practices observed during a three-year sojourn in Egypt. These included moxibustion--the production of counter-irritation by placing burning or heated material on the skin - which Alpini introduced into European medicine ... Alpini also mentioned coffee for the first time in this work" (Norman)..

      [Bookseller: Milestones of Science Books]
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        Del compendio dell&#39; istoria del Regno di Napoli prima parte (seconda e terza) di P. Collenuccio da Pesaro e di Mambrin Roseo da Fabriano. Con la giunta per tutto l&#39; anno 1586 di Tomaso Costo napoletano, ed alcune utili annotazioni del medesimo in fine a ciascun libro

      Venetia: Gioseffo Pelusio 1591 (prima parte) e Barezzo Barezzi (1591 (seconda e terza parte). [Raro-Napoli] (cm.21) tre parti in due volumi. Buona piena pergamena XVII sec. il primo; ottima piena pergamena originale con tracce di lacci il secondo volume. Titoli calligrafati.-- cc. 32 nn., cc. 244; cc. 16 nn., cc. 258 + 1 c. nn + 1 c. bianca; cc. 12 nn., cc. 96. Carattere corsivo, fregi e grande stemma ai 4 frontis. Nella terza parte, con frontis proprio, si trova inserito nella numerazione da c. 73 a 96: " Nomi delle province, città, terre e castella e vescovadi del Regno di Napoli.e famiglie di Napoli" Venetia Barezzi 1591. Edizione molto rara e complessa per i molteplici interventi, difficile a trovarsi completa delle tre parti, vedi a proposito la descrizione in Giustiniani " Biblioteca Stor. e Top. Regno di Napoli " p.107. Il primo volume, prima parte, del nostro esemplare più corto dell&#39; altro di 4 millimetri, appartiene alla rara prima tiratura stampata da Giuseppe Pelusio. Il Census, Iccu, registra solo 9 copie nelle biblioteche italiane. Riteniamo essere questa l&#39; unica opera stampata dal Pelusio, tipografo sconosciuto ai massimi repertori come Pastorello, Ascarelli-Menato, Vaccaro, Zappella nonchè all&#39; Adams e al Bm. Stc. Primo volume con lievi aloni e tracce d&#39; uso all&#39; inizio e in fine, secondo volume molto bello fresco e marginoso solo al frontis vecchio strappo restaurato con perdita di due parole. * Lozzi 2992 in nota; * Platner 227; * Coleti 129; * Dura 3791; * Fera-Morlicchio n° 840; * Adams C 2348; * Bm. Stc. 189. Tutti questi repertori citano solamente l&#39; edizione del Barezzi.[f55] . buono. Rilegato. 1591.

      [Bookseller: Libri antichi e rari Francesco e Claudia]
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        De monetis et re numaria libri duo. Quorum primus artem cudendae monetae, secundus vero quaestionum monetariarum decisiones continet.

      Coloniae, Ioannem Gymnicum, 1591. 4to. Bound in a contemporary embossed full vellum binding. Spine with a bit of discolouring; marks from a removed paper title-label. Contemporary handwriting to second front free end-paper and to top of title-page. Internally very fine and clean. (76), 798 pp. (As usual with the typopgraphical errors: pp. 139, 234, 267,353, 685, 768 are numbered as 339, 202, 263, 343, 645, 778. These errors are to be found in all published copies. See Einaudi 737).. Scarce first edition of one of the earliest - and most important - works on coinage, dealing with weight and measure, as well as the value and devaluation of money. Apart from the seminal original contribution of Budel, this extensive work contains 29 contributions by earlier philosophers and theologians on the subject, - a compilation of almost every earlier treatise on the subject - which, in a true Renaissance spirit, makes it the very first compilation in economic history. ''De Monetis et re numaria remained the standard work on the subject for almost two centuries. (Nussbaum, A Note on the Idea of World Money). During the Renaissance, international banking saw a rise, which eventually resulted in a demand for one uniform European coinage. Budelius' thesis can be read as an ideological response to this demand, as he argued for precisely that: a unified market with one universal coinage. In this sense, his work anticipates by several hundred years many of the economic thoughts presented by the Classical economists during the second half of 18th century. Budelius discusses the metallic view and the abuse of adulteration and falsification, and then attempts an exposition of how money may be coined in the most practical way. He then goes on to deal with the problem of how a debtor will meet his obligations if the coinage has been debased since the time the debt was contacted or the loan received. He maintaind that the same bullion value must be repaid although the coin may be depreciated - a view that was generally accepted at the time.The third part of the work consists of a compilation of almost every earlier treatise on the subject. In nearly all of them, the central problem is the same as the one discussed in the second book of Budelius' work. (Mariana ,The political economy of Juan de Mariana).The general thesis of Budelius' work is that the trading partners should seek to use only one currency and that the law of coinage and money's natural state (an early reference to how money behave in the market) should be unified. In the period of the Cologne War, Germany had several different currencies and laws in relation to coinage and minting of coins. This not only restrained the domestic trade in Germany, it also lead to armed conflict which again resulted in a more fragmented economy. Budelius's work can be read as an attempt to unify Germany (and the rest of Europe) under one currency, which also would serve the purpose of stabilizing the highly volatile curriencies during this period: The widely cited Rene Budel (1591) held it to be indubitable that a Prince in the midst of costly wars, and therefore in great necessity, can order that money be made out of leather, bark, salt, or any material he wants, if he is careful to repair the loss inflicted thereby on the community with good and better money. (Cambridge Companion to Economic Thought). In the sense of unifying Europe under one currency, Budelius seperates himself from not only Medieval monetary thinkers, but from his contemporary mercantilists as well: The medieval literature on money is characterized by nascent nationalism, with the imagery of the body applied to the kingdom, and of money as the blood moving through its parts. Nicole Oresme's De Moneta pointed out that if money is accumulated in the king's treasury and withdrawn from circulation, it constitutes an abscess in the body. (Cambridge Companion to Economic Thought). His comments represent the synthesis of two traditions, one uncovering the theoretical possibility of fiat money, the other uncovering its practical usefulness, as means of raising revenues in emergencies, from examples taken from history. Budelius cites examples of copper petty coinage in Germany and the Low countries, and gives examples of siege money. From Maastricht in 1579 (copper), Vienna in 1529 (lead), tin in Neuss, and even paper siege money in Leyden in 1574. He then writes: I hold this to be indubitable, as I recall a little earlier, that a Prince in the midst of costly wars, and therefore in great necessity, can order that money be made out of leather, bark, salt, or any material he wants, if he is careful to repair the loss inflicted thereby on the community with good and better money. The insights of Budel about token money were to be tested by some experiments in the coming years and were carried further by important theorists in the Renaissance and later. Budelius (1530-91), was a practitioner, a jurist by training, who worked as diplomat for the archbishop of Cologne, and later as mint-master in Westphalia for the duke of Bavaria. This is reflected in his practical and empirical approach to the economic challenges the Renaissance society was subjected to, unlike the more often seen theoretical and moral approach. Goldsmith 254; Mattioli 451; Einaudi 737; Adams 3153

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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        De gentibus et familiis Romanorum.

      Venedig Aldus 1591. (16) 160 pp. Small 8:o. Old english binding, calf. Binding worn. The Aldus device, later style, only on the titlepage

      [Bookseller: Antikvariat Thomas Andersson]
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        "Universe Europæ Maritime Einsque Navigationis Descriptio"

      Engraved map, 54x41,5cm Antwerp 1591-92 Published by Jean Bellère and Cornelis Claesz and replaced the "Universe Europe maritime..." from 1584 (see Kunstantikvariat PAMA, March 2011 entry 71 and the chart above). There are several changes to the previous map. The shape of Iceland is very different and more precisely, it extends further north and east to include Italy, the Finnish Bay and parts of The Adriatic sea, Russia and Novaya Zemlya. The chart shows close resemblance with Cornelis Doedsz' depiction of Scandinavia "Tabula hydrographica, tum maris Baltici..." (1589 or later). One of three recorded copies, all in institutions, is in theThe Norwegian National Library. The Doedsz chart was also engraved by the Van Doetecum brothers. Their engraved style is distinctive. They manage to provide incredible detail while maintaining absolute clarity. Our copy is in a strong, black impression with a delicate plate tone.. As commonly seen the left, right and lower margin are trimmed with some loss of the grade scale, the lower is trimmed into the bottom of the map. A fine, small restoration south-west of Iceland. The text verso slightly comes through in the Mediterranean. "Old" Koeman volume IV Wag 9B, William B. Ginsberg "Septentrionalium Regionum" - An Exhibit Oslo 2001, no. 28 - The Scandinavia chart by Doedsz owned by The National Library, Oslo, on loan)

      [Bookseller: Kunstantikvariat PAMA AS]
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        In artem analyticum isagoge: eiusdem, Ad logisticem speciosam notae priores. Francisci Vieta Fontenaeensis ; recensuit, scholiisq; illustravit I.D.B[eaugrand].Paris: Guillaume Baudry, 1631. First edition.

      First printing of Viète's <i>Ad logisticem speciosam notae priores</i> (one of his main works), together with the second edition of his <i>In artem analyticum isagoge</i>, "the earliest work on symbolic algebra [by] the greatest French mathematician of the sixteenth century" (PMM). The first edition of the <i>Isagoge</i>, published at Tours in 1591, is, together with the Lobachevsky, the rarest mathematical work in PMM, and this second edition is in fact rarer than the first in institutional collections [OCLC lists only copies in France and UK].<br/><br/> "The 'Introduction to the Art of Analysis' is the earliest work on symbolic algebra. Viète's greatest innovation in mathematics was the denoting of general or indefinite quantities by letters of the alphabet instead of abbreviations of words as used hitherto. Known quantities were represented by consonants, unknown ones by vowels; squares, cubes, etc., were not represented by new letters but by adding the words quadratus, cubus, etc. Viète also brought the + and - signs into general use. This algebraic symbolism made possible the development of analysis, with its complicated processes, a fundamental element in modern mathematics" (PMM). "This innovation, considered one of the most significant advances in the history of mathematics, prepared the way for the development of algebra" (DSB). <br/><br/> "To the treatises of the <i>Isagoge</i> belong <i>Ad logisticen speciosam notae priores</i> and <i>Ad logisticen speciosam notae posteriores,</i> the latter now lost. The first was not published during his lifetime, because Viète believed that the manuscript was not yet suitable for publication. (It was published by Jean Beaugrand in 1631.) It represents a collection of elementary general algebraic formulas that correspond to the arithmetical propositions of the second and ninth books of Euclid's <i>Elements</i>, as well as some interesting propositions that combine algebra with geometry. In propositions 48-51 Viète derives the formulas for sin 2x; cos 2x; sin 3x; cos 3x; sin 4x; cos 4x; sin 5x; cos 5x expressed in terms of sin x and cos x by applying proposition 46... He remarks, that the coefficients are equal to those in the [binomial] expansion..., that the various terms must be 'homogeneous' and that the signs are alternately + and -" (DSB). <br/><br/> The editor, Jean Beaugrand (ca. 1590-1640) "studied under Viète and became mathematician to Gaston of Orléans in 1630; in that year J. L. Vaulezard dedicated his <i>Cinq livres des Zététiques de FR. Viette</i> to Beaugrand, who had already achieved a certain notoriety from having published Viète's <i>In artem analyticam isagoge</i>, with scholia and a mathematical compendium, in 1631. Some of the scholia were incorporated into Schooten's edition of [Viète's <i>Opera Mathematica</i> of] 1646" (DSB, under Beaugrand). Beaugrand was an early friend of Fermat and became his official Paris correspondent, before being replaced in that role by Carcavi. He also communicated some of Fermat's results to Castelli, Cavalieri and Galileo, all of whom seem to have been impressed by his mathematical ability. In France he became involved in several polemics: against Desargues, claiming that the main proposition of the <i>Brouillon projet</i> was nothing but a corollary to a proposition in Apollonius; and against Descartes, claiming that his <i>Géométrie</i> was plagiarized from Harriot, and that Viète's methods were in any case superior. <br/><br/> OCLC: BNF and Glasgow only; COPAC adds Oxford, UCL and University of London Senate House (for comparison OCLC lists some 15 copies of the 1591 edition). PMM 103 (1591 edition).. 12mo (108 x 57 mm), pp [12] 99 [1:errata]; [2] 99, 200-233 [2] [1:blank], although the pagination jumps from 99 to 200 the signatures are continuous (i.e., i2-i3), fine contemporary limp vellum with gilt decoration to front and rear boards, manuscript paper label to spine, two very small paper flaws to the first title, otherwise very fine and clean throughout

      [Bookseller: Sophia Rare Books]
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