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Displayed below are some selected recent viaLibri matches for books published in 1551

        Della consolazione della filosofia. Tradotto di lingua latina, in volgare Fiorentino, da Benedetto Varchi. -

      Firenze, (Torrentino), 1551.In-4. Legatura dell'800 in pergamena, dorso con tassello. Titolo entro bella cornice silografica con stemma mediceo in alto, figure allegoriche ai lati e vedutina di Firenze in basso. 177, (1) pp. Elegante edizione originale. Su richiesta dell?imperatore Carlo V, Torrentino stampò tre volgarizzamenti, uno del Domenichi, uno del Bartoli, e questo del Varchi che riscosse il maggior successo «e fu poi dai Giunti più volte ristampato» (Gamba 238). BL STC 114. EDIT II, 2704. Moreni, Torrentino, 169: «Rara edizione».

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Rappaport]
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        Tomus secundus operum aliquot D. Gregorii papae huius nominis primi, cognomento Magni, dictae ac piae institutionis refertissimorum, nunc denuo ad fidem veterum exemplarium accuratiori diligentia a mendis innumeris repurgatorum.

      Apud Carolam Guillard, viduam Claudii Chevallonii, sub sole aureo, & Guillelmum Desboys, sub cruce alba, in via ad diuum Iacobum 1551 1 vol. in-folio reliure plein cuir espagnole d'époque de style "plateresque", triple encadrement à motifs de petits portraits en médaillons estampé à froid sur plats, armes épiscopales échiquetées au centre, ais de bois, anciennes traces de fermoirs, renforts de cuivre en coins et coupes, Apud Carolam Guillard, viduam Claudii Chevallonii, sub sole aureo, & Guillelmum Desboys, sub cruce alba, in via ad diuum Iacobum, Parisiis, 1551, [1] pp. (titre), 327 pp. [1] pp. Tome second des Oeuvres de Saint Grégoire le Grand. Exemplaire intéressant par sa reliure plateresque typique, aux armes épiscopales échiquetées (dos abîmé avec important mq. en coiffes, plats frottés avec anc. mouill., intéressant exemplaire par ailleurs). Latin

      [Bookseller: Librairie Du Cardinal]
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        Kreüterbuch, darin underscheidt Namen und Würckung der Kreutter, Stauden, Hecken unnd Beumen, sampt ihren Früchten, so inn Deütschen Landen wachsen, auch der selbigen eigentlicher und wolgegründter gebrauch inn der Artznei... von newen fleissig übersehen, gebessert und gemehret...

      Straszburg, Wendel Rihel, 1551. Folio (325 x 205mm). Leaves 20, 424, 8 (index), with woodcut coat of arms on verso of title and 530 woodcuts in the text. Contemporary blindstamped pigskin over bevelled wooden boards, with clasps (some minor damage to foot of spine). A fine copy of the second illustrated edition of Bock's famous herbal. The first illustrated edition (1546) was also published by Rihel and contained 477 woodcuts. The excellent illustrations are by David Kandel, mostly based on those of Fuch and Brunfels. Some one hundred are entirely original, and include several with charming genre scenes accompanying the plant depictions, many with his initials. Bock was one of the 'Fathers of German Botany' the triumvirate that included Brunfels and Fuchs. As a botanist Bock was their decided superior. He was not shackled to the classical authority of Dioscorides and Pliny, and therefore could recognise new plants without his perception being clouded by supposed classical precedents. He pioneered descriptive botany, giving a detailed developmental history of each plant in its stages of growth, and was the first to discuss plant communities, thus foreshadowing the science of ecology. Nissen BBI, 182; Stafleu & Cowan 575.

      [Bookseller: Antiquariaat Junk B.V.]
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        Tafeln zu: Anatomia Deudsch. Herausgegeben von Jakob Baumann.

      Folio. 40 (1 doppelblattgrosse) Kupfertafeln. Flexibler Pergamentband der Zeit. Choulant S. 56. - Durling 4583. - VD16 V-917. - Tafeln zu den von Jakob Baumann herausgegebenen und kommentierten Nachstichen nach den Tafeln von Thomas Gemini von 1545 ohne den Titel und die 78 Seiten Text. In der vorliegenden Fassung mit deutschen Titeln versehen. Die Tafeln stammen alle aus Vesals Hauptwerk und zeigen doppelblattgross Adam und Eva sowie 16 ganzseitige Muskel- und Skelettdarstellungen. 4 Tafeln bis an den Rand und in die Darstellung beschnitten. - Die letzte Tafel mit kleiner Fehlstelle. Vereinzelt schwach stockfleckig. Durchgehend fingerfleckig. Am äusseren Rand mit restaurierter Wurmspur. - Mit alten handschriftlichen Besitzvermerken und Titel auf den Vorsätzen bzw. auf der Rückseite der ersten Tafel. Einband fleckig. Rücken erneuert. - Sehr selten. [3 Warenabbildungen bei]

      [Bookseller: Daniel Thierstein Buchantiquariat]
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        Tractatus de praesumptionibus, cum Annotationibus, & Argumentis Ioan. Nicolai Arelatani.

      Lugduni (Lyon): Iacobi Iuntae, 1551. With Giunti family lily with 2 small angels, frameless. 415 + (54, index) + (2) pp. Old names on titlepage. Bound together with: JOHANNES RAYMUNDUS: Epistolarum legalium in quibus varii juris,... Lyon: Rouillius 1549. With woodcut printer's device. 174 + (2) pp. + JOHANN OLDENDORP: Titulorum iuris civilis index. Lyon: Gryphium, 1551. With woodcut printer's device. 142 + (2) pp. All 3 works bound in one contemporary manuscript vellum binding, with tears and signs of wear.. Andrea Alciato, commonly known as Alciati (Andreas Alciatus) (January 12, 1492 - 1550), was an Italian jurist and writer. He is regarded as the founder of the French school of legal humanists. Alciati was born in Alzate Brianza, near Milan, and settled in France in the early 16th century. He displayed great literary skill in his exposition of the laws, and was one of the first to interpret the civil law by the history, languages and literature of antiquity, and to substitute original research for the servile interpretations of the glossators. He published many legal works, and some annotations on Tacitus. Alciati is most famous for his Emblemata, published in dozens of editions from 1531 onward. This collection of short Latin verse texts and accompanying woodcuts created an entire European genre, the emblem book, which attained enormous popularity in continental Europe and Great Britain

      [Bookseller: Peter Grosell's Antikvariat]
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      Lione Sebastiano Grifo 1551 16° Pagine 3 carte bianche + 784 + 46 non numerate + 3 carte bianche. Bella legatura 600entesca in piena pelle. Titolo in oro al dorso a 5 nervi. Armi nobiliari non identificate in oro su ambo i piatti. Esemplare reglè in rosso. Tagli dorati. Capilettera figurati. Ottima e fresca copia. Cfr: Graesse II p.169 in nota. Raro.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Segni nel Tempo]
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        Claudii Ptolemaei Pelusiensis Alexandrini omnia quae extant opera, praeter Geographiam, quam non dissimili forma nuperrime aedidimus: suma cura & diligentia castigate ab Erasmo Osualdo Schrekhenfuchsio, & ab eodem Isagoica in Almagestum praefatione, & fidelissimis in priores libros annotationibus illusrata, quemadmodum sequens pagina catalogo indicat [Provenance]

      Basileae: Basileae in Officina Henrichi Petri, Mense Martio, Anno M. D. LI [1551]. Half-Calf. Near Fine. Folio: [88],447,[1], with two folding celestial maps and numerous woodcut illustrations of instruments for observing the skies and making astronomical measurements. Edited by Schreckenfuchs and augmented by his commentary. Beautifully bound in nineteenth-century continental mottled calf over patterned paper-covered boards, spine in seven compartments with central gilt ornament, red and green morocco lettering pieces, edges speckled blue, period marbled end papers, green silk page marker. A rare survival, with strong hinges (a few wormholes, largely unobtrusive), tight text-block, leaves browned (as usual) but supple, ample margins, and clear print throughout. The two celestial maps are excellent impressions. First two leaves reinforced at inner margin, minor damp stain to inner margin of title leaf, upper margin of pp. 393-447 damp stained and restored (but only affecting text on final leaf, with loss of header and six lines of right column). Provenance: on the front paste down, the engraved armorial book plate of the Riccati family ("CO Riccati"), either that of Conte Montino Riccati or more likely that of his son Count Jacopo Francesco Riccati (1676-1754), who devised the Riccati differential equation. Adams P2208. Zinner 2026. Kenney 146. Wightman, Science and the Renaissance, vol. 2, 542 c. Warner, "The Sky Explored: Celestial Cartography 1500-1800. & In Latin. The rare, magnificent 1551 edition of Ptolemy's ‘Complete Works,’ including the immortal Almagest, complete with the magnificent maps by Honter of the constellations in the northern and southern hemispheres (in fact, the first geocentric celestial maps), According to Wightman, this is the "only edition, but based on the same printer's edition of 1541 (BM copy imperfect)." With annotations of the first three books of Almagest by Schreckenfuchs and of the remainder by Lucas Gauricus. (The Almagest—an Arabic portmanteau derived from the Greek for 'great astronomer'—is the most celebrated mathematical and astronomical treatise of antiquity. Ptolemy's catalogue of 1,028 stars is the most ancient accurate description of the heavens. The Dictionary of Scientific Biography describes the Almagest as "a masterpiece of clarity and method, superior to any ancient scientific textbook and with few peers from any period" and calls it the "dominant influence in theoretical astronomy end of the sixteenth century." Of the two celestial maps ("noteworthy for both their geocentrism and their novel constellation style"), Warner explains, "Whereas Durer's maps . . . showed the stellar universe as from the outside, Honter's were the first important printed maps showing the stars as seen from the earth." N. B. With few exceptions (always identified), we only stock books in exceptional condition, carefully preserved in archival, removable polypropylene sleeves. All orders are packaged with care and posted promptly. Satisfaction guaranteed.

      [Bookseller: Fine Editions Ltd]
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        Novum Testamentum

      Paris: Apud Florentinnus Yvernellus, 1551. (BINDING, FRENCH) 16mo (124 x 81 mm.). Ruled in red. Contemporary French calf, gold tooled with a block of interlacing strapwork and floral designs painted black, silver, and azure, with separate small floral tools, owner's name ("Ioannes / Colas") gilt stamped on upper and lower central panels, flat spine gilt all over with interlinking circle tools, gilt and gauffered edges, rebacked, front joint cracked. Provenance: Joannes Colas (name stamped in gilt on covers); Quaritch catalogue nos. 301 (1876) & 317 (1878) for 6£ 6s; Alfred Barmore Maclay (his bookplate); sold by Emil Offenbacher, 15 May 1951 . An attractive 16th-century French Grolieresque binding. The original owner, Joannes Colas, was a French law professor during the latter 16th century

      [Bookseller: James Cummins Bookseller]
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        De la filosofia morale libri dieci sopra li dieci libri de l'ethica d'aristotile. in roma, appresso vincenzo valgrisi, 1551.

      Cm. 22,5, pp. (16) 504 (24). Grande marchio tipografico al frontespizio ed al colophon, motto dell'autore inciso a piena pagina al verso del frontespizio ed in fine, bei capolettera istoriati. Legatura strettamente coeva in piena pergamena floscia con titoli manoscritti al dorso. Bell'esemplare, particolarmente fresco e marginoso, a carte candide. Edizione originale (ed unica) di quest'opera dedicata al Papa Giulio III. Il Figliucci fu letterato ed erudito di nascita senese (1518-1595) e la presente è uan delle due sue opere principali, in cui espone una serie di osservazioni sulla morale aristotelica. Cfr. Enc. Filosofica Sansoni: ""Va ricordato come elegante e dotto traduttore in volgare di alcune opere di Aristotele e di Platone e soprattutto delle Lettere di Marsilio Ficino... Da un punto di vista filosofico il Figliucci si limita a riprendere l'aristotelismo, di cui è un serio conoscitore, non senza una certa simpatia per il platonismo fiorentino, di cui apprezza particolarmente l'interesse per il problema religioso"".

      [Bookseller: Studio Bibliografico Benacense]
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      In-4 (mm. 300x195), mz. pergam. antica, dorso a cordoni con tit. ms., 4 cc.nn., 1287 pp. (testo e numeraz. su due colonne), 1288-1298 pp.num., 74 cc.nn., marca tipografica al frontesp. e al fine, con tre silografie nel t. (pp.139-142) che raffigurano due scheletri e un cranio. "Edizione originale" di questo compendio dell?opera di Galeno, curata da Andrea Lacuna o Laguna (1499-1559), celebre medico di Segovia conosciuto come il ?Galeno spagnolo?. Cfr. Durling,1840 - Adams,I, p. 464. ?Laguna était un médecin érudit et un judicieux critique, comme le prouvent les corrections et les commentaires qu?il a faits sur Galien, Dioscoride, Hippocrate, les Géopaniques, etc.. Cet Abrégé de Galien, avec la vie du médecin de Pergame, contient ce qu?il y a de plus utile dans les Oeuvres de ce dernier; les longs raisonnements en sont exclus, et l?on y trouve faites, d?après le texte grec, les corrections de beaucoup de passages de versions latines défectueuses?. Così Biographie Universelle, XXIII, pp 179/180. Macchie al margine inf. solo su 3 carte; con uniformi ingialliture interc. nel t. ma complessivam. esempl. ben conservato.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Malavasi]
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        RAGIONAMENTI DE NICOLO TARTAGLIA SOPRA LA SUA TRAVAGLIATA INUENTIONE. Nelli quali se dechiara volgarmente quel libro di Archimede Siracusano intitolato. De Insidentibus Aquae...

      In-16 (mm. 188x138), p. pergam. molle mod. con legacci, 24 cc.nn., carattere corsivo, ritratto di Tartaglia al frontesp., ornato da eleganti iniziali e con una grande vignetta xilografata nel t. che raffigura una nave affondata, riportata in superficie. Rara "prima edizione" di un?opera del grande matematico bresciano Tartaglia (1499 ca.-1557). Cfr. Riccardi,I,504: ?I "Ragionamenti" si trovano sia uniti alla "Regola generale da sulevare.. ogni affondata nave", che separatamente.. La "travagliata inventione" ha per oggetto d?insegnare il modo di sollevare i vascelli sommersi. Nei "ragionamenti" aggiuntivi l?A. si estende sulle materie che formano parte della "travagliata inventione", con una parziale versione italiana - corredata di commento - al libro primo del ?De insidentibus aquae? di Archimede? - Adams,II,185 (p. 258) - The British Library, p. 658. Copia smarginata (solo al frontesp. però ha intaccato la prima riga del titolo); qualche lieve ingiallitura ma certamente un buon esemplare.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Malavasi]
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      [8], 331, [3]pp, folio, elaborate publisher's emblem on title, fine printing in Greek with generous margins retained, very good old style calf backed marbled boards by Trevor Lloyd, spine gilt ruled between raised bands, a few neat pencilled annotations and text a little dusty but a very good copy, "Lutetiae [ie Paris], ex officina Roberti Stephani typographi Regni, Regiis typis M.D.L.I. Cum priuilegio Regis", 1551. Renouard 79, 2. Brunet III, 623. PHOTOGRAPHS AVAILABLE ON REQUEST. The first collected edition of the works of Saint Justin the Martyr, Christian apologist and martyr - "That wonderful man" (Tatian); "Ornament of our Faith" (Eusebius); "Unsurpassed in his knowledge of both Christian and pagan doctrines" (Photius); "One of the most original thinkers Christianity produced" (E. F.Osborn, Justin Martyr); "Most outstanding of the Apologists, the first Christian thinker to reconcile faith and reason" (Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church). Justin was born c.100, of pagan parents, at Flavia Neapolis (modern Nablus) in Samaria, near the ruins of biblical Shechem. Having devoted his youth to the classical philosophers, he embraced Christianity and commenced evangelical work at Ephesus, especially among Jews, in the 130s. Moving to Rome, he ran a Christian mission throughout the reign of Antoninus Pius (138-161), numbering the future theologian Tatian among his pupils, maintaining links with ordinary Romans by living above a public bath house. His intellectual opponents included the heretic Marcionites and Valentinians, and the pagan Cynic Crescens. The last, worsted in debate, took revenge by denouncing him to the authorities as a Christian. Along with six other brethren, Justin was scourged and beheaded, c.165 under Marcus Aurelius. " [The present work is] A most important contribution to the study of Christian antiquity, and the sensation which its publication created among the learned was still remembered by Henry Estienne over 40 years later, in the preface to his own edition of Pseudo-Justin's Letter to Diognetus (1592)" (Schreiber).

      [Bookseller: Jeffrey Stern Antiquarian Bookseller]
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        Satyrae cum doctissimorum virorum commentariis atque Annotationibus, omnium quorum in huc diem aliquid editum extat, quorum nomina uersa pagina declarabit. Hic accessere CAELII Secum di Curionis noua Scholia, quibus tum præterita ab aliis explicantur, tum male intellecta corriguntur: quinetiam Græca quibus Britannicus in luue nolis commentariis usus est, Latinorumque autoru loci, quæ omnia miris modis corrupta suerant, re stiuuntur. Addictus est Index copiosissimus, & utilissimus.

      Basel, Froben, 1551. Folio. Beautiful near cont. full mottled calf w. six raised bands on back, creating seven compartments, inside which gilt acorn-like ornamentations. Single gilt line-border and large gilt centre-pieces on boards. Repair to lower back, upper and lower hinges cracked. General wear to boards and back. Internally very fine and clean w. very faint marginal waterstaining to a few leaves. W. the large woodcut printer's device of Froben on t-p. and on final page. Very nice woodcut initials. (8), 645, (23) pp.. The very rare and beautiful Froben-edition of Juvenal's famous Satires, noted for the learned scholia of Curio. "This edition, printed by one of Froben's sons, is noticed by Ruperti as containing the Scholia of Curio... Henninius, in his edition of 1685, more particularly discusses the Scholia of Curio, and the merits of Britannicus. This edition of 1551 is scarce." (Dibdin II:153). Graesse, III: 519.Juvenal's famous Satires (from around the end of the 1st till the beginning of the second century) constitute a number of famous and influential poems, all in the Roman genre of Satire, comprising a wide-ranging discussion of society and social ethics and moral. These poems came to play a great role in the Renaissance, when the genre was brought vividly to live by the Renaissance humanists, and the possibilities that came with the recently developed ease of printing greatly spread the fame of the work

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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        La zucca. in vinegia, per francesco marcolini, 1551-52.

      Quattro parti in un volume di cm. 16, pp. (32) 63 (1); (8) 64 (6); 61 (3); cc. (1) 87. Con frontespizi figurati e molte incisioni xilografiche nel testo anche a piena pagina. Legatura ottocentesca in mezza pergamena con titoli la dorso. Qualche macchietta, rade antiche scritte a penna, peraltro esemplare in buono stato di conservazione. Si tratta di quattro parti (di 6) della celebre e rara prima edizione della Zucca. Le parti presenti sono: 1. I cicalamenti; 2. Le baie. 3. Le chiachiere (seguite dal Post scritta); 4. I frutti (divisi in due parti). Come è noto ogni parte possiede proprio frontespizio e dati tipografici autonomi; già nel '500 ciascuna possedeva circolazione autonoma, è quindi assai comune trovare quest'opera in maniera frammentata, ed invece raro reperirla completa in tutte le sei parti. Cfr. Gamba 1367.

      [Bookseller: Studio Bibliografico Benacense]
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        Calendarium historicum conscriptum a Paulo Ebero Kitthingensi.

      16 Bll., 432 S., 23 Bll. Blindgepr. Schweinslederband d. Zt. über Holzdecken. Mit handschriftl. Rückentitel und 2 Schließen. VD16 E 14; Zinner 2012. - Seltene zweite Auflage des seit 1550 wiederholt aufgelegten, beliebten Kalender, bei dem den einzelnen Tagen zahlreiche historische Daten, ferner Geburts- und Sterbetage berühmter Persönlichkeiten beigegeben sind.

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Turszynski]
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        Della consolatione de la filosofia. Tradotto da Cosimo Bartoli gentil'huomo fiorentino.

      Firenze, Lorenzo Torrentino, 1551. 8vo. Contemporary full vellum with handwritten title to spine. Light soiling to boards. Old annotations to front end-papers. A few leaves brownspotted. A fine and tight copy. Woodcut title-vignette and woodcut initials. 236, (1, -errata) pp.. Scarce first edition of famous Renaissance Humanist Cosimo Bartoli's seminal translation into Italian of Boethius' milestone work, one of the most influential and widely read works throughout the Middle Ages and the Reniassance. Bartoli's translation, which was preferred by several lecturers at the academy (e.g. Serafini), marks a turning point for the Florentine Academy and the beginning of the cultural non-conformity of the Italian Humanists connected hereto. The work constitutes a great collaboration between the famous, widely respected and learned Humanist polymath Bartoli and the important Renaissance printer Torrentino, whose fame rests mainly upon the works by Humanists of the Florentine academy that he published from the middle of the 16th century in Florence. Furthermore, the translation constitutes an important insight into the principles of linguistics and the importance of language to the dissemination of learning in the Renaissance. "The Flemish printer Laurens Lenaerts van der Beke, or Lorenzo Torrentino as he was known in Florence, had set up business in the city in 1547 with the title of "impressore ducale", providing an official outlet for academic writings and a convenient focus for ducal surveillance of the printed word." (Bryce, p. 167). As the foremost printer for the Academists, he soon became the centre of a feud between two of the most prominent members of the Academy, namely Domenichi and Bartoli. When in May 1748 he published Giovio's Latin biographies, he included three dedications, e.g. one by Pier Vittori to Cosimo I. This was obviously done in order to make the Duke notice him, his printing career being new as it was. The idea of including dedications to and from prominent Florentines was quickly followed, and when Bartoli published his first work with Torrentino, he followed his lead. Unfortunately for him, so did Lodovico Domenichi, who published a translation of the same work with the same printer, at about the same time, beating him to the press with a few months. Domenichi had only just come to Florence that same year, from Venice, but equipped with an introduction from the illustrious Pietro Arentino to Cosimo I. This was, of course, a blow to Bartoli. But the real feud comes two years later, when Bartoli published his most important work, his great translation of Boethius' "De Consolatione", and Domenichi turns out to publish a translation of the same work, also by Torrentino. It is Bartoli, who comes out on top, however, as it is his translation that becomes the standard version at the Academy. For Bartoli, the dissemination of knowledge is of great importance, which is why he had undertaken to translate into the vernacular Bothius's "Consolation of Philosophy", "a highly personal and original work imbued with Stoic and Neoplatonic conceptions that has continued to impress its readers to the present day". (Kristeller, p. 226). But, Bartoli points out, the language in which this is done is of the utmost importance. He feels that the quality (or lack thereof) of the "volgare" employed by many contemporary translators is a big problem. Bartoli "reminds us of that other major issue which, along with the debate over Latin and the vernacular, looms so large in the history of the Italian language, namely the "questione della lingua". In this, Bartoli's linguistic position, scarcely surprisingly for someone of his generation and origins, was that of Florentine modernism. In other words, in the company of such men as Gelli, Giambullari and Lenzoni, he can be expected to oppose proponents of the "italianità" of the literary language of the peninsula (Trissino and Muzio), stressing instead its continuing "fiorentinità", the superiority of modern Florentine to, let us say, the Florentine of the Trecento (Bembo), and the superiority, too, of modern Florentine to all other Italian vernaculars, with the related conclusion that the final arbiters of the language can only be native Florentine speakers such as themselves. To Bartoli, therefore, Domenichi as a non-Florentine was linguistically suspect, a potential despoiler of that linguistic purity". (Bryce, p. 169). The emphasis on that linguistic purity is stressed in the dedication to the Proince of Salerno in the present work. The Prince will find here, in his Boethius-translation, a purity of the language, not mixed with other languages, quite unlike other translations. Cosimo Bartoli (1503-72) was an important Florentine diplomat, mathematician, philologist, philosopher, and Humanist, generally remembered as a prominent Renaissance polymath, whose works were widely noted at the time. He is most famous for his Florentine translation of Boethius' main work and for his musical theories, most notably his original comparison of sculptors and musicians, with Donatello and Ockeghem seen as precursors of Michelangelo and Josquin, and his encomium of Verdelot, called the greatest composer after Josquin, to which is added the name of Arcadelt who "faithfully trod in the footsteps of Verdelot". Curiously, any student of Boethius will remember the role of music in the "De Consolatione", being the temporary balm that soothes the sadness. Bartoli was a prominent member of the Florentine Academy, established by Cosimo I de Medici in the 1540'ies as part of a programme of cultural renovation. In the decades prior to Cosimo's accession to power, the Florentine printing press had been in decline. The quality and the quantity of the books produced has suffered greatly as a result of the city's political crisis. The events that occurred during the siege of the city and the fall of the Last Republic in 1530 had caused the leading literati of the hitherto flourishing Renaissance centre of learning to flee to more stable and peaceful cities. Only with Cosimo's programme of cultural renovation, most notably with establishment of the Florentine Academy, that the situation improved. The restoration of the Florentine printing industry clearly reflects these developments. When in 1547 the impoverished printer Doni, who had returned to Florence after Cosimo's accession to power, bot who could not make ends meet and published works of poor quality, Cosimo had to find another printer to replace him. His choice fell upon a hitherto unknown printer from Brabant, known under his Italian name Lorenzo Torrentino. The contract made between Cosimo and Torrentino clearly reflects the purpose of the Academy and Cosimo's visions for Florence as a centre of classical learning. The dissemination of knowledge was a clear aim for the Florentine Academy. "In accordance with the terms of the agreement, Torrentino had to set up a workshop within eight months, equipped with two presses containing six Latin and three Greek alphabets, together with a staff of printers, editors, and proof-readers. In addition he had to establish a means of selling books that could be controlled by the regime, and he was to submit a bound copy of every work that came off his press for censorship. [...]." (Zanrè, p. 23). "Torrentino played a fundamental role in the programme of the cultural development and promotion of the Tuscan language that was instituted by the Academy with the full support of Cosimo I. The success of this policy can be seen in the considerable number of volumes written in the "volgare" that were published by the ducal printer. Not surprisingly, given the exclusive nature of his employment, Torrentino was more or less restricted to producing works that were penned by members of the Fiorentina; in the course of fifteen years, he published Sixty-one titles associated with them. Of these, thirty-nine were no more than simple transcriptions of academic lectures. [...] Bartoli's vernacular translations of Alberti's "De Re Aedificatoria" (1550) and Boethius' "De Consolatione Philosophiae" (1552) also came off Torrentino's presses. The texts that have been cited so far reflect the specific mission of the Academy to promote "lingua volgare", by producing works written in contemporary Tuscan and by translating Latin and Greek classics into the vernacular. The Fiorentina's economic dimension was recalled in the many historical biographies published by Torrentino." (Zanrè, pp. 23-25). As a philosopher Boethius (480 - ca. 525) stands tall in the middle between Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Time-wise he clearly belongs to late Antiquity, but he is a Christian and he writes in Latin. Still being a Christian, he also comes to represent the actual centre of a tradition that goes directly back to Plotinus and thereby indirectly back to Plato and Aristotle. Boethius was imprisoned and later executed, accused of treason against the gothic regime as well as of sorcery, though he himself claims that it was caused by his political activity, where he as a court official defended the weak; caused by his uprightness, his enemies were too many. The most plausible explanation is that Theoderic doubted the loyalty of the Roman aristocracy and thereby especially the frank Boethius. While in prison, Boethius wrote this his main work, which is without a doubt the most widely read, commented and influential of his works. The work is atypical for the time and is written as a philosophical conversation between Boethius himself and the goddess of Philosophy. Though always a Christian, in this work he is first and foremost a philosopher, which is why there are many allusions to pagan neo-platonism, however during the Middle Ages all passages of this work were very popularly interpreted in accordance with Christianity. Few people have been of so seminal character to Medieval and Reniassance philosophy and religion as Boethius; perhaps only Aristotle himself and Augustine were more influential and important. Few books were so widely read during the Middle Ages as the Consolation of Philosophy, and virtually no book has been as major a source of ancient philosophy in the early Middle Ages and consequently the Renaissance as this one. As well of being of great textbook value this work has inspired and influenced numerous religious, philosophical and literary writers. "For some writers, such as the Middle English poet, Chauser, the "Consolation" seems to have provided a model for writing about serious issues in a way which presupposes no commitment to Christianity, a philosophical precedent for the use of pagan setting in a literary fiction." (John Marenbon, Medieval Philosophy, 1998, p. 24).With the death of Boethius came also the end of ancient tradition of philosophy in the Latin West, though through his writings, the influence of this philosophical tradition was preserved during the Middle Ages and through to the Renaissance and early modern times.Judith Bryce, "Cosimo Bartoli (1503-1572): The Career of a Florentine Polymath)", 1983. Domenico Zanrè, "Cultural Non-Conformity in Early Modern Florence" , 2004.Adams: B-2299

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