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        C. PLINII SECUNDI HISTORIA MUNDI

      Basel, per Hieronymum Frobenium, Io. Hervagium, & Nicolaum Episcopium, 1535.. denuo emendata, non paucis locis ex diligenti ad pervetusta et optimae fidei exemplaria collatione nunc primu[m] animadversis castigatisq[ue], quemadmodum evidenter in Sigismundi Gelenij annotationibus operi adnexis apparet. Adiunctus est Index copiosissimus. Printer's names from colophon on page 671, Latin text, 1535, folio, 370 x 245 mm, 14½ x 9¾ inches, printer's pictorial device on title page, on verso page 671 and on verso of final leaf, with 37 large historiated initials and small decorated initials in the Table, pages (36), 671, (181), 51 of these unnumbered pages contain Gelenius' annotations, followed by 130 pages of index, bound in full contemporary blind tooled pig-skin over wooden boards, with 2 brass clasps in working order, raised bands to spine with blind tooling in compartments, no lettering. Covers soiled and stained, 110 mm (4½ inch) cut to leather on upper cover, small loss of leather to lower corner on upper board, the other corners slightly worn, 4 wormholes to lower cover, 1 to upper cover, red stain filling lowest compartment of spine, upper hinge cracked at top 25 mm (1 inch", tiny crack to lower hinge at top, "Plinius" inked neatly across fore-edges, large handcoloured old armorial bookplate to front pastedown, with most of name and part of motto erased, inscription below bookplate erased and messy stain above it, old ink inscription erased in upper margin of title page, 4 small old paper repairs to reverse of title page, 3 at inner edge and 1 in blank area needed because of slight damage caused by horizontal crease which is repeated on A2, single small wormhole in inner margin from title to page 71, another to fore-edge of last 7 leaves of index, 2 very small closed margin edge tears, tiny closed tear to upper edge of 6 consecutive pages, a few brief early marginal notes, a little neat underlining, 1 pointing hand, contents otherwise very clean and bright. Pasted onto rear pastedown is a large sheet of paper with a drawing of a labyrinth on it in old ink and a reference to in Latin mentioning the story of Theseus and Ariadne. Binding tight and sound. A good sound copy of this classic encyclopedic work. This is the first printing of the Naturalis Historia with annotations by the Bohemian humanist Gelenius. The text is preceded by a preface by Erasmus of Rotterdam, reprinted from his edition of 1525. Gaius Plinius Secundus, known as Pliny the Elder, was born in Como, Italy, in A.D. 23. By the time he died 56 years later, he had been a cavalry officer, an adviser to emperors and the author of at least 75 books, not to mention another 160 volumes of unpublished notebooks. He is remembered today for just one of those works, his 37-volume Naturalis Historia (also entitled Historia Mundi), in which he planned to "set forth in detail all the contents of the entire world." Pliny describes in detail the nature of the physical universe: geography, anthropology, zoology, botany, and the medicinal uses of plants and curatives derived from the animals, among a host of other topics including mathematics, astronomy, agriculture, history and the arts and letters. Although dubious as a work of science, Pliny's Historia Naturalis provides a unique glimpse into the world view of ancient Rome. It is a wonderful melange of the real and the fantastic, the never was and the never could be. He wrote of dog-headed people who communicated by barking, and people with no heads at all, their eyes in their shoulders. He wrote of snakes that launch themselves skyward to catch high-flying birds, and of the "basilisk serpent" of Africa, which kills bushes on contact, bursts rocks with its breath and is so venomous that when one was killed by a man on horseback, "the infection rising through the spear killed not only the rider but also the horse." The work became a model for all later encyclopedias in terms of the breadth of subject matter examined, the need to reference original authors, and a comprehensive index list of the contents. The work was dedicated to the emperor Titus, son of Pliny's close friend, the emperor Vespasian, in the first year of Titus' reign. It is the only work by Pliny to have survived, and the last that he published, lacking a final revision at his sudden and unexpected death. MORE IMAGES ATTACHED TO THIS LISTING.

      [Bookseller: Roger Middleton]
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        De vita, & moribus philosophorum libri decem, novissime iam post omnes omnium castigationes nova diligentia emendati, ad exemplaria Graeca diligenter collati, multisque uersibus, quos superiores editiones non habent, donati. Id quod studiosus lector primo statim aspectu facile deprehendet. Cum indice in omnes libros locupletissimo.

      (Colonia), Eucharius Agrippinas excudebat, 1535, mense Martio. In 8vo antico (cm 10, 5 x 16), 2 cc. b., front. con marca tip. incisa in legno (non controllata), pp. (22 contenenti la traduzione di Ambrogio Traversari e l'Index), 679, 1 c. b., capilett. figurati e istoriati in vignetta silografica, testo corsivo latino, in corsivo tondo romano, con alcune parti nell'originale greco, indici stampati in gotico, leg. in parte orig., in piena pelle coeva, di cui sono stati conservati i piatti con i filetti e le impressioni a secco, dorso a 4 nervi. Pregiata edizione delle vite dei filosofi di Diogene Laerzio. Non ci ? pervenuta alcuna notizia sulla sua vita; il nome Laerzio potrebbe derivare dalla citt? di Laerte, in Cilicia, l'odierna Alanya in Turchia; altri, rifacendosi alla sua biografia ne deducono che egli fosse originario di Nicea; altri ancora, infine, attraverso deduzioni di carattere culturale, pur non pronunciandosi sulla sua origine, ritengono che egli sia prevalentemente vissuto ad Alessandria. Lo si colloca normalmente tra la fine del II secolo e la prima met? del III, e ci? lo si deduce dalla sua conoscenza di Sesto Empirico, vissuto nella seconda met? del II secolo d. C., e dalla citazione del filosofo Potamone di Alessandria come vissuto, dice Diogene "poco tempo fa", e operante nei primi anni del III secolo. Diogene non dichiara esplicitamente la sua appartenenza a una determinata scuola filosofica, e tuttavia, dai giudizi espressi in alcune biografie, traspare un'ostilit? verso forme di pensiero superstizioso, la sua simpatia" nei confronti di Epicuro e la sua difesa della scuola cinica. Diogene ? noto come autore della "Raccolta delle vite e delle dottrine dei filosofi", un'opera in dieci libri in cui esamina 83 figure di pensatori, dai Sette Sapienti (si indicano come i sette savi o i sette sapienti, alcune personalit? pubbliche dell'antica Grecia vissute in un periodo compreso tra la fine del VII ed il VI secolo a.C. (tra circa il 620 a.C. ed il 550 a.C.), esaltate dai posteri come modelli di saggezza pratica e autori di massime poste a fondamento della comune sensibilit? culturale greca. Nonostante siano in genere indicati tra i primordi della coscienza speculativa greca, e compaia tra di essi colui che ? solitamente considerato come il primo filosofo, Talete di Mileto, non tutti sono da considerarsi pienamente filosofi, poich? il loro interesse ? principalmente rivolto alla condotta pratica e non alla speculazione) a Epicuro (al quale ? interamente dedicato il capitolo decimo (Diogene parla di Epicurea con una trasparente simpatia che lo ha fatto considerare un suo seguace; ne narra la vita, i suoi rapporti con Anassagora, Archelao, Nausifane e Senocrate, ne elenca le opere, e considera la divisione dell'epicureismo in filosofia canonica, fisica ed etica). In ogni caso, Diogene rivendica ai greci l'origine della filosofia e dove dispone le informazioni per scuole filosofiche, rispettando le successioni dei capi delle scuole filosofiche fissate dalla tradizione. La raccolta ci ? giunta mutila, in quanto il VII libro, dedicato agli Stoici, si interrompe bruscamente a met? del catalogo degli scritti di Crisippo; del resto, da indici manoscritti, sappiamo che Diogene proseguiva la trattazione dello stoicismo almeno fino a Posidonio. L'opera ? dedicata a una signora, "che apprezza Platone", ma che non ? stata identificata, in quanto probabilmente le era dedicata l'opera: la dedica non ? pervenuta o, pi? probabilmente, non fu mai scritta, anche perch? l'opera mostra anche altrove segni di incompletezza. Seguendo un costume diffuso, Diogene compose anche una raccolta di epigrammi, "Pammetros" (Raccolta in tutti i metri), di cui restano 56 componimenti, da lui stesso inclusi nelle sue "Vite", senza particolare valore artistico ma di buona eleganza formale e metrica. Lo schema abituale usato da Diogene nel trattare di ciascun filosofo consiste in una biografia, spesso aneddotica, di una serie di massime del filosofo, dalla citazione delle sue opere e da una dossografia variamente estesa e precisa. Buona e rara edizione di questa celebre opera di Diogene Laerzio, nella traduzione di Ambrogio Traversari (il nome compare nella prefazione). Esemplare ben restaurato in relazione ad alcune mancanze della pelle originale della legatura (mancava il dorso e, visibile l'indorsatura, erano scoperti due ampi frammenti di antichi codici manoscritti in colore d'epoca); dorso in pelle recente, conservati i piatti originali. Peraltro ottimamente conservato tutto l'interno.

      [Bookseller: Botteghina D'arte Galleria K?s]
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        ["Typus Orbis descriptione Ptolemaei"] +"Orbis Typus Universalis Iuxta Hydrographorum Traditionem Exactissime Depicta. 1522. L.F." + ["Tabula Gronlandie et Russie"]

      3 woodcut maps, 29,5x45,5cm, 32x48cm and 29x46cm Lyon 1535 The majority of the maps published by Laurenz Fries for his editions of Ptolemy's "Geographia" were reduced copies of Waldseemüller's corresponding maps from 1513. However the second map in the set, one of two "modern" maps of the world, is partly Fries' own construction but based on Waldseemüller's so-called "The Admiral's Map". Therefore the map must be regarded as a sea chart. This definition is supported by the decorations along the edges. On the third map, the second "modern" one, Fries added five thrones of kings, representing those of Russia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Taprobana (Ceylon), and Mursuli. Above Greenland he put in an image of a mammoth. The three maps represent some of the earliest world maps available to a collector. The set of three was published by Michael Servetus. He was some years later burnt at the stake. On Calvin's order many copies of Servetus's books followed him into the flames. It is supposed that this also included the 1535 atlas edition which made it to a rare book.. The Ptolemy map has a water stain along upper margin. R. Shirley "The Mapping of the World" Entries 47, 89, and 49

      [Bookseller: Kunstantikvariat PAMA AS]
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        ILIAS Et VLYSSEA, cum Interpretatione. Variae lectionis in utroq[ue] opere, annotatio

      Apud Io. Heruagium Basileae:: Apud Io. Heruagium,. 1535.. Folio, primarily in 6s [collation per Adams]. 10-1/2" x 6-3/4". Cf. Adams H-748. [8], 410, [2], 284, [4] pp. Numerous mispaginations, including p. 410 misnumbered 394. Text in Greek. "Odyssey" has individual, dated t.p.. Modern tan quarter calf binding with marbled paper boards. Red leather title label to second compartment.. Binding - Nr Fine. Text block - VG+.. Printer's device to each t.p. Decorative initial capital letters.

      [Bookseller: Tavistock Books, ABAA ]
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        [Tetrabiblos]. Hoc in libro nunquam ante typis aeneis in lucem edita haec insunt. [Greek:] KLAUDIOU ptolemaiou plousieos tetrabiblos sotaxis, pros Syron adelfos. TOU AUTOU karpos, pros ton auton Syros. [Latin:] Claudii Ptolemaei Pelusiensis libri quatuor compositi Syro fratro. Eiusdem fructus librorum suorum, sive Centum dicta, ad eundem Syrum. Traductio in linguam Latinam librorum Ptolemaei duum priorum, & ex aliis praecipuorum aliquot locorum, Ioachimi Camerarii Pabergensis. Conuersio Centum dictorum Ptolemaei in Latinum Iouiani Pontani. Annotatiunculae eiusdem Ioachimi ad libros priores duos iudiciorum Ptol. Matthaei Guarimberti Parmensis opusculum de radiis & aspectibus planetarum. Aphorismi Astrologici Ludouici de Rigiis ad patriarcham Constantinopolitanum.

      Norimbergae [Nürnberg], (Apud Ioannem Petreium), 1535. 4to. Bound in a beautiful contemporary full blindstamped vellum binding over wooden boards. Boards with blindstamped borders with portraits of Marcus, Johannes, Mattheus, Lucas, inside which large square blindstamped centre-piece with floriated decorations and small portriats. Three raised bands to back. Brass clasps to boards partially preserved. A bit of overall wear and general use. Overall a very nice and tight copy. Internally very nice and clean with only a bit of occasional minor brownspotting and soiling. Two leaves with a spot to outer margin (looks like remain of wax or lacquer), far from affecting text. Last four leaves of Greek text with dampstaining. First leaf of Latin text with coloured initial and a couple of red and green underlinings. Woodcut initials. First ab. 10 leaves of text with neat contemporary annotations in Latin and Greek. (6),59, (4) ff. + 84, (24) ff. (The four leaves in between the Greek and the Latin text being the title page: "Librorum de Iudiciis Astrologicis quatuor, duo priores conuersi in linguam Latinam à Ioachimo Camerario Pabergense. Annotatiunculae in eosdem. Aliquot loci translati de tertio & quarto libro Ptolemaei, per eundem Camerarium.", two leaves of preface/dedication, dated 1535, one blank).. The very rare first Greek/Latin edition, i.e. the editio princeps of the Greek text and the first edition of Camerarius' seminal translation into Latin (directly from the Greek), of Ptolemy's famous textbook of astrology known under the name "Tetrabiblos" or "Quadripartitum", derived from its four books, the work which "ranks as the Bible of Astrology" (Stillwell) and which Ptolemy himself considered the natural complement to his "Almagest": "as the latter enables one to predict the positions of the heavenly bodies, so the former expounds the theory of their influences on terrestrial things." (D.S.B. XI:198). The present edition also contains the editio princeps of the Greek text of the "Karpos", or "Centiloquium" (because of its 100 aphorisms), erroneously attributed to Ptolemy, as well as Pontano's famous Latin version of it.The "Tetrabiblos" is considered one of, if not the, most important surviving ancient texts on astrology, and its impact and influence on this field has been immense. It was by far the most popular astrological work of Antiquity and it also greatly influenced the Islamic world, the Medieval Latin West, and the Renaissance. It was reprinted continuously for centuries, and its great popularity is often attributed to the fact that it is a textbook on the art of astrology itself and a "scientific" defense of it rather than a mere manual instructing lay people on how to practice the art. "Of Ptolemy's genuine works the most germane to and significant for our investigation is his "Tetrabiblos", "Quadripartium", or four books on the control of human life by the stars... In the "Tetrabiblos" the art of astrology receives sanction and exposition from perhaps the ablest mathematician and closest scientific observer of the day or at least from one who seemed so for succeeding generations. Hence from that time on astrology was able to take shelter from any criticism under the aegis of his authority..." (Thorndike I:111).As opposed to the "Karpos", almost all research points to the fact that the "Tetrabiblon" must genuinely be by Ptolemy, and as such, it is to be considered of the greatest importance, not only to astrology, the history and impact of the science, but also to astronomy and to the understanding of the man who wrote one of the most important astronomical works of all times. In the "Tetrabiblos" Ptolemy first discusses the validity of the art of judicial astrology, and the introductory chapters are devoted to defending astrology against charges that it is uncertain and useless. According to Ptolemy, the laws of astronomy are beyond dispute, but the art of predicting human affairs from the movement of the stars should be attacked using more reason than that, and his main argument is that one should not reject the art itself merely because it can be abused, and frequently is, by impostors, or because it is an art not yet fully developed and may be difficult to handle properly. In book I Ptolemy goes on to explain the technical concepts of astrology, in book II, the influences on the earth in general, and in books II and IV, the influences on human life. "Although often dependent on earlier authorities, Ptolemy often develops his own dogma. The discussion in books III and IV is confined to what can be deduced from a man's horoscope..." (D.S.B. XI:198). "The great influence of the "Tetrabiblos" is shown not only in medieval Arabic commentaries and Latin translations, but more immediately in the astrological writings of the declining Roman Empire, when such astrologers as Hephaestion of Thebes, Paul of Alexandria, and Julius Firmicus Maternus cite it as a leading authoritative work. Only the opponents of astrology appear to have remained ignorant of the "Tetrabiblos", continuing to make criticisms of the art which do not apply to Ptolemy's presentation of it or which had been specifically answered by him." (Thorndike I: 115-16).Camerarius's translation of the "Tetrabiblon", here printed for the first time, is probably the most important and influential of the many Latin versions of the text. It is considered the best, most widely used, and most important for the spreading of Ptolemaean astrology in the Renaissance, where this came to play a great role at the universities and beyond. "Melanchton never doubted the scientific accuracy of astrology. For instance, in 1535 Joachim Camerarius' edition of Ptolemy's "Tetrabiblos" was warmly received by Melanchton; in the same year he began lecturing on Ptolemy's work at Wittenberg and stressed the scientific character of the work in his opening address. And in the following year he commented on the second book, beginning with an exhortation to appreciate the philosophical arguments of the first book..." (Stefano Caroti in: Paolo Zambelli edt., "Astrologi hallucinati" Stars and the End of the World in Luther's Time, 1986, p. 113).It is widely accepted that it is the present first Greek/Latin-edition, i.e. the editio princeps of the Greek text together with Camerarius' Latin version of it, that has played the most dominant role in the spreading and interpreting of Ptolemy's astrology in the Renaissance. Astrology, as derived from Classical Antiquity, with Ptolemy as the greatest exponent of them all, came to play a seminal role in Renaissance understanding of both exact sciences and philosophy, and thus this period witnessed a huge number of discussions and interpretations of astrology in general, but of the astrology of Ptolemy's "Tetrabiblion" in particular. Many of the main proponents of Ptolemy's astrology in the Renaissance are known specifically to have owned or read the present Greek/Latin edition and refer to Camerarius' Latin version and to the original Greek text which had now become available for the first time

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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