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Autograph manuscript on paper entitled "Reise vom Niederrhein nach Siberien 1. Band" and "Reise vom Rhein zum Tobol 2. Theil" ("Journey from the Lower Rhine Region to Siberia" and "Journey from the Rhine to Tobol"). Written in German, black & brown ink on different papers, with additional notes and emendations by Eversmann. Two vols. of text in large 4to (350 x 240 mm.) & one volume of illustrations in oblong folio (320 x 520) with approximately 150 fine hand-colored drawings
[Zlatoust, Russia and other places: ca. 1811-13].A remarkable discovery: the unpublished manuscript by Friedrich August Alexander Eversmann (1759-1837), the famous Prussian technologist, describing his journey from Germany to Russia in 1810 during which he studied the nascent industries (mining and iron, steel, copper, glass production, metal working, textiles, chemicals, paper, etc.) of both countries. Eversmann describes this journal as a "technological journey" and provides extensive details and accounts of the mining and iron industries at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The manuscript was obviously intended to be published, which was never realized. Eversmann has added a few notes and additions to the manuscript at a slightly later date. Essentially unstudied, the manuscript has remained in private ownership, with access restricted to a few academics. The greater part of the manuscript has been recently transcribed (the transcription accompanies the manuscript). In fine condition.The Author: Eversmann was an important Prussian government adviser, technologist, and specialist in mining and metallurgy. As an economist, he was active in the promotion of mining and trade, especially in Westphalia and Silesia. He was the protégé of the influential Prussian minister and economist Friedrich Anton von Heynitz (1725-1802), the great reformer of Prussian industry and mining and the founder of the oldest university of mining and metallurgy, the Bergakademie at Freiberg. Eversmann accompanied von Heynitz on his inspection trips to manufacturers, factories, and mining works in various regions of Prussia and gained first-hand knowledge of technical and mechanical problems. He also developed his ability to draw and learned how to capture the results of his observations in sketches and drawings (Breil, 13). In 1781, Eversmann was appointed Bergkommissar.At the recommendation of von Heynitz, Eversmann traveled in 1783-84 through the industrial areas of Britain (London, Cornwall, Anglesea, Dublin, Donaghadee, Liverpool, York, Northumberland, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Newcastle, Durham, Birmingham, Derby) to study the mining industry, iron and steel factories, and, especially, the newly invented steam engine and its uses in mining. Eversmann was later accused by Matthew Boulton of industrial spying (for which he was certainly guilty!).Following his return, he was sent to Silesia to improve the iron industry there following the English models. In 1786 Eversmann was responsible for obtaining a steam engine from England built by Homfrey for the coal mine in Tarnowitz, Silesia. This machine, based on the design of James Watt, was the first steam engine in Prussia.Life changed for Eversmann during the Napoleonic wars in Germany: in 1809, he was dismissed from his posts as politically unreliable. He emigrated to Russia, where he first directed mining and metallurgical companies in the Ural region and in 1812 oversaw the design and construction of a gun factory for the Tsar. In 1818 he retired and in 1819 returned to Prussia. Eversmann wrote several noteworthy books on technology and frequently published articles in German mining journals.Eversmann in Russia: As mentioned above, Eversmann was dismissed from his posts in Prussia and sought his fortune in Russia, arriving there in 1810. A German entrepreneur, Hans Peter Andreas Knauf, known in Russia as Andrey Andreevich Knauf (1765-1835), had offered Eversmann the position of a director of his industrial enterprises in the Ural region. Knauf had played a significant role in the development of the mining and iron foundry industries in the Urals, introducing new technologies, including the steam engine.En route to Russia, Eversmann made a scientific tour visiting the mining area of the Harzregion which is described in the first manuscript volume: technical companies and mining methods are described in the Oberharz region, Lauterberg, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Oker (Goslar), and many other mining towns. The greater part of Vol. I of the manuscript contains observations which Eversmann made while visiting metalwork companies in Iserlohn and Altena, silver mines and vitriol companies in Siegen and Marburg, and glass factories in Schornborn and Grünplan. He describes the mining and foundry industries and the steel industry in Salzgitter, Braunschweig and Goslar; the brass ware plants in Uslar; and the copper producing companies in Altenau. Very detailed descriptions of the products and there prices are given, along with details of the production process often in comparison to other companies and countries. The machines and blast furnaces are described in detail and their advantages over machines in other regions or countries are also outlined. All the major companies working with metal, steel or copper are visited and described on his route.There are also 92 leaves loosely inserted, all in the hand of Eversmann, copying texts from journals or scientists like the German mineralogist Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann (1782-1859) who was then general inspector of mines for Westphalia and professor of technology and mining at Göttingen University. Three essays on roasting ores are by him and two on similar mining procedures are by Augustin Gottfried Ludwig Lentin (1764-1823) who was a lecturer at the University of Göttingen and subsequently inspector of saltworks. He is known to have made experiments on the roasting and smelting of ores at Rammelsberg in a large furnace, which is also described.Traveling on to Halle & Berlin, where he visited steel companies, porcelain and brass ware manufacturers, Eversmann describes the trades and architecture of the capital. Proceeding on to Neustadt-Eberswalde, he visited brass ware companies and brick factories. He then travels to Danzig, Königsberg, and from page 300 describes the agriculture and factories in Russia, including steel and copper manufacturers in Riga, other companies and factories in Dorpat, and then finally St. Petersburg and Moscow.In the late autumn of 1810 he reached Zlatoust, the famous ironworks town founded in 1754. Eversmann soon learned that Knauf had gone bankrupt and the state had taken over the company. Eversmann was commissioned by the Russian government to visit the state's factories in the Ural region to explore the location of a proposed sword factory. In 1813 he became employed by the Russian state and supervised the design and construction of the famous "factory for cold weapons" (the above-mentioned gun factory) in Zlatoust. In 1813 and 1814, he recruited specialists in Wuppertal and Solingen and brought 115 workmen with him to Russia for the planned factory, which began operations under his direction in 1816.The second volume of the manuscript is a vividly-detailed description of the earliest stages of Russia's industrialization, written by one deeply involved in that transformation. The first 44 pages describe his trip from Moscow to Zlatoust. In addition to the factories in and around Zlatoust, a number of others are described, such as in Troitsk, in and around Ekaterinburg, Ishevsk, the vicinity of St. Petersburg, etc. Eversmann describes in the journal chiefly the iron and copper manufactures, including the blast furnaces, wind furnaces, the cupola furnace, the raw steel smithy, the tin plate manufacture, special iron fixtures, cannon and ammunition foundries, steam engines, etc. He also provides many observations about all aspects of Russian life. He describes the city of Moscow and a factory for the production of vitriol and ammonia, as well as a textile house, a gun-powder firm, and a paper factory (adding a list of the varieties and prices of the paper). Outside of Moscow, he visited a hat producing company, inspected and described the blast furnaces, and recommended the "Windofen-Betrieb," a special open furnace.Eversmann also gives descriptions of the other stages of his journey to Zlatoust. Eversmann describes the steel making factory at Simsk in detail, the wire factory in Wiksunsk, the scythe fabricator in Bataschow, a lead company in Wixa, and from pages 45 on, of course, the industrial activities at Zlatoust (the "Schwarzblech-Fabrikation" for the use of metal roofers; fabrication of iron rail, a canon foundry, gold mining, other sorts of mining and refining, rifle fabrication, etc.). He also describes the geology of Zlatoust in a very detailed way, and the organization of the iron plant and all its different companies and production spaces, many kinds of furnaces and metallurgical machinery (described are "Hohen-Offen" (furnace), "Kupfer-Ofen" (copper furnace), "Frisch-Feuer," "Walzen für Bleche und Bändern," "Kanonenbohrmühle," "Eisen-Drechsel-Anstalt," and "Stahl-Reckhammer" (sledges). He also describes his travels north to Perm and south to Orenburg to study the steel industry on behalf of the tsar.The main power source is water: from a dam with a sluice, which has three openings, the water is forced onto the wheels at high pressure. For a variety water wheels, he gives details of construction and uses of the power (illustrated). He also describes the Ural mountains, especially between Polikowsky and Ekaterinburg.Eversmann offers much information about what the workers eat, drink, how they store things, their working day, and how they (mis)spend their leisure time.Zlatoust was mainly an iron manufacturing town, but copper was beginning to be produced as well. In a copper pit, a steam engine, which a Russian had designed, was used to pump the water. Zlatoust consisted of the following production facilities: two blast furnaces, two reverberation furnaces, four copper furnaces of various designs, various steel furnaces, a drill mill, a steel fire engine, a Breithammer, vices, winches, tongs, nails, iron crates, utensils, a sawmill, and a grinding mill. Eversmann describes the individual steps of production methods in great detail and has provided drawings.This journal contains an abundance of observations and experiences, especially in conjunction with the finely drawn illustrations, and is an invaluable source for the history of industry, especially Russia. The volume of drawings provides descriptions of the country and its inhabitants as well as the situation of foreign specialists and reflections on the development of industry in Russia. The drawings range from simple drawings of small format (from approx. 130 x 210 mm.) to finely executed pencil drawings with wash watercolor, mostly of technical procedures and details. Particularly noteworthy are some maps, such a map of the Urals labelled in Russian and German "in relation to the Sawoden of the Lord Andreas Knauff" (approx. 640 x 810 mm.), a map of the "Uralische Sawoden" (the steel factories of the Sawoden, about 1080 x 920 mm.). There is as well a Russian map of the city of Troizk with a map of the surrounding area.Eversmann obviously intended to publish a book about his experiences in Russia and the industrial areas he had visited. The present manuscript offered here has never been edited or published and has always been in private hands, restricted to a very few academic researchers (and they had limited access as well).Physical description: Vol. I: "Reise vom Niederrhein nach Siberien 1. Band" (title on spine). 239 leaves (erratically numbered) leaves and 92 leaves, loosely inserted, with 12 separately titled essays by Hausmann, Lentin and others, and 71 partly hand-colored drawings (apparently a few drawings removed). Large 4to (345 x 220 mm. & some leaves smaller), cont. calf (spine restored).Vol. II: "Reise vom Rhein zum Tobol 2. Theil" (title on spine). 340 leaves & 16 leaves loosely inserted. Large 4to (350 x 230 mm. & some leaves smaller), cont. half-calf (spine restored).Atlas: this contains the drawings to Vol. II. There are 89 fine drawings & maps, etc. ranging from 130 x 210 mm. to 1090 x 750 mm. Large oblong folio (310 x 480 mm.), cont. half-calf (some repairs to binding).Provenance: Rudolf Wilhelm Eversmann (Freifrau von Eyb; 1977).Literature: H. Breil, Friedrich August Eversmann und die industriell-technologische Entwicklung vornehmlichin Preußen von 1780 bis zum Ausgang der napoleonischen Ära. Dissertation… (Hamburg: 1977), pp. 424-38. N.D.B., IV, pp. 692ff. (Eversmann). N.D.B., XII, pp. 161 (Knauff). Andreas Keller in: Quaestio Rossica (2013), pp. 144-59 und (2014), 206-18 (on Knauf).
      [Bookseller: Jonathan A. Hill, Bookseller, Inc. ]
Last Found On: 2017-06-09           Check availability:      ABAA    


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