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Vergleichende Untersuchung über die Haut des Menschen und der Haus-Säugethiere, besonders in Beziehung auf die Absonderungs-Organe des Haut-Talges und des Schweisses (pp.399-418, 2 Taf.).
Arch. Anat. Phys., 1835.- Berlin, Verlag G.Eichler, 1835, 8, VI, 617, (1) pp., 14 Tafeln, Pappband d.Zt minimal fleckig. First Edition!"It did not take long before Breschet s findings and pictures of the structures inside the skin were picked up by microanatomists working on skin in German settings. In 1835 Ernst Friedrich Gurlt (1794-1882) published a paper on comparative research of the human skin and the skin of pet animals in the Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschafiliche Mediän. Gurlt specialised in the anatomy and physiology of domesticated mammals (Haussäugethiere) and was especially interested in the excretion of sebum and sweat by the skin. He argued that only after the latest developments in anatomy and physiology had Breschet and de Vauzeme finally proven the true existence of the 'sweat glands'. He dismissed all the work before the studies of Breschet:"Die Haut des Menschen (...) ist zwar schon von den altern Anatomen vielfältig untersucht worden, aber in Beziehung auf die Absonderungsorgane des Haut-Talges und des Schweisses nur mit wenig Glück. Bald nahm man Bälge, oder Drüsen für die Absonderung des Haut-Talges (der Hautschmiere) an, bald läugnete man ihr Dasein eben so verhielt es sich mit den sogenannten Hautporen oder Schweisslöchern, die man als bestehend voraussetzte, ohne sie wirklich nachgewiesen zu haben, oder ohne Grund wegläugnete. Erst in der jüngsten Zeit ist es gelungen, über diesen Gegenstand wie über so viele andere in der Anatomie und Physiologie, mehr Licht zu verbreiten."As in Breschet's work, pictures played a pivotal role in Gurlt's argument. A total of 11 figures on two separate copper engraved plates accompanied the text. In the plates Gurlt depicted and compared cross-sections of human, horse, cow, dog, swine and sheep skin. Apart from referring to his own pictures, Gurlt repeatedly mentioned Breschet's illustrations of the structures responsible for the excretion of sweat." When discussing the sweat glands, for example, Gurlt compared his own findings with Breschet's illustrations. He commented on the size, form and position of the sweat glands as they appeared in Breschet's figures." He further argued that Breschet and his colleague did not properly explain the typical structure of the little balls in the sweat glands and that this structure was not well indicated in their illustrations. Taking the schematic compositions of the internal structure of the skin by Breschet as a starting point, Gurlt further articulated and redefined the specifics of the sweat glands in his article and engravings. Gurlt thereby continued the schematic way of visualising the inner structures of human (and animal) skin.The article by Gurlt signified a shift to a vocabulary and visual articulation of sweat glands replacing the dominance of skin pores and sweat channels. In a discussion of the physiology of the skin in a German handbook in 1844 the physiologist Krause called Gurlt s images "the first faithful depictions of the actual glands"." Remarkably enough Krause dismissed the work of Breschet and de Vouzeme because of its many errors. The microscopical picture by Gurlt now represented the model image of the sweat glands. Gurlt's figure of the human sweat glands had already been directly copied by Rudolph Wagner in 1839 in his physiological plates (figure 3.7). Eventually, Gurlt's figure served as a template in the standardisation of a microscopical depiction of the sweat glands of the skin. Microscopical research had therefore articulated a new symbolic scheme of the anatomical composition of skin." Mieneke Mathilde Geertruida te Hennepe : DEPICTING SKIN. Visual culture in nineteenth-century medicine.PROEFSCHRIFT (Maastricht 2007)Further we find in this installment the first description of the nucleous :Wagner, Rudolph: Einige Bemerkungen und Fragen über die Keimbläschen (vesicula germinativa) (pp.373-377, 1 Taf. mit 7 Abb.)."The nucleolus, which had been recorded by no observer since Fontana, was now discovered by Wagner (1835) in the oocytes of various animals (Ovis (Fig. 2 on Tab. VIII), Salmo, Phalangium, Anodonta, Unio). He called it the Keimfleck or macula germinativa. The recognition of the nucleolus was important, because it helped in the identification of nuclei." Baker, The Cell-Theory: a Restartement, History and Critique, p.100"Wagner saw and described the nucleolus"."Rudolph Wagner (1805-1864) conducted research in a number areas. His most important work concerned mammalian ova and sperm. Purkyne had already in 1825, discovered the nucleus in the avian egg, while K.E.Bear had discovered the mammaalian ovum (1827), and J.V.Coste had identified its nucleus (1833). It remainded for Wagner to discover (1835) an important formation in the ovum of several species of mammals, which he called the macula germinativa - later known as the nucleolus."Vladislav Kruta, DSB 14, p.113f.Garrison & Morton No. 109.1
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