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Broken Symmetries, Massless Particles and Gauge Fields" in Physics Letters, Volume 12, 1964 pp. 132-133
- FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF HIGGS' INTRODUCTION OF SPONTANEOUS BREAKING OF GAUGE SYMMETRY INTO MODERN PHYSICS. Appearing in the same year and immediately preceding the seminal Higgs' paper similarly titled "Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons" (Phy. Rev. Lett. Vol 13. p. 508), the paper offered here is often referred to as the first of the Higgs' two 1964 papers. The second of the 1964 papers proposed a mass-creating mechanism involving a massive spin -1 particle - in other words, the Higgs boson. Prior to the invention of the Higgs mechanism, it was not known how to formulate a consistent relativistic field theory with a local symmetry which could contain both massless and massive force carriers. While the paper offered here is not of the same seminal stature as is the second 1964 paper, it is considered "important" and without question, a necessary precursor to the second. Writing in Harvest of the Century, the physicist Siegmund Brandt put it this way: "Within a few weeks Higgs wrote two important papers. The first, published in Physics Letters [the one offered here], shows that the massless scalar boson does not necessarily appear. It ends announcing a subsequent note which was to contain a more specific application. That note, however was rejected by the same journal [Physics Letters]. Higgs realized that [his] paper 'had been short of sales talk. He added two paragraphs on strong interactions in which the spin -1 bosons are vector mesons, and sent the [second] paper to Physical Review Letters [a different journal] who published it. "In 1962, Goldstone's theorem had shown that spontaneous breaking of symmetry in a relativistic field theory results in massless spin-zero bosons, which are excluded experimentally" (University of Edinburgh Portal). Higgs has "stated that there was no 'eureka moment' in the development of the theory" (Wikipedia). Instead, he noticed there was a loophole in Goldstone's theorem -- specifically, "that massless Goldstone particles need not occur when local symmetry is spontaneously broken in a relativistic theory" (ibid). Once he found the loophole, Higgs knew to exploit and as a result, wrote the first of the 1964 papers, this paper, and published it in Physics Letters. Received by the journal in July of 1964 and published in September, Higgs' paper "showed that Goldstone bosons need not occur when a local symmetry is spontaneously broken in a relativistic theory. Instead, the Goldstone mode provides the third polarization of a massive vector field. The other mode of the original scalar doublet remains as a massive spin-zero particle - the Higgs boson. " (Univ. of Edin. Portal). "The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics. It is the quantum excitation of the Higgs field, a fundamental field of crucial importance to particle physics theory first suspected to exist in the 1960s. Unlike other known fields such as the electromagnetic field, it takes a non-zero constant value almost everywhere" (Wikipedia). The question of the Higgs field's existence was, to many, the central problem in particle physics -- the last unverified part of the Standard Model of particle physics. "The Higgs boson was finally discovered in 2012 when two teams working independently of one another at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN both announced the discovery on July 4, 2012. As a result of their proposal of the Higgs mechanism, Peter Higgs and Fran├žois Englert were jointly awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics" (Wenner). CONDITION & DETAILS: Volume 12, complete. 8vo [9.5 x 7.5 inches]. 1964. Handsomely and tightly bound in modern black cloth, gilt-lettered at the spine. Ink note on the rear of the title page, otherwise bright and clean throughout. Near fine.
      [Bookseller: Atticus Rare Books]
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