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LAWRENCE, E. O., LIVINGSTON, M. S., WHITE, M. G., HENDERSON, M. C., BAINBRIDGE, K. T.
LAWRENCE & LIVINGSTON. The production of high-speed protons without the use of high voltages, p. 834 in Physical Review Vol. 38, No. 4, August 15, 1931; LAWRENCE & LIVINGSTON. The production of high speed light ions without the use of high voltages, in Physical Review Vol. 40, No. 1, April 1, 1932; LAWRENCE, LIVINGSTON & WHITE. Disintegration of Lithium by swiftly moving protons, pp. 150-1 in Physical Review Vol. 42, No. 1, October 1, 1932; HENDERSON. The disintegration of lithium by protons of high energy, in Physical Review Vol. 43, No. 2, January 15, 1933; LIVINGSTON & LAWRENCE. The disintegration of aluminium by swiflty moving protons, in Physical Review Vol. 43, No. 5, March 1, 1933. CYCLOTRON - SPLITTING THE ATOM: NOBEL PRIZE 1939
Lancaster, PA & New York, NY: American Physical Society, 1901. First editions, journal issues in original printed wrappers, of these papers which document the first use of the cyclotron and its use to 'split the atom', the first artificially-indiced transmutation of one element into another. The first paper briefly describes the first successful trial of a cyclotron; a more comprehensive description was published in the second paper. The third paper describes the use of the cyclotron to 'split the atom', i.e., split the nucleus of an atom (lithium) by bombarding it with protons. Lawrence and his research group at Berkeley were the first group in America to achieve this, following by a few weeks the successful experiments of Cockcroft and Walton at Cambridge, England. Henderson, a member of Lawrence's research group at Berkeley, continued the work of Cockcroft & Walton and of Lawrence, Livingston and White. He was able to use higher energy protons than in the earlier experiments, and concluded that the probability of disintegration of the individual lithium nucleus is independent of the energy of the proton above 400 keV. The last paper reports the success of Lawrence's team in splitting the nucleus of aluminium atoms. "A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerate outwards from the center along a spiral path. The particles are held to a spiral trajectory by a static magnetic field and accelerated by a rapidly varying (radio frequency) electric field . . . For several decades, cyclotrons were the best source of high-energy beams for nucl … [Click Below for Full Description]
Bookseller: Landmarks of Science Books [Richmond, United Kingdom]
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