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2020-12-19 13:37:19
Die Thermodynamik chemischer Vörgange. Offprint from: Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1882. [With:] Zur Thermodynamik chemischer Vörgange. Zweiter Beitrag. Offprint from: ibid., 27 July 1882. [With:] Zur Thermodynamik chemischer Vörgange. Dritter Beitrag. Offprint from: ibid., 31 May, 1883.
Berlin: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1882-1883. First edition. A FOUNDING WORK OF CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS. First edition, extremely rare author's presentation offprints, inscribed by Helmholtz to his son, of all three parts of one of the founding paper of chemical thermodynamics, along with Josiah Willard Gibbs's 1876 paper 'On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances.' In these papers, Helmholtz introduced the concept of 'free energy' and proved the 'Gibbs-Helmholtz equation' which he used to demonstrate that free energy - not heat production - was the driver of spontaneous change in isothermal chemical reactions, thereby overthrowing the previously accepted 'Thomsen-Berthelot principle.' Although Gibbs introduced similar ideas, he did not state the equation explicitly, nor did he explore its chemical significance. "Helmholtz's research in physical chemistry culminated in his 1882 memoir, 'Die Thermodynamik chemischer Vörgange.' Thermochemistry, especially that of Thomsen and Berthelot, assumed that the heat evolved in reactions is a direct measure of the chemical affinities at work. The occurrence of spontaneous, endothermic reactions had always presented an anomaly in this tradition, for such reactions seemed to act against the forces of chemical affinity. In 1882 Helmholtz distinguished between 'bound' and 'free' energy in reactions. The former is the portion of the total energy which, in accordance with the entropy principle, is obtainable only as heat; the latter is that which can be freely converted to other forms of energy. From Clausius's equations Helmholtz der … [Click Below for Full Description]
Bookseller: SOPHIA RARE BOOKS [Denmark]

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