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2016-10-15 23:43:37
Higgs, P. W. [Peter]
Broken Symmetries, Massless Particles and Gauge Fields" in Physics Letters, Volume 12, 1964 pp. 132-133
FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF HIGGS' INTRODUCTION OF SPONTANEOUS BREAKING OF GAUGE SYMMETRY INTO MODERN PHYSICS. Appearing in the same year and immediately preceding the seminal Higgs' paper similarly titled "Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons" (Phy. Rev. Lett. Vol 13. p. 508), the paper offered here is often referred to as the first of the Higgs' two 1964 papers. The second of the 1964 papers proposed a mass-creating mechanism involving a massive spin -1 particle - in other words, the Higgs boson. Prior to the invention of the Higgs mechanism, it was not known how to formulate a consistent relativistic field theory with a local symmetry which could contain both massless and massive force carriers. While the paper offered here is not of the same seminal stature as is the second 1964 paper, it is considered "important" and without question, a necessary precursor to the second. Writing in Harvest of the Century, the physicist Siegmund Brandt put it this way: "Within a few weeks Higgs wrote two important papers. The first, published in Physics Letters [the one offered here], shows that the massless scalar boson does not necessarily appear. It ends announcing a subsequent note which was to contain a more specific application. That note, however was rejected by the same journal [Physics Letters]. Higgs realized that [his] paper 'had been short of sales talk. He added two paragraphs on strong interactions in which the spin -1 bosons are vector mesons, and sent the [second] paper to Physical Review Letters [a different journal] who published it. "In 1962, … [Click Below for Full Description]
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