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        Autograph Letter, signed, to an unnamed recipient

      [Paris], "mercredi" [21 july, 1869]. 8vo. 1 p., on sheet of blue-tinted stationery. Minor soiling and foxing, etc., creased at folds, very good . This seemingly inconsequential note was written at a time of intense mourning; for on the preceding day, Flaubert had to bury perhaps the most important friend in his life, the poet Louis-Hyacinthe Bouilhet. On the precding Sunday, July 18, 1869, three days before this was written, Bouilhet died in Rouen. Bouilhet was Flaubert's most trusted critic, his "literary mid-wife" and his frequent collaborator, whose judgement Flaubert held in the highest esteem. All of Flaubert's major works until that time - including Madame Bovary - had been written under the watchful eye of Bouilhet. In fact, it was Bouilhet who suggested to Flaubert the very subject of Madame Bovary, and consulted with him regularly throughout its progress. "Boulhet, who had studied medicine under Flaubert's father, proposed the local and recent case of another former student. In 1848 - the second wife of a Dr. Delamare, after a series of adulteries and extravagances, had poisoned herself and precipitated her husband's suicide, leaving an orphan daughter. Flaubet acknowledged this suggestion, and the years of crucial midwifery that supported it, when he dedicated Madame Bovary to Bouilhet." (Harry Levin, "Madame Bovary: The Cathedral and the Hospital", 1952). Bouilhet was Flaubert's greatest literary friend, and Flaubert never stopped mourning his death. It was Flaubert, who, along with their friend Caudron, took charge of the funeral details in their native Rouen, and who buried Bouilhet there on Tuesday, July 20, in a ceremony attended by over 2,000. Flaubert did not even dare look into the casket. In a letter of Thursday, the 22nd, he wrote to another friend: "I say to myself, 'Why write now, since he is no longer there?'" In this hastily scribbled note to an intimate, written on the day after the funeral, possibly to Louise Colet, or Maxime du Camp - Flaubert, in a state of numb shock, seems to be making monetary arrangements, as well as gathering his deceased friend's manuscripts. It was Flaubert who arranged for the posthumous publication of Bouilhet's poems, for which he wrote the Introduction - hence the reference to the "cahiers" in the following note: "J'ai empochE hier à l'Odeon 400 fr. pr. toi. / [Alfred] Guerard* m'a renvoyE les cahiers. Je serai à Croisset** vendredi soir / J'arriverais à Rouen par l'express du soir. / Ma premiËre course à Rouen qui aura lieu lundi au mardi sera pr. (?) porter cet argent à [Pascal-DEsirEe] Caudron***. / Je t'embrasse / Gustave Flaubert / Mercredi [21 July 1869]" *a faithful friend of Bouilhet's from Rouen ** Village just outside of Rouen, where Flaubert grew up *** Another mutual friend from Rouen, Caudron was in charge of finding a burial plot for Bouilhet - he was buried next to Flaubert's father

      [Bookseller: James Cummins Bookseller]
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        FIVE WEEKS IN A BALLOON

      1869. hardcover. <center><b>the first edition in English of Verne&#39;s first book</b></center> [Verne, Jules.] FIVE WEEKS IN A BALLOON; or, Journeys and Discoveries in Africa by Three Englishmen. Compiled in French by Jules Verne, from the Original Notes of Dr. Ferguson; and done into English by "William Lackland." New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1869. 12 pp undated ads. Original brown cloth pictorially decorated in gilt. <p>First American Edition (and first edition in the English language) of Jules Verne&#39;s first book. Per the "Publisher&#39;s Note,"</p> <p><?ms_indent>FIVE WEEKS IN A BALLOON is, in a measure, a satire on English books on African travel. So far as the geography, the inhabitants, the animals, and the features of the countries the travellers pass over, it is entirely accurate... The mode of locomotion is, of course, purely imaginary, and the incidents and adventures fictitious. The latter are abundantly amusing, and, in view of the wonderful "travellers&#39; tales" with which we have been entertained by African explorers, they can scarcely be considered extravagant...</?ms_indent></p> <p>CINQ SEMAINES EN BALLON had been published in French in 1863, and then this Appleton edition was published in March 1869 (they promoted it just prior to publication as FOUR WEEKS IN A BALLOON); Chapman & Hall&#39;s British edition -- which is virtually impossible to find -- did not come out for another year, by June 1870. No other Verne title was published in America until 1873 -- when both JOURNEY TO THE CENTRE OF THE EARTH and TWENTY THOUSAND LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS appeared.</p> <p>This copy is in medium-brown sand-grain cloth (we have also had green pebble grain cloth and orange-brown pebble-grain cloth). It is in very good condition (spine faded, as usual with this color, but there is little wear other than a few nicks in the spine ends; the original yellow endpapers are clean and intact, and there is no foxing on the leaves within). Taves & Michaluk V001; Myers 20.</p> AUTHORS&#39; FIRST BOOKS, FANTASY / SCIENCE FICTION / SUPERNATURAL (Sumner & Stillman Code:8287)

      [Bookseller: Sumner & Stillman]
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        Egenhændigt brev m. underskrift til "Fröken Daugaard!". Dat. Kjøbenhavn den 22 Jan/ 1869." Original handwritten and signed letter for "Fröken Daugaard!" ("Miss Daugaard!).

      Dated "Kjøbenhavn (Copenhagen) den 22 Jan./ 1869." 2 1/2 side 8vo.Grundet papirkvaliteten brunplettet.H.C.A. takker digterinden Christine Daugaard for "den Tillid at/ sende mig nogle Digte af et ungt/ Menneske." Den unge mand var ansat hos C.Daugaards fader, som var præst, og H.C.A. er blevet bedt om at vurdere hans poetiske evner. Det fremgår, at H.C.A. i almindelighed ikke bryder sig om at udtale sig for meget om denne slags sager, "Da indsees til=/ =visse, Fröken Daugaard, hvor u=/ =mueligt det er at sige." For "naar man er ung, har følelse, nogen Begavelse og en sand Læsning, da/ kan man i vor Tid bringe/ ganske smukke Vers paa Papiret." "Der gaaer/ næppe en Uge uden at jeg/ modtager Breve fra unge Folk,/ som alle "ønsker at gaae Digt=/ =ningens Vei" som den unge Mand i Brevet til Dem har/ udtrykt sig." Trods sin tilbageholdende og ikke umiddelbart særligt imødekommende indstilling til disse unge digterspirer, kan H.C.A. med glæde meddele, at han har læst næsten alle de tilsendte digte med stor fornøjelse. Især et digt, "Danmark", tiltaler forfatteren, "det er følt, det er friskt og selv/ i Udtrykkene er noget ejendommeligt." Han slutter med at ønske den unge mand den bedste fremgang.2 1/2 pp. 8vo. Due to paper-quality brownspotted. H.C.A. thanks the 38-year old poet, Christine Daugaard, for (following quotations are in own translation) "the confidence <you show me by> sending me some poems by a young/ person." ("den Tillid at/ sende mig nogle Digte af et ungt/ Menneske.") H.C.A. has been asked to evaluate the poetic abilities of the young man, who is employed by Christine Daugaard's father, a well known priest. It is evident from the letter that Hans Christian Andersen usually does not like to say too much in cases like this. "Certainly it is understood, Miss Daugaard, how im-/ possible it is to say." ("Da indsees til=/ =visse, Fröken Daugaard, hvor u=/ =mueligt det er at sige.") Because "When you are young, emotional, in some way talented and well read, then/ in our time it is possible to bring/ fairly pretty poems into writing." "Barely/ a week goes by, in which/ I do not receive letters from young folk,/ who all "wish to become/ a poet" like the young man has expressed himself in his letter to you." ("naar man er ung, har følelse, nogen Begavelse og en sand Læsning, da/ kan man i vor Tid bringe/ ganske smukke Vers paa Papiret." "Der gaaer/ næppe en Uge uden at jeg/ modtager Breve fra unge Folk,/ som alle "ønsker at gaae Digt=/ =ningens Vei" som den unge Mand i Brevet til Dem har/ udtrykt sig.") In spite of his reserved and not very enthusiastic approach to these young writers-to-be, H.C.A. can gladly inform that he has read nearly all the poems with great joy. Especially one poem, "Denmark", appeals to him, "it is <inspired by> feeling, it is lively and even/ in the expressions it has something characteristic." ("det er følt, det er friskt og selv/ i Udtrykkene er noget ejendommeligt.") He ends the letter by wishing the young man great advance.. Interessant brev, der både siger noget om H.C.A.s status blandt almindelige mennesker i samtiden, hans påvirkning af ungdommen, hans liv som offentlig person og nok mest interessant om hans eget syn på både sin egen digteriske virksomhed og de unge fremtidige digtere. Det er interessant at se H.C.A. som litteraturkritiker og dermed forstå, hvad han selv anser for værdifuldt, hvad angår poetiske frembringelser. This is a very interesting letter that not only reveals something about the status of H.C.A. among "ordinary" people at the time, his influence on the young generation, as well as his life as a public persona, but which also tells us about his view on his own poetry and that of the young generation. It is interesting and unusual to see H.C.A. as a literary critic and thereby to understand what he appreciates and recognizes as valuable when it comes to poetic production.Christine Daugaard was one of the few Danish female poets at the time of H.C.A. She was a quiet spinster, whose poetry possessed much elegance, sincerity and correctness

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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        Autograph Letter, signed ("J. A. Garfield"), as Congressman from Ohio, to Ezra Booth Taylor of Warren, Ohio, acknowledging the receipt of $500

      Washington. D.C 21 november 1869 Washington. D.C, 21 november 1869. 4to. 1 p., in ink, on letterhead of the House of Representatives. Fine . Ezra B. Taylor, a Republican lawyer and judge from Garfield's home state of Ohio, was elected Republican Representative to the 46th Congress to fill the vacancy created by Garfield's resignation to seek the Presidency. Taylor served several terms in Congress thereafter. In this letter to Taylor, Garfield writes, "Your favor of the 18th, inclosing a draft - for Five Hundred Dollars, is just received and I have endorsed the amount on your note. It comes just in time to aid me in a hard pinch - I have obtained a loan which will tide me over for the present -" Garfield pens an intriguing postscript: "I think it was right that the P.M. at Ravenna [Ohio] should be allowed a check line - & am glad to have been able to secure the allowance for E.T.E"

      [Bookseller: James Cummins Bookseller ]
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        An important collection of twenty five original etchings, including works from two separate series and three proofs-before-letters of Lalanne's 'Passage de la Seine par le Genl. Read pendant la guerre de 1870'

      Paris: Cadart & Luce, 1869[-1871]. Folio. (18 x 12 3/4 inches and smaller). 25 etched plates (comprising 12 plates on india paper mounted from the '12 Croquis à l'eau-forte' series; 10 [of 12] plates on from the 'Souvenirs Artistiques du Siège de Paris 1870-1871' series; and three proof-before-letters examples of the 'Passage de la Seine' plate [one on india paper mounted]). The collection unbound as issued within recent dark green morocco-backed cloth box, the '12 Croquis' series with original light blue paper wrappers, the upper cover with etched title block and artist's manuscript presentation inscription, contained within original green cloth-backed paper-covered boards, titled in gilt on upper cover, cloth ties. The John Meredith Read collection of Lalanne etchings: an important archive recalling the former's role in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871 and his time as U.S. Consul-General to France. Maxime Lalanne was a highly accomplished etcher and draughtsman whose talents were readily acknowledged by his peers. P.G. Hamerton wrote that 'No one etched so gracefully as Maxine Lalanne. This merit of gracefulness is what chiefly distinguishes him &#133; there has never been an etcher equal to him in a certain delicate elegance, from the earliest times till now' (Etchings and Etchers, 1880, p.154). Joseph Pennell echoed this view, 'Lalanne is one of the most exquisite and refined illustrators of architecture who ever lived. His ability to express a great building, a vast town, or a delicate little landscape, has never been equaled' (Pen Drawing and Pen Draughtsmen, 1920, p.92.) Lalanne initially made a career in the law, but in about 1850 was persuaded by his friends to turn to the study of art full-time. He moved from Bordeaux to Paris, joined the studio of Jean Gigoux, and made his Salon début in 1852. Lalanne was one of those who were instrumental in the revival of etching in France, and was a founding member of the Société des Aqua-Fortistes. His illustrated manual Traité de la gravure à l'eau-forte, published in 1866, was pivotal in elevating etching to the status of a fine art, and he became one of the medium's most influential instructors. He published seven prints in the Society's Eaux-fortes modernes series between 1862 and 1866, and provided drawings for their journal, L'Illustration nouvelle. The present collection includes two series that have highly contrasting subject matter: the first bucolic land- and seascapes, the second a series forming an eyewitness record of the Franco-Prussian War. Perhaps the most interesting print is a supplementary image from the Franco-Prussian War, the subject being the original owner of this collection (General Read) being rowed across the Seine (like Washington across the Delaware) whilst the bombardment continues all around. 'John Meredith Read, Jr. was born in Philadelphia on February 21, 1837. The Read family was prominent in American political life; Read's great-grandfather George Read signed the Declaration of Independence and was a framer of the Constitution; his father, John Meredith Read, Sr., was a prominent Pennsylvania jurist who was outspoken on the "Free Kansas" issue and was later appointed Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. Read was educated at a military school, followed by college education at Brown University and Albany (New York) Law School, from which he graduated in 1859. That year he was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar and married Delphine Marie Pumpelly.Read was an active supporter of Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party in the elections of 1860. As a reward, he was promoted to brigadier-general (the youngest man ever to hold this rank) and made adjutant-general of New York State, directing military affairs there during the Civil War with great success, eventually receiving official recognition from the War Department. His support of the Republican party continued through the Civil War, and he was active in General Ulysses S. Grant's campaign for President in 1868. His reward for service this time was to be appointed consul-general to France and Algeria in 1869. During the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), Read acted as the representative for the German government, protecting German interests and citizens until the Germans re- established diplomatic relations in 1872; for this, the Kaiser eventually tried to confer a knighthood on Read, but Congress never passed the resolution that would have allowed this. Read also looked after American and French interests during the Paris Commune uprising and the second siege of Paris. The French held him in such high esteem that in 1872 the Minister of War appointed him president of a commission to determine whether French troops should be taught English.Recognizing Read's talents in the diplomatic service, Grant appointed him the first resident minister to Greece in 1873. Once again, his term of office was marked with diplomatic successes. One of his first accomplishments was to gain the release of the American ship Armenia from Greek authorities. In 1876, he compelled the Greek government to revoke an order banning sales of English translations of the Bible. In 1877, he notified the U.S. press that the Russo-Turkish War was disrupting Russia's wheat exports to Europe and that U.S. exports to Europe at that time might capture the market. The resulting grain exports to Europe netted U.S. businessmen $73 million. As minister, he was also responsible for protecting American interests and citizens during the Balkan crisis and War of 1875-1878.' (University of Rochester Libraries). H. Beraldi Les Graveurs du XIX Siecle (Paris, 1889) vol.IX, pp.18-23; J. Laran Inventaire du Fonds Francais apres 1800 (Paris, 1932) vol.XII, pp.272-282; J.M. Villet The Etchings of Maxime Lalanne a catalogue raisonne (Washington, 2003) 56 (IV/IV); 57 (IV/IV); 58 (V/V); 59 (III/III); 60 (II/III); 61 (III/IV); 62 (III/V); 63 (IV/IV); 64 (II/II); 65 (III/III); 66 (III/III); 67 (II/II); 69 (III/III); 70 (II/II); 71 (II/Ii); 72 (II/II); 73 (II/II); 74 (II/II); 77 (II/II); 78 (II/II); 79 (III/III); 80 (III/III); 107 (I/III or II/III)

      [Bookseller: Donald Heald Rare Books ]
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        Woman's Work and Woman's Culture - A Series of Essays.

      London: MacMillan and Co, 1869. lxiv + 367 pp, 23 x 14.5 cm. Good tight copy, with occasional slight foxing, spine restored, and new endpapers. Contributers include Frances Power Cobbe, Jessie Boucherett, Rev G Butler, Sophia Jex-Blake, James Stuart, Charles H Pearson, Herbert N Mozley, Julia Wedgwood, Elizabeth C Wolstenholme, and John Boyd-Kinnear: a nineteenth-century galaxy of people who were concerned about women's rights. Rare.

      [Bookseller: Saintfield Antiques & Fine Books]
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        Strangers Yet. Song. Words By Lord Houghton. The Music Composed And Dedicated To Miss Talfourd. Sung by Made Sainton Dolby

      Boosey & Co, London. Inscribed by person(s) connected with book. Binding: Hardcover. Book Condition: Good Condition. Dust Jacket Condition: No Dust Jacket. THIS IS ONE OF THE SCORES FROM OUR BOOK NUMBER #6647000 - No 1 In E Flat No 2 In F. Undated but dated & Signed [Initialled by Dolby] 1869. Size: 13 inches tall by 9.5 inches. 5 pages. Quantity Available: 1. Shipped Weight: 750gms-1kgm. Category: Music; Inscribed by person(s) connected with book. Inventory No: 6647001.

      [Bookseller: John T. & Pearl Lewis]
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        Cinque orazioni latine inedite. Pubblicato da un Cod. MS. della Bibliotheca Nazionale per cura del bibliotecario Antonio Galasso. Con un discorso preliminare.

      Napoli, Domenico and Antonio Morano, 1869. 8vo. Bound uncut and unopened with the original blue printed wrappers in a recent green full cloth binding with gilt leather title-label to spine. Back wrapper with worm holes, lack of lower corner, and tears.Some minor brownspotting due to the paper quality. CXXIII, (1), 72 pp.. The very rare first edition, first printing, of five of Vico's early orations (Oration I, III, IV, V, VI, and the beginning of II), which founded the first basis for his seminal "Scienza Nuova". The publication of the orations is based on manuscript XIII B 53 in the National Library of Naples. Although Vico's orations are of the greatest importance to the understanding of the philosophical and intellectual development of this seminal and vastly influential thinker, Vico himself only promoted the immediate publication of the last of them, namely the "De nostri Temporis Studiorum Ratione", which was printed in 1708, based on the argument that it summed up much of that which was included in his earlier orations. Thus, had it not been for Galasso, the invaluable five early orations, being all of the unpublished early texts, might not have been preserved for posterity. Besides this invaluable contribution to Vico scolarship, Galasso here also provides us with a very elaborate study on the seminal importance of the present orations. (Part of the second oration was published by Villarosa in 1823).GIAMBATTISTA VICO (1668 - 1744) was appointed professor of Latin Eloqence at the University of Naples in 1699 and possessed this chair till 1708. In this capacity Vico had to each year give an inaugural oration, and it is five of these that are printed here for the first time. Vico's orations were based on classic humanistic grounds, with great inspiration found in e.g. Pico della Mirandola, and he tried to urge his students to develop both as human beings and as scholars, inspiring them to use their education to become better persons, as well as inspiring them to keep educating themselves and persuading them that they have the capacity to become wise, telling them that they are "born for wisdom". As such, Vico's early orations display the greatest examples of his ideas of paideia and and humanitas as well as his inspiration from Greek and Latin sources and especially from the Renaissance humanists; they contain the very first sketches of his theories on humanity and history, which later came to provide the basis for his revolutionary "Scienza Nuova"

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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        Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus.

      Boston and Cambridge: Sever, Francis & Co. 1869.. Third American edition, small 8vo, 177, (1, 2 advertisement) pp. Signature on front blank of Edward P. Warren, dated 1882. Publisher's advertisement slip laid in by title - the recto advertising "Vanity Fair", some light foxing, one gathering loose. Original purple cloth, faded and marked, spine ends worn. Edward Warren, (1860-1928), art collector and patron. As well as commissioning Rodin to sculpt "The Kiss" he acquired a superb collection of classical antiquities, many of which now reside in the Boston Museum and the Metropolitan Museum in New York. First published in London in 1818, the first American edition appeared in 1833.

      [Bookseller: Bow Windows Bookshop, ABA, ILAB]
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        ALICE'S ABENTEUER IM WUNDERLAND. Uebersetzt von Antonie Zimmermann. Mit zweiundvierzig Illustrationen von John Tenniel.

      [12], 178, [2]pp. Original green decorative cloth gilt with medallion illustrations to upper and lower covers. All edges gilt.. Octavo. First edition. First issue. Slight wear to head and heel of spine; slight bubbling of cloth; hinges expertly repaired; else a very good copy of the scarce first issue, contained in a cloth, gilt clamshell box. Presentation copy, inscribed on front free endpaper: 'W. H. Ranken, with the Author's sincere regards march. 1869.' Casson family bookplate. It is believed that this copy was once owned by the actress Dame Sybil Thorndike (Casson). W. H. Ranken (to whom A Valentine, the second poem in Phantasmagoria is addressed,) was a close friend of Dodgson's at Oxford. He later taught English in Germany for a while. They visited Whitby together in 1854, and stories told to children by Dodgson on the shore at Whitby during the visit were thought by Ranken to have been the first germs of Alice in Wonderland. The first issue, which is by far the scarcer of the two, has the London: Macmillan imprint. The second issue, Liepzig: Johann Friedrich Hartknoch.

      [Bookseller: David Miles]
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        Collection of Prayers and Religious Quotations, in Slavonic

      Russia 1869 Russia, 1869. (SLAVONIC) 12mo (135 x 85 mm.). Manuscript, with notes and Capitals in red. 88 pp. Contemporary black blindstamped calf, the upper cover with a roundel of a lion fighting a unicorn with Russian inscription 'Thus do body and soul fight against each other as two wild beasts', within scallop border, in marbled chemise and orange slip-case . A collection of personal thoughts and prayers opening with the Trebnik of Patriarch Iosafat. On the penultimate page the last paragraph reads 'I am sending you instead of prayers this little book ... ' ending with the abbreviated name 'Gr. I. Evfr.' (possibly for Grigorii Ivanovich Evrasov) dated 1869

      [Bookseller: James Cummins Bookseller ]
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        1): Die hesiodische Theogonie ... + 2): Anacreontis Teii... + 3) Nitzsche, Rich., questionum Eudocianarum... + 4) Theognidis Elegiae... + 5) Bernays, Jacob, die Heraklitischen Briefe... + 6) Die harmonischen Fragmente des Aristoxenus... + 7) Rohde, Erwin, über Lucian's Schrift... + 8) Byk, S.A., der Hellenismus und der Platonismus... [In: Literarisches Centralblatt für Deutschland: 1): Nr. 18, 25. April 1868 + 2): Nr. 45, 31. Oktober 1868 + 3): No. 48, 21. November 1868 + 4): No. 6, 30. Januer 1869 + 5): No. 6, 30. Januer 1869 + 6): No. 6, 30. Januer 1869 + 7): No. 15, 3. April, 1869 + 8) Nr. 37, 3. September 1870].

      Leipzig, Avenarius, 1869, 1869, 1870. 4to. All bound together in a very nice recent stiff marbled paper-binding in old style with a gilt leather title-label to front board. The brownish nuances of the binding-paper perfectly matches the old red edges of the contents. An exceedingly nice set with only minor scattered brownspotting, mostly to general title-pages. Bound with all three generel title-pages for "Literarisches Centralblatt für Deutschland. Herausgegeben von Friedrich Zarncke", 1868, 1869, 1870, as well as the contents-leaves for all three volumes, and all six numbers of "Literarisches Centralblatt" in their entirety. In all: X pp. + pp. (465) -496 + pp. (1209) - 1232 + pp. (1297) - 1328 + XI, (I) pp. + pp. (129) - 160) + pp. (409) - 440 + XI, (I) pp. + pp. (1001) - 1024. The Nietzsche-articles: (1868:) Nr. 15: pp. 481-82 + Nr. 45: p.1224 + Nr. 48: p. 1309 + (1869:) Nr. 6: pp. 144 + Nr. 6: p. 145 + Nr. 6: p. 146 + Nr. 15: pp. 426-27 + (1870:) Nr. 37: pp. (1101-2).(N.B. the pp. that are not in Roman numerals recte = columns).. Exceedingly scarce collection of the first printings of eight of Nietzsche's earliest publications, including his second publication, which was only preceded by his "Zur Geschichte der Theognidischen Spruchsammlung" in Rheinisches Museum, from 1867. The present collection constitutes all that Nietzsche published in "Literarisches Centralblatt", being the entire collection of the Reviews. The first seven are signed "Fr. N." and the last is signed "F.N.".Nietzsche began studying philology at the University of Bonn in the winter semester og 1864/65 and quickly became a prize student. His university studies were fairly quickly interrupted, though, as he spent a year in the Prussian Artillary, from October 1867. After about half a year, he was seriously injured and had to spend the last five months there as a reconvalescent. Nonetheless this year did not mean a brek in Nietzsche's studies, quite the contary. Already in April 1868, before his injury (in May), he published his first book review, namely that of Schoemann's work on "Die hesiodische Theogonie", which had just appeared. And after the injury, he naturally had even more time for studying at his disposal; "Nietzsche's protracted recovery from his military injuries allowed him considerable time to study and to take on other scholarly duties, one of which was to write book reviews for a teacher, Friedrich Zarncke, who edited the "Literarisches Centralblatt". Nietzsche had been assigned the entire field of Greek philosophy - excepting only Aristotle - and this provide him with the opportunity for eight brief appearances in print between 1868 and 1870." (Schaberg, The Nietzsche Canon, p. 10).It is of great interest to see the young Nietzsche as the sober, upbuilding philological book reviewer, who minutely and fairly describes new books within his field. For instance he writes about Schoemann's book: "In dieser energischen und ausführlichen Polemik ruht vornehmlich der Werth dieses Buches: obschon wir auch an der reinlichen Darlegung der Schömann'schen Hypothese sowie an dem sorgfältig gearbeiteten wesentlich mythologischen Commentar unsere Freude haben...", even though it lacks a critical apparatus... Or about Nitzche's "Quaestionum Eudocianarum" he writes "Der Verf. der forliegenden Dissertation hat das Verdienst, auf einem abgelegenen Felde mehrere unverwerfliche Bausteine mitgeschickter Hand zusammengebracht zu haben, ohne dass es ihm gelungen wäre, durch eine nach allen Seiten hin Licht werfende Hypothese sein gewonnenes Material zu verwerthen." The most interesting of the riview is probably the seventh, that on the doctoral dissertation of Erwin Rohde, "über Lucian's Schrift...", which was published by Engelmann in Leipzig. Erwin Rohde was Nietzsche's best friend at the University of Leipzig. They were close friends for many years. It was probably due to the present positive review of Rohde's dissertation, that he (Rohde) later wrote his defense of Nietzsche's first book, "Geburt der Tragödie" - the only academic defense of the work that appeared. It was to Engelmann, who had published Rohde's dissertation, that Nietzsche first offered "Geburt der Tragödie" in 1871. Nietzsche ends his review of Rohde's work with the words "- In Summa: man trifft in der gegenwärtigen Gelehrten Welt die glückliche Vereinigung von gründlichen Wissen, dialektscher Energie und künstlerischem Geschmack nicht zu oft, um nicht der classischen Philologie zu dieser neuen Jüngerschaft ausdrücklich zu gratulieren." Schaberg 1-8

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        Im Auftrag Sr. Majestät des Königs von Preussen mit dem englischen Expeditionscorps in Abessinien.

      Mit Holzstich-Portrait, gefalt. lithogr. Karte und 3 gefalt. Tabellen. VII, 182 S., 1 Bl. HLdr. d. Zt. Erste Ausgabe. - Fumagalli 310; Kainbacher II, 344; Henze IV, 658. - Berieben, oberes Kapital mit kl. Fehlstelle. Gestempelt, Vortitel mit kleinen Löchern, leicht gebräunt und fleckig.

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Turszynski]
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        Opere complete... traduzione eseguita sulle migliori e piu' recenti edizioni francesi con la nomenclatura linnejana e la classificazione di cuvier e con aggiunte note ed oservazioni estratte dalle opere dei piu' illustri naturalisti italiani e stranieri. napoli, stabilimento tipografico, 1869-78.

      Quindici volumi di cm. 26, pp. 8.000 ca. complessive. Con ritratto dell'autore e 202 belle tavole incise in rame e finimente colorate. Legatura coeva in mezza pelle con piccole punte, dorsi lisci con titoli in oro. Complessivamente genuino e ben conservato con ciascuna delle tavole protetta da velina originale. Non comune a trovarsi completo come il presente esemplare. Il volume quindicesimo titola: ""Vita e tempi di Buffon"".

      [Bookseller: Studio Bibliografico Benacense]
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        "Group of Booteas" [pencil caption]

      Darjeeling 1869 [Darjeeling, 1869]. Bourne cat. # 1904. 9-1/4 x 11-1/2 in. Vintage albumen print, inscribed in the negative, lower left ("Bourne / 1904"), docketed on verso. Matted, some wrinkling and fading at margins, small tear at top margin, else near fine. Bourne cat. # 1904 . Four upper-class Booteas, Tibetan-speaking inhabitants of Nepal. British-born Samuel Bourne (1834-1912) photographed the landscape and architecture of India and the Himalayan region from 1863-1870. "[R]ecognized as an important landscape photographer, Bourne entered a partnership with Charles Shepherd" and "became a leading supplier of Indian views" (Pare, PHOTOGRAPHY AND ARCHITECTURE, p. 251)

      [Bookseller: James Cummins Bookseller ]
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        La Chaleur solaire et ses applications industrielles. Deuxième Édition. Revue et considérablement augmentée.

      Paris, 1869. 8vo. Uncut. Original printed wrappers. Some soiling to wrappers, and spine quite worn. Book block a bit loose. Internally only a bit of occasional brownspotting. (6), 294 pp. + two folded plates. Illustrated.. Presentation-copy of the scarce first edition thus, being the much revised and expanded second edition of the first book explicitly devoted to solar energy, "Solar Energy and its Industrial Applications". This second edition, illustrating for the first time the now world-famous "sun Engine" of 1878, which became the greatest and most famous "sun machine" ever built, is of equal importance to the first. The fold-out illustration which appears here has become the most famous illustration of a solar powered machine and has been reproduced in all histories about solar energy ever since. This seminal second edition was expanded and revised on the basis of Mouchot's demonstration of his groundbreaking solar engine at the 1878 Paris exhibition. "He made a number of notable public demonstrations of his inventions. With Abel Pifre, he demonstrated a solar generator that powered a steam engine at the 1878 Paris Exhibition. Mouchot's exhibition engine included a mirror over 13 feet (3.96 meters) in diameter and a 21-gallon (79.5 liters) boiler. The boiler generated seven atmospheres of pressure and drove an ice-maker that produced a "solar" block of ice." (The Energy Library). Mouchot won the gold medal for his amazing 1878 sun machine at the Universal Exposition in Paris. An amazing feature of this groundbreaking machine was the demonstration of its ability to produce ice using concentrated solar heat. With this machine, Mouchot anticipated solar refrigerators, which he foresaw as becoming greatly important in hot climates, where sun-generated ice would help prevent food from spoiling.The PRESENTATION-INSCRIPTION to the half-title reads as thus: "à Monsieur Vanaut/ Expert-Comptable [i.e. professional accountant]/ hommage de l'auteur/ A. Mouchot". Auguste Mouchot was a French mathematics teacher, who in the 1860'ies became famous as the designer (and patent-taker) of the first machine that generated electricity with solar thermal energy electricity by the exposure of the sun, causing a revolution in the development of solar thermal power. Mouchot began his work with solar energy in 1860 after expressing grave concerns about his country's dependence on coal. In 1869 he published the first edition of his seminal "La Chaleur Solaire", which constitutes a milestone of what we now call "green energy", as it laid the foundation for our understanding of the conversion of solar radiation into mechanical power driven by steam.His work on solar energy and on the development of his sun machine forms the basis for the later developments on solar energy. "The work of Adams, Ericsson, and Shuman had been directly influenced by the solar conceptions of Augustin Mouchot, a man who arrived on the scene in nineteenth century France at precisely that moment when his ideas were likely to attract the most attention. It was a time when French industrial might was at a peak and her leaders open to new ideas, none more so than her emperor. " (Kryza, The Power of Light, p. 147). "His initial experiments involved a glass-enclosed, water-filled iron cauldron, in which sunlight passed through a glass cover, heating the water. This simple arrangement boiled water, but it also produced small quantities of steam. Mouchot added a reflector to concentrate additional radiation onto the cauldron, thus increasing the steam output. He succeeded in using his apparatus to operate a small, conventional steam engine. Impressed by Mouchot's device, Emperor Napoleon III offered financial assistance, which Mouchot used to produce refinements to the energy system. Mouchot's work help lay the foundation for our current understanding of the conversion of solar radiation into mechanical power driven by steam.The publication of his book on solar energy, "La Chaleur solaire et ses Applications industrielles" (1869), coincided with the unveiling of the largest solar steam engine he had yet built. This engine was displayed in Paris until the city fell under siege during the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, and was not found after the siege ended." (The Energy Library). "By 1878, Mouchot had quintupled the size of the boiler that created the solar-heated steam from a relatively modest 10 gallons to an industrial-grade 50-gallon tank. He invented a boiler design made of many tubes placed side by side with a capacity of 35 gallons for water and 15 for steam. To validate his work, Mouchot seems to have ben the only inventor of a solar plant (except Frank Shuman) who had his apparatus tested by independent engineers." (Kryza, p. 164). After having exhibited his sun machine in 1869, Mouchot received financial assistance in order to further develop his great invention. In September 1872, he received financial assistance from the General Council of Indre-et-Loire to install an experimental solar generator at the Tours library. He presented a paper on the generator to the Academy of Sciences on 4 October 1875, and in December of the same year he presented to the Academy a device he claimed would, in optimal sunshine, provide a steam flow of 140 liters per minute. Later the following year he sought permission from the ministry to take leave from his teaching position in order to develop an engine for the Universal Exhibition of 1878, and in January 1877 he obtained a mission and a grant for the purchase of materials and execution of his solar engines in French Algeria, where sunlight was in abundance. The director of science missions recommended Mouchout to the Governor of Algeria, stressing the importance of his mission to France, "for science and for the glory of the University".Partly for political reasons, seeing the effect that industrial and technological changes had upon society and the peoples of Algeria, Mouchot asked for a leave of absense that would allow him to return to France. "The French colonial authorities , eager to possess the inventions they felt they had already paid for, refused. But they lent Mouchot a sympathetic ear and promised to improve local conditions. Temporarily, he seemed mollified. Following a year of testing designs for an ever-larger concentrator suitable for tropical use, Mouchot presented his findings to the authorities in Algiers. They were so impressed with the models and sketches that they awarded him 5000 francs to construct "the largest mirror ever built in the world" for a huge sun machine that would represent Algeria in yet another unversal exposition in Paris. There, it was hoped, it would garner a number of prizes, win additional financing, and then be shipped back to Africa and used commercially. His money in hand, Mouchot returned to France to begin construction of his new project.With the help of a new assistant, Abel Pifre, Mouchot completed the new solar machjine in September 1878. At its widest point, the cone-shaped mirror measured twice the diameter of the device shown at Tours the previous year, and its total reflecting surface was four times greater. The boiler too had an innovative design: long vertical tubes were fastened side by side to form a circular column at the focus of the reflector. As planned, the solar engine was put on display in the French capital. Mouchot's giant solar machine entertained exposition visitors by pumping 500 gallons of water per hour, distilling alcohol, and cooking food. It was able to achieve a head of steam in far less time than previous models.The most noteworthy demonstration occurred on September 22, 1878, as Mouchot recounted: "Under a slightly veiled but continually shining sun, I was able able to raise the pressure in the boiler to 91 pounds ... [and] in spite of the seeming paradox of the statement, [it was] possible to use the rays of the sun to make ice."Mouchot was able to make ice because he had connected the solar motor to a heat-powered refigeration device invented by Ferdinand Carré in the 1850's. Mouchot saw an important future for solar refrigerators in hot climates, where sun-generated ice would help prevent food from spoiling. The average Parisian spectator, hardly aware of the scientific principles at work, was amazed - this was magic indeed, the burning heat of the sun transformed into ice." (Kryza, pp. 170-72)

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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