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Displayed below are some selected recent viaLibri matches for books published in 1857

        MEMOIRE SUR LA FERMENTATION APPELÉE (APPELEE) LACTIQUE. (Extrait par l'auteur) In Comptes Rendus Acad. des Sciences. Volume 45 (1857) pp. 913-916 THE BEGINNING OF BACTERIOLOGY AS A MODERN SCIECNE

      Paris:: Mallet-Bachelier,, 1857. First Edition. Near Fine. First Edition. Offered is the entire Near Fine volume 45 in early twentieth century marble boards and half-cloth binding with gilt lettering spine. Scattered mild foxing. 4to. 1160 pp.

      [Bookseller: By The Book, LC ABAA-ILAB]
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        The Poetical Works of Sir Walter Scott

      North Bridge, Edinburgh.: Adam and Charles Black, 1857 Including His Great Metrical Romances Copyright Lyrical Pieces Miscellaneous Poems and Ballads. With a memoir of the Author. Illustrated by many engravings on steel and wood. Bound in full morocco by H Bowie of Edinburgh, with blind embossed patterns on both boards, rounded edges, minimal shelf wear. Spine with raised bands, decorative blind tooling, titles in gilt, edges brushed. Internally, marbled endpapers, all text block edges in gilt and goffered, ink name to fep (Reginald Bligh Wall), half title, tissue guarded B&W portrait frontis and the additional engraved title page with the vignette by Turner all present, titles to title page within single ruled border, [7], 8-746 pp, [2], 8 plates (including 1 folding) and 32 illustrations (many of which are full page). A reissue of the edition of 1853, and the Memoir of the author is P [7]-19, to base of spine, in gilt, "Author's Edition Illustrated". A lovely copy, nicely bound! (Allibone 1975. Lowndes 2226) Scott, poet and novelist. See ODNB.

      [Bookseller: Madoc Books]
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      Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1857. The Household Edition. Half Leather. 12mo. finely bound in half leather with marbled paper covered boards. All edges are marbled to match. A lovely edition. Very Good+ binding.

      [Bookseller: Black Swan Books, Inc.]
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        Life of Charlotte Brontë, Author of 'Jane Eyre,' etc

      London, Smith, Elder and Co., 1857., 1857. 2 vols., 8vo., engraved frontispieces. Bound in publisher's brown cloth with gilt titles to spine, decorative broders stamped in blind to covers, yellow coated endpapers, edges untrimmed, bookseller ticket to rear pastedown. Internally fine, some lean to spine, contents shaken within case, volume 2 recased with replacement endpapers, some general wear to cloth; backstrips worn and frayed to extremities. Shows well nonetheless; a very good pair, now uncommon in the original cloth. Housed in a custom-made slip-case. FIRST EDITIONS.The great biography of the Nineteenth Century. This copy formerly belonging to Eric Quayle [1921-2001], the noted collector and bibliographer of Victorian and Edwardian adventure fiction, with his pencil notes to first blank, and was sold as part of his library [lot 246] at auction through Bonhams in March and April 2004 [sale 14473], which attracted a great deal of interest from collectors and dealers alike. Mr. Quayle may have gone, but the books that he spent his lifetime preserving and describing are still circulating, and will do so for a very long time.

      [Bookseller: Adrian Harrington Rare Books]
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      London: Bradbury & Evans, 1857. DICKENS, Charles. LITTLE DORRIT. With Illustrations by H.K. Browne. London: Bradbury & Evans, 1857. First edition in book form, with all the major Smith first issue points, bound from the original monthly parts, with stab-holes present in the inner margins of gatherings. Original publisher's primary binding of moderate olive green fine-diaper cloth. Covers stamped in blind with a thin double-rule border enclosing a rectangular frame which contains a loop-scroll design in each corner and a string of sixteen beads along its inner edge; a globe-shaped design is stamped in the center of each cover. Original pale yellow endpapers. Forty engraved plates including frontispiece and vignette title. With the exception of the front inner hinge which has had expert and invisible restoration, this EXCEEDINGLY FINE copy is virtually faultless (cloth stunningly fresh and unworn with only a few minor spots, pages and illustrations remarkably unfoxed and in exemplary condition with just a little offsetting to a few of the illustrations, gilt bright and untarnished, all despite being nearly 155 years old), a remarkable and somewhat astonishing survival given its easily abused, always fragile, original publishers' cloth casing. LITTLE DORRIT, Dickens' second outraged literary visitation to the institution of debtors' prison (in which people who owed money were imprisoned, unable to work, until they had satisfied their creditors) is set in the Marshalsea where Dickens' own father had been imprisoned. One part social criticism and satire, one part poignant and heartbreaking love story, one part mystery and murder tale, LITTLE DORRIT contains a great blossoming of Dickens' deepest-felt writing and its fame, although inarguably enduring, lags behind that of his other many masterpieces in terms of recognition due to the initial unfair contemporary critical response it received from the press (despite its wildly enthusiastic reception by the public) as it exposed certain prickly holes in England's claim of a fairer society than yesteryear: industrial safety for workers, the hypocritical exclusionary class codes, and especially the notorious blunders of the British Treasury (portrayed in this novel as the astonishingly inept "Circumlocution Office") which did, for example and in fact, cause hundreds of "deaths by bureaucracy" for the soldiers at the Battle of Balaclava. LITTLE DORRIT has been adapted for the screen five times, the last two versions being the 1988 film starring Alec Guinness and Derek Jacobi and the 2008-2009 BBC/PBS award-winning adaptation by Andrew Davies. This particular copy is not only the FINEST KNOWN first edition of LITTLE DORRIT in original publisher's cloth, it is also without any doubt the possessor of the most distinguished provenance as it is THE BRETT-PARRISH-STARLING-SELF copy with the bookplates of Oliver Brett, 3d Viscount of Esher (1881-1963); Morris L. Parrish (1867-1944); Kenyon Starling (1905 -1983); and William E. Self (1921-2010), each the most distinguished collector of Dickens of their generation. With Oliver Brett's penciled initials and date, Aug 1923, to page 625 at the novel's end. Now housed in a new purple cloth clamshell case with black leather labels. Eckel, pp. 82-85; Hatton and Cleaver, pp. 307-330. Smith, Dickens, I, 12. . First Edition. Fine.

      [Bookseller: Lakin & Marley Rare Books ]
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      London: W.A. Mansell & Co., ca.1857-90.  Print of Rossetti's study for his Oxford Union Mural, from the photograph by Mansell, 8 x 11cm on thick paper mounted on 20 x 23cm card w/pencilled border, in original glazed wooden frame.  With Christie's stencil (CUS79) & label of the Ruskin Galleries, Birmingham, both to the frame's backboard.  Frame Good (mount stained from backboard bleedthru, & some marks to the wooden surround); print Near-Fine.

      [Bookseller: Leonard Roberts, Bookseller]
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        The Indian Chief and the Little White Boy

      H. C. Peck & Theo. Bliss, 1857. Hardcover. Very Good/None. Hardcover, no DJ, 1857. From the library of American artist and illustrator Leonard Baskin (1922 - 2000), with his personal bookplate to front pastedown (see The Complete Prints of Leonard Baskin: A Catalogue Raissone 1948 - 1983, Fern & O'Sullivan, Little Brown & Co, 1984; pg 37, image 79). Also includes small circular sticker on front pastedown, with image of a porcupine printed in red; this is also an image by Baskin. Full bound red cloth boards, blindstamped designs to front and rear boards, gilt stamped lettering and design to spine. 1/16th inch loss of fabric at top of spine, corner rounding with tiny spots of wear through to underlying board. Binding is solid. Pencilled note on front free endpaper: "From Leonard Baskin library". On the second blank page is another pencil inscription: "1856 / A Present to Oliver Kendall / By J A Bruce / Boylston, Mass". A scarce collection of five stories for children: The Indian chief and the little white boy; The little flower girl; The drowned boy; Story of the petrel; A fox and her young ones. The title story tells the tale of the Howard family who settle in Indian territory in New York, and gain the trust and friendship of a powerful Indian chief by entrusting him with their young son for three days. The story perpetuates many stereotypes of Native American culture, and it fails to even recognize the plurality of cultures that existed. But notably for the time, this narrative also portrays many noble characteristics of the Indians, including loyalty, kindness, honor, and parental love. Other stories in this collection include morality and animal tales. Includes 11 full page engravings, and seventeen partial page engravings. Originally published in 1855.

      [Bookseller: Bayside Books of Maryland, IOBA]
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      London: Edward Moxon, 1857.  First illustrated edition, 21.5 x 15cm (4to), bound in black morocco spine over faux-vellum boards w/gilt decorations & title & 5 raised bands to spine, metal clasps, red & white head-&-tail bands, a.e.g. w/gauffered edges, chocolate ep.s, [i-v] vi-xiii [xiv-xvi], [1] 2-375 [376] cardstock pp. w/frontis portrait medallion by Thomas Woolner & 54 wood engravings by the Dalziels, W.J. Linton, etc. after D.G. Rossetti, J.E. Millais, W. Holman Hunt, etc.  Printed by Bradbury & Evans, London.  Inscribed to recto of 1st blank: "Sarah H. Brofden from Richard, Sale 1857."  Binding Near-Fine (ep.s chipped at edges); contents Very Good (1st & final few leaves foxed w/only occas. lt. foxing elsewhere, & a few sections sl. proud).  "Athenæum" 30 May 1857 p.693, White 105, Dalziels 355, Rossetti 2 (p.41), Ashley VII 114, Reid 36-43, Ehrsam & Deily 218, Fredeman 90.3, Ray 148, Colbeck 26, de Beaumont 374, Goldman 395.

      [Bookseller: Leonard Roberts, Bookseller]
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        "La dictature de Sylla" : Manuscrit autographe complet inédit

      s.l.: S.n., 1857. Broché. 20x31cm. Précieux manuscrit autographe complet de 6 pages in-4, inédit, évoquant cet épisode de l'histoire de Rome. Ce récit, très documenté, semble autant une compilation de notes historiques que l'élaboration d'une toile de fond au destin épique de Sylla. Flaubert y évoque succinctement, bien qu'avec précision, les événements majeurs de l'Histoire et s'attarde plus volontiers sur les épisodes moins significatifs mais plus évocateurs de la démesure du personnage. Ainsi remarque-t-on, dès le début, une attention prêtée aux déplacements géographiques des différents protagonistes et la mise en exergue de leurs fins tragiques : "Catilina (…) lui creva les yeux, lui arracha la langue, les oreilles, les mains, lui rompit les bras et les jambes et lui coupa la tête enfin qu'il porta toute sanglante à Sylla puis il se lava les mains dans l'eau lustrale d'un temple voisin. Le cadavre du vainqueur des Cimbres fut exhumé, livré aux outrages et jeté dans l'Anio." Plusieurs références bibliographiques : "Mr D. n'a pas remarqué cela" ; "Selon Pline XXXVI 186" ; "v. p. 296 est-ce cela ? " soulignent la réflexion de l'auteur au-delà de la simple relation des événements. Il conclue d'ailleurs ainsi : "Sylla homme du passé voulant rétablir une société morte (...) se mit lui-même au dessus des lois (…) caractère commun à tous les acteurs de ce même rôle." Le manuscrit évoque bien évidemment l'intérêt de Flaubert pour l'Antiquité après le procès de Mme Bovary, "le besoin de sortir du monde moderne, où ma plume s'est trop trempée et qui d'ailleurs me fatigue autant à reproduire qu'il me dégoûte à voir" (lettre à Mlle Leroyer de Chantepie, 18 mars 1857). L'absence totale de mention de Carthage dans ce texte semble plutôt témoigner d'un écrit antérieur aux recherches historiques qu'il effectua pour Salammbô, d'une recherche encore ouverte, mais l'intérêt porté au potentiel "tragique" de personnages hors norme, aux antipodes de la "dramatique" actualité de Mme Bovary évoque son grand roman orientaliste. Depuis longtemps, le personnage exerçait une fascination certaine sur Flaubert : "Nous remarquerons d'abord le crime grand, politique et froid, dans la personne de Sylla : il accomplit sa mission fatalement, comme une hache, puis il abdique la dictature et s'en va au milieu du peuple ; c'est là un orgueil plein de grandeur, ce sont là les crimes d'un homme de génie." (Rome et les Césars, 1839). Paul Bourget évoque également cette passion de l'auteur : "Ses amis se rappellent encore avec quel frémissement il récitait tel morceau de prose, le dialogue de Sylla et d'Eucrate, par exemple : « Sylla, lui dis-je...» puis, s'arrêtant là de sa citation, il ajoutait : « Toute l'histoire romaine est là dedans...» et il l'y voyait, tant l'ensorcellement des syllabes agissait sur ses nerfs tendus." (Journal des débats politique et littéraire, 10 février 1884). Mais aussi épique fut-elle, l'histoire de Sylla manquait sans doute, à l'instar du manuscrit, d'une figure essentielle aux grandes œuvres de Flaubert : une femme. - S.n., s.l. _s.d., 20x31cm, 6 pages en feuilles. - 6 pages en feuilles

      [Bookseller: Librairie Le Feu Follet]
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        Le livre des esprits contenant les principes de la doctrine spirite sur la nature des esprits, leur manisfestation et leurs rapports avec les hommes, les lois morales, la vie présente, la vie future et l'avenir de l'humanité écrit sous la dictée et publié par l'ordre d'esprits supérieurs

      Paris: E. Dentu, 1857. Broché. 16,5x25cm. Rare édition originale. Dos fendu comportant des manques, premier plat volant comportant des déchirures et manques marginaux, absence du deuxième plat, deux pâles mouillures en tête des toutes premières pages et sur les toutes dernières, agréable état intérieur quasi exempt de toute rousseur. Très rare exemplaire, en l'état, de ce texte constitutif du spiritisme. - E. Dentu, Paris _1857, 16,5x25cm, broché. - broché

      [Bookseller: Librairie Le Feu Follet]
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        NUOVA GUIDA DI BOLOGNA con pianta. Compilazione di? cui seguono appendici utili specialmente à forestieri.

      in-8, pp. 96, bella leg. cartone color. coevo. Con una gr. tav. litogr. ripiegata (mm. 350x450) raff. la pianta della città con 130 rimandi. Belliss. esempl. [131]

      [Bookseller: Studio Bibliografico Scriptorium]
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        A General Map of India Compiled Chiefly from Surveys Executed by Order of the Honble. East India Company.

      London: Wm. H. Allen & Co., Jany. 2nd, 1857.. A very large, finely engraved map of India in two parts, the map dimensions of each c. 78 x 156 cm (thus 156 x 156 cm if joined). Bright full original colour to the land and sea, the regional states distinctively coloured. Each part dissected into twenty-seven sections and mounted on linen, the overall edges trimmed with dark green silk, green cloth to folded end sections on linen versos. Both parts fold into original brown ribbed cloth slipcase, gilt lettered to one spine. Some very light wear and marks to slipcase, twin thin lines running horizontally across each part, otherwise a very nice example of a lovely map.

      [Bookseller: Bow Windows Bookshop, ABA, ILAB]
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        WORKS: comprising: Farina: A Legend of Cologne. London, 1857; The Ordeal of Richard Feverel. London, 1859. 3 volumes; Evan Harrington. London, Bradbury & Evans, 1861. 3 volumes; Emilia in England. London, 1864. 3 volumes; Rhoda Fleming. London, 1865. 3 volumes; Vittoria. London, 1867. 3 volumes; The Adventures of Harry Richmond. London, 1871. 3 volumes; Beauchamp's Career. London, 1876. 3 volumes; The Egoist. London, 1879. 3 volumes; The Amazing Marriage. 2 vols., 1892; Jump to Glory Jane, London, 1892 and many others

      London vd 1857 1892 London, vd [1857-1892]. First Editions. 30 works in 56 Volumes vols., 8vo. . Bound in full green morocco, t. e.g., with many original covers bound in at the back, by Birdsall London and Northampton. All fine, one of two binding slightly rubbed . An amazing assemblage of the works of one of England's major 19th century novelists all in magnificent full green morocco bindings with the original covers bound in at the back. We have never had such a complete collection.Sadleir (pp. 380-381) says; "Few Victorian fictions are more seldom sen than Numbers 1 to 4 below." 1. Rhoda Fleming. 2. Farina-Harry Richmoond. 3. Evan Harringtonn. 4. Richard Feverel. All are present here 1.The Shaving of Shagpat. An Arabian Entertainment. London, Chapman and Hall, 1856. 384 pp. Original cloth bound in at end. First Edition. 2. Farina: A Legend of Cologne. London, Smith, Elder & Co., 1857. 244 pp. First Edition. 3. The Ordeal of Richard Feverel. A History of Father and Son. In Three Volumes. London, Chapman and Hall, 1859. First Edition. Original cloth bound in at end. 4. Evan Harrington.In Three Volumes. London, Bradbury & Evans, 1861. First Edition. Original cloth bound in 5. Emilia in England. In Three Volumes. London, Chapman and Hall, 1864. First Edition. Original cloth bound in. (republished as Sandra Belloni in 1887) 6. Rhoda Fleming. A Story. In Three Volumes. London, Tinsley Brothers, 1865. First Edition. With original cloth bound in 7. Vittoria. London, 1867. 3 volumes. First Edition. Original cloth bound in

      [Bookseller: James Cummins Bookseller ]
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        Histoire des Artistes vivants francais et étrangers. Études d'après nature. Illustrée de 10 Portraits pris au Daguerréotype et gravés sur Acier. Introduction et Catalogues par M.L. de Virmond. Ingres - Delacroix - Corot - Chenauard - Decamps - Diaz - Barye - Courbet - Préault - Rude.

      Paris, E. Blanchard, 1857. 4to. Nice cont. hcalf w. four raised bands and richly gilt back. Hinges a bit weak and capitals a bit worn. All edges gilt. Some minor brownspotting, though two first leves w. heavier brownspotting. (2) ff. (half-title + title-page), III, (1), 328 pp., 2 ff. (Table + Errata) + 10 plates, (-portraits taken with daguerrotype and engraved in steel).. Presentation-copy with an original handwritten and signed dedication from Silvestre for the Minister of Justice: "A Son Exc. M. Emile Ollivier,/ Ministre de la Justice,/ Hommage & Souvenir de/ Théophile Silvestre". With original handwritten signatures by the artists, each under their own portrait. The work was originally meant to comprise 100 installments on French and foreign artists in a luxury folio edition, but after having covered 11 French artists, 10 of which are portrayed here, the work ceased. The folio-edition began to appear in July 1853, and three editions of the work appeared within three or four years. The folio-edition has been almost entirely lost (the only complete chapter known to have survived is the pair of installments on Camille Corot, which is now in the Departement des Estampes et de la Photographie of the Bibliotheque Nationale de France. No other edition of any of the other installments has come to light), and the only information we have on this highly important and seminal work comes from this edition and a 1856-edition. Due to its high ambition and the novelty of the project, this work constitutes the most important contemporary biographical project of the 19th century. The idea of the project, which presented a wholly new way of doing contemporary biography, was to give a truthful portrait of the artists as well as their works, and many of the articles in this work have remained the founding, and even sole, account of a particular artist. Though the biography had been a popular form of art criticism since the Renaissance, Silvestre's project was something entirely different, focusing on the living artist, and comprising almost all aspects of the artist's life. Silvestre actually interviewed every single artist, and he studied their journals, letters, diaries etc. (he was the only one to read Delacroix's journals in his life-time), -of course this was destined for disaster, and among all the other trouble Silvestre got himself into, he was sued for having reported Vernet's indiscretions about Ingres. The work is famous for its daguerrotypical photographs, which ended up being engraved after the photographs, though, and the idea of, by all means, making the artists as lively as possible, e.g. by accompanying the written portrait of the artist with a photographical portrait, was entirely novel. Silvestre had also planned to include facsimiles of the signatures or handwriting of the artists, but this never became a reality, -instead he had a few single copies signed in hand by all the artists: Delacroix, Ingres, Corot, Chenauard, Decamps, Diaz, Barye, Courbet, Préault and Rude, to give away as special presentation copies. Silvestre is regarded as a brilliant critic, and an uncompromising man. He was a committed republican in the February Revolution of 1848, though he remained close friends with several progressives, and his political opposition can be traced in the articles of his work (something he didn't change in the later revised editions from 1861 and 1878); and this presents us with an interesting way of viewing 19th century French art criticism, -the political sphere is also very much present in this genre

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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        [=Serie title on covers].

      (1-3.) Mitau, in Selbstverlag des Herausgegebers, (1857), 1866-67. 4to. Steel-engr. title,+ (132) ll.+ 29 steel-engraved plates; steel-engr. title,+ (163) ll.+ 29 steel-engraved plates; steel-engr. title,+ (153) ll.+ 29 steel-engraved plates. Occasional foxing. Somewhat worn publ. blue blind-stamped cloth, gilt spines and boards, front hinge and upper joints to volume one partly cracked. Complete copy. Winkelmann 455. Issued in 30 leaflets, each with text and 3 engr. plates, including the three title leaves, that all has an engraved view. Vol. 1: Album Livländischer Ansichten, gezeichnet und herausgegeben von Wilhelm Siegfried Stavenhagen in Mitau in Stahl gestochen und Gedruckt von G. G. Lange in Darmstadt. Mit erläuterndem Text von verschidenen Verfassern. Vol. 2: Album Kurländischer Ansichten [...]. Vol 3: Album Ehstländischer Ansichten [...]. The views are engraved after drawings by Wilhelm Siegfried Stavenhagen (1814-81). The most important work of the artist Wilhelm Stavenhagen (1814-81). "Album Baltischer Ansichten"contains steel engraved reproductions of his drawings. showing monuments of the antiquity, manors, castles, panoramas of cities etc. Each illustration has a rather extensive explanation of the history of the object drawn in the illustration, by a number of authors

      [Bookseller: Centralantikvariatet]
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        Calculating Machine. Specification. [British Patent] Number: 13,504. A.D. 1851. - De Colmar's Improved Calculating Machine (header on each text-page)

      London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, Published at the Great Seal Patent Office, 1857. Lex 8vo. Original printed blue front wrapper. A bit of soiling to extremities. 11, (1) pp + two large, folded lithographic plates, clothbacked. Blindstamped armorial ex-libris to both plates (Manchester Free Library, 1851).. Scarce original printed patent for the first commercially successful mechanical calculator, the first version of Colmar's seminal Arithmometer to be suitable for industrial production, marking the starting point of the mechanical calculator industry, which, in turn, led to the invention of the commercially successful personal computer. "Because it was the first mass marketed and the first widely copied calculator, its design marks the starting point of the mechanical calculator industry, which eventually morphed into the electronic calculator industry and which, through the accidental design of the first microprocessor to be commercialized, the Intel 4004, for one of Busicom's calculators in 1971, led to the first commercially available personal computer, the Altair in 1975. Its user interface was used throughout during the 120 years that the mechanical calculator industry lasted. First with its clones and then with the Odhner Arithmometer and its clones, which was a redesign of the arithmometer with a pinwheel system but with exactly the same user interface."Thomas de Colmar took out his first patent for his Arithmometer in Paris in 1820 and kept working on it over the years, continually improving it in order for it to reach a stage where it was no longer just a curious and impressive machine, but one that people would actually be able to use. Only in 1851 does his calculating machine (Aritmometer) reach a version suitable for commercial manufacture, and it is this version that is patented with the present publication. It seems likely that he took out this British patent (nr. 13,504) in connection with the Great Exhibition of 1851, where he presents his seminal device that was to become the first commercially successful mechanical calculator. It is only with this 1851-version that the seminal Thomas (Colmar) Arithmometer is ready for manufacture, and its debut of 1851 launched the mechanical calculator industry, which ultimately built millions of machines well into the 1970s. For almost forty years, from 1851 to 1887, the Arithmometer was the only type of mechanical calculator in commercial production and it was sold all over the world; after these ab. 40 years, all other calculating devices that were produced were clones of the Aritmometer. Eventually about twenty European companies built clones of the Arithmometer until the beginning of WWII.(see Chase G.C.: History of Mechanical Computing Machinery, Vol. 2, Number 3, July 1980, page 204, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing). As we all know, there had been attempts at constructing calculators before the time of Colmar (most famously, of course, by Pascal and Leibnitz), but these machines were often defective or very expensive, or both, and in all cases impossible to commercialize. One could say that the best of the earlier attempts did simply not appear at the right time - but Colmar's did. Thomas Colmar's arithmometer became such a great success, not because it was a unique invention, but rather rather due to the fact that Colmar began his work at a time when, first of all, the technologies for mass production had been invented (which was not the case in the 17th and 18th centuries), and secondly, but equally importantly, the application of it had major economic benefits. In order for the calculator to succeed as a commodity, there had to be two factors in play: a specific need that could not easily be satisfied by other means, and an economic reason for supporting the still high cost of such a device. These two factors came together in the insurance business, the business in which Colmar made his initial career. In 1819 he was appointed General Manager of the Phoenix insurance company, and later he founded the insurance companies "Soleil" and "Aigle".Colmar hat hit upon something essential at exactly the right time, and his perfectly developed 1851-version of his Arithmometer thus became a world-wide massive success, if ever there was one. It was introduced in the UK at the The Great Exhibition of 1851, the same year that true industrial production of it started.At the middle of the 19th century, with the industrial revolution, technological aid had to be made easy, and it is no wonder that more and more enterprises, scientific, military and government institutions became eager to accept a calculator - this was to be Colmar's calculator.The sturdy design of Colmar's calculator gave it a strong reputation of reliability and accuracy, contributing to its century-long production-period. This original patent was taken out in 1851, but it was not printed until 1857. In fact, until 1852, all British patents only existed in hand-written versions, and we owe the printed prodution of them to one man: Bennet Woodcroft. Woodcroft (1803 - 1879) was an English textile manufacturer, industrial archaeologist, pioneer of marine propulsion, and a leading figure in patent reform. He was the first clerk to the commissioners of patents.Upon the passing of the Patent Law Amendment Act of 1852 Woodcroft was chosen for the post of superintendent of specifications, and in 1864 he was appointed clerk to the commissioners of patents, with sole charge of the department. His administration was marked by remarkable ability and liberality, and he may be said to have originated and carried out the whole existing system. In the space of five years (i.e. from 1852-57), he printed and published the whole of the specifications from 1617 to 1852 - 14,359 in number, meaning that all British patents up until 1852 were first printed in this period. Copies of these printed patents were presented to all larger towns in the country

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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