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Displayed below are some selected recent viaLibri matches for books published in 1809

        Essay sur le principe de population, ou Exposé des effets passés at présens de l'action de cette cause sur le bonheur du genre humain; suivi de quelques recherches relatives à l'espérance de guérir ou d'adoucir les maux qu'elle entraîne. Traduit de l'Anglois Par Pierre Prevost. 3 Tomes.

      Paris & Genève, Chez J.J. Paschoud, 1809. 8vo. Bound in three nice uniform cont. hcalfbdgs. w. gilt backs, red leather title-labels w. gilt lettering and gilt round green tome-labels on backs. Capitals w. a bit of wear. Internally nice and clean. W. half-titles in all three volumes and advertisement-leaf in vol. one. XIII, (1), 424, (5); (6), 395, (1); (4), 392 pp.. First French edition of this political and economic classic, which constitutes Malthus' first major publication and his main work, because of which he is considered the father of demography and the main source of inspiration of Darwin and Wallace.The first edition was printed anonymously in London in 1798, and in 1803 the second edition, which also according to Malthus himself can be said to constitute a new work, appeared; -the great quarto edition from 1803 is thoroughly revised and much enlarged, the title has been changed and Malthus' name appears on the title-page, it is on this edition that all the preceding editions are based, and in consequence also the early translations. All the later editions were minor revisions of the second one. In 1807 the fourth edition appeared, and in 1809 the first French one, which is translated from the revised fourth edition ("A la suite de cette préface on trouve dans la 4.e édition, sur laquelle je traduis, une notice de tous les changements que la 3.e édition a apportés à la 2.e. Le plus considérable est celui qui a rapport à l'estimation de la fécondité des mariages. Il est absolument inutile pour les lecteurs francois de connoître le détail minutieux des autres changemens, qui ne peuvent intéresser que les acquéreurs des précédentes éditions. P.P.p", Préface, p. xxiij). New revisions of the text kept appearing till the sixth edition in 1826.The book, then as now, is considered highly controversial, and it has influenced all demographers ever since, as well as being of immense importance to the study of economic theory and genetic inheritance. "The "Essay" was highly influential in the progress of thought in the early nineteenth-century Europe.... "Parson" Malthus, as Cobbett dubbed him, was for many, a monster and his views were often grossly misinterpreted.... But his influence on social policy, whether for good or evil, was considerable. The Malthusian theory of population came at the right time to harden the existing feeling against the Poor Laws and Malthus was a leading spirit behind the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834." (PMM 251).Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834), called the "enfant terrible" of the economists, was an English demographer, statistician and political economist, who is best known for his groundbreaking views on population growth, presented in his "Essays on the Principle of Population", which is based on his own prediction that population would outrun food supply, causing poverty and starvation. Among other things this caused the legislation, which lowered the population of the poor in England. Malthus actually turned political, economic and social thought upside down with this work, which has caused him to be considered one of the 100 most influential persons in history (Hart, The 100: A Ranking of the most Influential Persons in History, 1978). Of course, he was condemned by Marx and Engels, and opposed by the socialists universally, but the work was of immense impact on not only politics, economics, social sciences etc, but also on natural sciences. "Later in the "Origin of Species" he [Darwin] wrote that the struggle for existence "is the doctrine of Malthus applied with manifold force to the whole animal and vegetable kingdoms; for in this case there can be no artificial increase of food, and no prudential restraint from marriage" [p. 63]. Alfred Russel Wallace, who arrived at a worked-out formulation of the theory of evolution at almost precisely the same time as Darwin, acknowledged that "perhaps the most important book I read was Malthus's "Principles of Population" (My Life, p. 232). Although there were four decennial censuses before Malthus' death, he did not himself analyze the data, although he did influence Lambert Quetelet and Pierre Verhulst, who made precise statistical studies on growth of populations in developed countries and showed how the early exponential growth changed to an S curve." (DSB, IX, p. 69).As Malthus realized that his theories were not satisfactorily presented or sufficiently demonstrated in the first edition from 1798, he travelled for three years through Europe gleaning statistics, and then published the second edition in 1803. Among other places he travelled through France and Switzerland in 1802, and his detailed diaries of these journeys provided him with some of the evidence necessary for the development of his theory on population growth. The observational information that he gathered on his travels in Europe were crucial to the development of his theories, which also means that the work is of great interest for other European countries, and not only Britain. "In 1819 the Royal Society elected Malthus to a fellowship. He was also a member of the French Institute and the Berlin Academy, and a founding member of the Statistical Society (1834)." (DSB, IX, p. 67). Printing and the Mind of Man 251

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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        Theoria motus corporum coelestium in sectionibus conicis solem ambientium.

      Hamburg: Frid. Perthes & I.H. Besser, 1809. 4to. Contemp. hcalf, spine gilt and titlelabel in red leather with gilt lettering. Corners bumped. Marbled covers. XI,(1),227,(1 Errata),20 (tables) pp. and 1 folded engraved plate. The first 2 leaves with light browning and a small stamp (margins). A few scattered brownspots. Internally a fine wide-margined copy.. First edition of this milestone work in mathematical statistics, in which Gauss revealed for the first time his method of least squares. On January 1, 1801, the Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi discovered the planetoid Ceres, but could only observe it for few days before it was lost in the glare of the Sun until the end of the year. After so many months of not being observed it was not possible to calculate with existing methods at which position it should reappear. Gauss, however Gauss, at an age of 24, astounded the world, when in December of that same year he predicted the exact location at which Ceres could again be observed. He did not reveal how he had calculated the orbit of Ceres. Only in 1809, when Gauss published his second book "Theoria motus corporum coelestium in sectionibus conicis solem ambientium" (the offered item), did he reveal his new method of orbit calculation. In the first part he dealt with differential equations, conic sections and elliptic orbits, while in the second part, the main part of the work, he showed how to estimate and then to refine the estimation of a planet's orbit using a new method involving minimizing the sum of squared residuals, i.e. the method of least squares. He was able to prove the correctness of the method under the assumption of normally distributed errors. It is here that the Gaussian curve, expressing statistical distribution in probability, makes its first appearance. This work, along with the 'Discuisitiones', was the fruit of the triumphal decade in Gauss' life and established his reputation as a mathematical and scientific genius of the first order. Hald: History of Mathematical Statistics 1750-1930, pp.351-357.Sparrow: Milestones of Science 81. Norman 879

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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        YOUNG (Thomas) The Croonian Lecture: On the Functions of the Heart and Arteries, p.1-31, presented within the complete volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol 99.

      * Here Young explained blood circulation and the function of the heart from a hydrodynamic standpoint, predicting that a relationship exists between arterial stiffness and pulse wave velocity, a relation which was only confirmed much later. Presented within the complete volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol 99, Parts I and II (complete), bound in one volume for 1809, comprising, viii, 187, 27, iv, [188-] 374, (6)pp large quarto, with 18 extending or folding engraved plates, library cloth with a neat unlinked library name stamp on general title, foot of last leaves and occasionally elsewhere, also an inked library stamp verso title, a good copy, London, Bulmer, sold by Nicol, printers to the Royal Society,1809. * A FULL LIST OF CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME SENT ON REQUEST. Other papers include: DAVY (Humphry) The Bakerian Lecture: An Account of Some New Analytical Researches on the Nature of Certain Bodies, Particularly the Alkalies, Phosphorus, Sulphur, Carbonaceous Matter, and the Acids Hitherto Undecompounded; With Some General Observations on Chemical Theory, pp.39-104; TROUGHTON (Edward) An Account of a Method of Dividing Astronomical and Other Instruments, by Ocular Inspection; In Which the Usual Tools for Graduating Are Not Employed; The Whole Operation Being So Contrived, That No Error Can Occur but What is Chargeable to Vision, When Assisted by the Best Optical Means of Viewing and Measuring Minute Quantities, pp.105-145; BRODIE (B. C.) Account of the Dissection of a Human Foetus, in Which the Circulation of the Blood Was Carried on without a Heart, pp.161-168; CAVENDISH (Henry) On an Improvement in the Manner of Dividing Astronomical Instruments, pp.221-231; HERSCHEL (William) Continuation of Experiments for Investigating the Cause of Coloured Concentric Rings, and Other Appearances of a Similar Nature, pp.259-302; HENRY (William) Experiments on Ammonia, and an Account of a New Method of Analyzing It, by Combustion with Oxygen and Other Gases, pp.430-449; DAVY (Humphry) New Analytical Researches on the Nature of Certain Bodies, Being an Appendix to the Bakerian Lecture for 1808, pp.450-470.

      [Bookseller: Jeffrey Stern Antiquarian Bookseller]
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        Raccolta di Cinquanta Costumi Pittoreschi

      Rome: Lorenzo Lazaro alle Covervile, 1809. Oblong folio. 10 1/2 x 15 7/8 inches). Engraved throughout: title and 50 plates, by Pinelli. Contemporary dark green half morocco over marbled paper-covered boards, small decorative green morocco title label. First edition of the first and best known collection of views of the picturesque costume of Italy. This highly evocative series was a justified 'best-seller' - published in various forms from 1808 to 1828, every 'grand tourist' would return with a copy of this work. The present example, a first edition, shows a crispness that tends to be lost with the later reprints. The images are by turns joyful, comedic, dramatic, tragic and work-a-day. All are engraved with a sureness of line and matchless sense of composition that are the hallmarks of Pinelli's work. The final plate represents the artist himself: Pinelli relaxes, his work done, seated on some Roman masonry, two dogs for company. Cicognara noted that : "Questi sono tolti la più parte dalle abitudini del popolo romano, e sono espressi con una verità e fedeltà insuperabile". Benezit X 951; Choix 17.803; Cicognara 1762; Colas 2370; Hiler 712; Lipperheide Ja12; Nagler XII 480 Nuc 459; Rossetti III n° 8195; Vinet 2294.

      [Bookseller: Donald Heald Rare Books ]
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