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        Napoleon Bonaparte Né 1769, Premier Consul en France 1799. Empereur de Francois 1804.

      Peint par Lefevre 1803. Gravé a Stockholm par J. Fred. Martin 1804. Plate mark 39,5 x 28 cm. The whole sheet 51,5 x 35,5 cm. Aquatint over etching, line engraving and roulette work. Printed on laid paper. Large margins. A tear to the right margin. A crease to the lower margin up to, but not into, the image area. A little dirt and foxing to the margins. Nice condition.. A fine portrait of Napoleon executed by the eminent swedish artist Johan Fredrik Martin (1755-1816) after an original by the french artist Robert Lefevre (1755-1830). Martin was educated in England in the 1770s. His main work was "Svenska Vuer", a great plate book in folio depicting towns and views from all over Sweden. He was also a very skilled portrait engraver. Here we have a fine example of such a work. A rare and sought after plate of Napoleon

      [Bookseller: Hammarlunds Antikvariat]
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        Philosophische Rechtslehre und Kritik aller positiven Gesetzgebung; mit Beleuchtigung der gewöhnlichen Fehler in der Bearbeitung des Naturrechts.

      Jena, 1803. 8vo. Cont. marbled boards. Spine w. lack of marbled paper and minor lack at capitals. Front hinge a bit weak. Title-pagewith a bit of brownspotting, otherwise nice and clean. XX, 179 pp.. The very rare first edition of Fries' highly influential first book, one of his main works, and a work of great importance to the development of German philosophy in the 19th and 20th centuries. In turn, Fries', now largely forgotten ideas, have been of profound influence on the likes of Popper, Jung, Hayek, etc.Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843), born in Barby, Saxony, studied at Leipzig and Jena. He became dozent at Jena in 1801, professor of philosophy and elementary mathematics at Heidelberg in 1805, and professor of philosophy in 1814. In 1816 Fries accepted the chair of theoretical philosophy at Jena.Fries was a disciple of Kant, although he did not agree with him on all points (e.g. on the notion of the "Ding an sich"), and he set out to reshape the field of critical philosophy - to great success, leaving behind the basis for a profoundly influencing school of philosophy, based on a psychology which went from metaphysics into empiricism, thereby embracing natural science.Fries was considered a thinker of great format, and he became a leading proponent of the empirical-psychological or anthropological critique of reason, which came to influence both contemporary, but especially later, thinkers profoundly. He went against the proponents of idealism and metaphysical logic and places the foundation for the critique of reason in the psychological analysis of the consciousness, thereby understanding the empirical psychology as the actual founding philosophical science.Fries begins his "Philosophische Rechtslehre", written 18 years before Hegel's "Grundlienien der Philosophie des Rechts" and four years after Kant's "Metaphysische Anfangsgrunde der Rechtslehre", by, for the first time in print, seminally stating the beginnings of that which was to become the guiding motive for almost all of his philosophy, and that which came to have so profound an influence on two centuries of philosophers, here applied to philosophy of law: "If we pose the question what just ("Recht") or unjust ("Unrecht") would be, then we are not out to discover, what usually happens, or what necessarily must happen in order to reach a certain goal, on the contrary, we assume a law ("Gesetz"), according to which some things are downright forbidden, other things allowed, according to which some things must happen, other things can happen; We thereby invoke the authority of an internal law, which simply and with no previous conditions dictates us what is going to happen or decides what could happen. When we ask what would be is just ("recht"), then we want to know what could or could not happen according to this inner law." (P. VI: "Wenn wir nach dem fragen, was Recht oder Unrecht sey, so ist es uns nicht darum zu thun zu erfahren, was gewöhnlich zu geschehen pflege, oder was nothwndig geschehen müsse, um einen gegebenen Zweck zu erreichen, sondern wir setzen ein Gesetz voraus, nach welchem einiges schlechthin geboten, anderes erlaubt ist, nach dem einiges geschehen soll, anderes geschehen darf; wir berufen uns dabey auf ein inneres Gesetz, welches uns schlechthin und ohne vorausgehende Bedingungen befiehlt, was geschehen solle oder bestimmt, was geschehen dürfe. Wenn wir fragen, was recht sey, so wollen wir wissen, was gemässdiesem inneren Gesetze geschehen könne oder nicht."). Fries' teaching formed the basis for the so-called "Neofriesian School" (neofriesianische Shule) with the ingenious thinker Leonard Nelson as the leader. The "Neofriesian School" concentrated on philosophy of law and especially on the foundational question of "Rationalisierung der rechtlich-volitiven" sphere, and with intervals it has had quite an influence on philosophical ever since its foundation. Again in recent times, have the teachings of Fries been awoken. A good example of this is provided by the electronic journal made in the tradition of the Friesian School: "Taking up again the tradition of the Friesian School, this is a non-peer-reviewed electronic journal and archive of philosophy, inaugurated on line July 6, 1996, four years before the end of the 20th Century, just as the brilliant, courageous, prolific, and little appreciated German philosopher Leonard Nelson (1882-1927) started his Abhandlungen der Fries'schen Schule, Neue Folge, attempting a "Reformation of Philosophy," four years after the beginning of the 20th Century." (The Proceedings of the Friesian School, Fourth Series)."The original Abhandlungen der Fries'schen Schule were published by Jakob Fries's principal student, Ernst Friedrich Apelt, from 1847 until his death in 1859. That was effectively the end, for the time being, of the Friesian School. The Friesian School has suffered more than once from the premature death of its principal exponent. Leonard Nelson rediscovered Fries's work while still a high school student, revived the tradition, usually referred to now as the Neo-Friesian School, and in 1904 began publishing the Abhandlungen der Fries'schen Schule, Neue Folge. Papers in the Abhandlungen remain of some note in the history of logic and mathematics, although the specifically Friesian material is, of course, largely ignored and forgotten. Nelson's efforts brought Fries to the notice of one of the most important 20th Century philosophers of religion Rudolf Otto (1869-1937), who then became an early collaborator with Nelson at the University of Göttingen. Nelson also influenced the great philosopher of science, Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994), who was a relative of one of Nelson's students, Julius Kraft (1898-1960). Popper and Kraft argued for years about Nelson's views, although Popper had described himself as a kind of Friesian. Popper's doctrine of falsification, in turn, based on the Friesian theory of justification, influenced his friend, the Nobel Laureate, Austrian School economist, Friedrich A. Hayek (1899-1992) (at left) in his theories of free market economics and constitutional government. Hayek, in turn, was one of the formative influences on the "Chicago" school of economics, which includes figures like Milton Friedman, Thomas Sowell, Gary Becker, etc. Otto's theory of "numinosity," based on the Friesian epistemology of Ahndung, came to be used by the founder of the "Chicago School" of history of religion, Mircea Eliade (1907-1986), and by the great psychologist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) (at right), whose ideas, on their philosophical side, were also formatively and independently influenced by Kant and Schopenhauer. Nelson's early death and the coming of National Socialism -- some in Nelson's group fled the very day of Hitler's appointment as Chancellor -- cut short the life of the School in Germany. The Abhandlungen der Fries'schen Schule were then discontinued in 1937." (The Proceedings of the Friesian School, Fourth Series)

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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        [Ellora, Dhumar Lena] Doomar Leyna [vol.VI, pl.IX]

      London: Published as the Act Directs for Thos. Daniell, Howland Street, Fitzroy Square, '1 June 1803' ' [watermarked 1809]. Aquatint by Thomas Daniell after James Wales, coloured by hand, on 'Whatman' wove paper. 21 x 29 inches. A stunning view of the Dhumar Lena, a cave-temple dating to the 6th century, from Thomas and William Daniell's celebrated book "Oriental Scenery". The Daniells' Oriental Scenery is considered one of the finest illustrated works on India. Thomas Daniell and his nephew William spent nine years in India making studies, sketches and drawings of the scenery, architecture, and antiquities that graced the countryside. They then devoted a further thirteen years to publishing their remarkably accurate aquatints. In Britain, the impact was explosive. A cult of Indian architecture, landscaping and interior decoration arose, with the Royal Pavilion at Brighton as its centerpiece. The Daniells gave the English public their first accurate look at the exotic sub-continent. Their great achievement still lies in their ability to blend the picturesque with the real, resulting in images that capture the European taste for the sublime landscape, while still remaining faithful to their subjects. The Daniells brought the romance of the English landscape to the antiquities of India and provided England with an accurate vision of this wondrous country. The sixth part of Oriental Scenery is twenty-four plates based on drawings by James Wales, primarily of the excavations at Ellora. The title of this section was Hindoo Excavations in the Mountain of Ellora , near Aurungabad in Decan... The mountain contains 34 "caves" that were created to serve as monasteries and temples for Buddhists, Hindus and Jains, each religion having several spaces. The present image is of "one of the earliest of the Hindu series [of cave-temples, which] is assigned to the 6th-century Kalachuri period ... The Dhumar Lena is ingeniously cut into the hillside so as to create multple entrances, with light flowing in from three directions." (India yesterday and today p. 198). Abbey Travel II. 420 no.110; Martinelli and Michell, India: Yesterday and Today, p. 198, no. 131.

      [Bookseller: Donald Heald Rare Books ]
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        [Do Tal, Ellora] Dotali [vol.VI, pl.XXI]

      London: Published as the Act directs by Thos. Daniell, Howland Street, Fitzroy Square, '1 June 1803. Aquatint by Thomas Daniell after James Wales, coloured by hand, on 'Whatman' wove paper. 21 1/2 x 27 3/4 inches. A stunning view of the cave-temple, known as Two-Storeyed, Do Tal, from Thomas and William Daniell's celebrated book "Oriental Scenery". The Daniells' Oriental Scenery is considered one of the finest illustrated works on India. Thomas Daniell and his nephew William spent nine years in India making studies, sketches and drawings of the scenery, architecture, and antiquities that graced the countryside. They then devoted a further thirteen years to publishing their remarkably accurate aquatints. In Britain, the impact was explosive. A cult of Indian architecture, landscaping and interior decoration arose, with the Royal Pavilion at Brighton as its centerpiece. The Daniells gave the English public their first accurate look at the exotic sub-continent. Their great achievement still lies in their ability to blend the picturesque with the real, resulting in images that capture the European taste for the sublime landscape, while still remaining faithful to their subjects. The Daniells brought the romance of the English landscape to the antiquities of India and provided England with an accurate vision of this wondrous country. The sixth part of Oriental Scenery is twenty-four plates based on drawings by James Wales, primarily of the excavations at Ellora. The title of this section was Hindoo Excavations in the Mountain of Ellora , near Aurungabad in Decan... The mountain contains 34 "caves" that were created to serve as monasteries and temples for Buddhists, Hindus and Jains, each religion having several spaces. Do Tal, here called Dotali, was one of the Buddhist "caves". It is three stories high and was built in the 8th century. Abbey Travel II.420 no.32; Martinelli and Michell, India: Yesterday and Today, p. 15, no 4

      [Bookseller: Donald Heald Rare Books ]
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        TOM THE PIPER'S SON. With all the fun That he had done And how at last he went to France to teach great Bonaparte to dance.

      16 pages, including self-wrappers. Illustrated with 16 woodcuts. Expert repair to spine; else in excellent condition.Rare, Worldcat shows 1 copy only. The British Libray, together with the Opies, date this as 1803, but we feel it may well be a little later.

      [Bookseller: David Miles]
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        Beschreibung von der Insel Ceylon, enthaltend Nachrichten von ihrer Geschichte, Geographie, Naturbeschreibung und von den Sitten und Gebräuchen ihrer verschiedenen Einwohner. Nebst dem Tagebuche einer Gesandtschaftsreise an den Hof des Königs von Candy. Aus dem Englischen mit Anmerkungen und mit einem Zusatze über die Perlenfischerrey übersetzt von J.A. Bergk. Leipzig, Rein, 1803. XVI, 510 S., 1 Bl. Mit 1 mehrfach gefalt. Kupferstichkarte. Hldr. d. Zt. m. RSch. u. RVerg. (Rücken etwas fleckig).

      Engelmann I, S. 130; Griep/Luber II, 1060.- Erste deutsche Ausgabe.- Captain Percival (1765-1826) kam nach seinem Militäreinsatz in der Kapkolonie 1797 mit den englischen Truppen auf die Insel. Er blieb drei Jahre und erlebte die Vertreibung der Holländer.- Alter Stempel auf dem Titel; papierbedingt leicht gebräunt und stockfleckig.

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Schramm]
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        Constitutions-Buch der rechtmäßigen und vollkommenen Loge freier und angenommener Maurer Archimedes zu den drei Reissbrettern in Altenburg. Gedruckt als Manuskript für Brüder.

      2 Bll., 243 S. Blauer Pappband d. Zt. Folio. 30 x 19 cm. Wolfstieg 20834: "Selten. Im Anhang Studien von J. A. Schneider über Geschichte der Frmrei, der Loge Archimedes, über maur. Rechtsverhältnisse" u.a. - Etwas berieben und bestoßen. Altes Exemplar einer Logenbibliothek.

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Turszynski]
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        Titan. 4 Tle. (Und:) Komischer Anhang zum Titan. 2 Tle. Zus. 6 Tle. in 3 Bänden.

      Mit 4 gest. Titelblättern. Grüne Pappbde. d. Zt. mit rotem Rückenschild. Goed. V, 464, 14. Berend 13a und 14. - Erste Ausgabe. - Hauptwerk Jean Pauls, sein "Kardinal- und Hauptroman... (das) liebste und beste unter seinen Werken... der größte Roman deutscher Sprache" (W. Harich). - Berieben und bestoßen. Etwas fleckig und tls. leicht gebräunt.

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Turszynski]
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        An account of the late improvements in galvanism, with a series of curious and interesting experiments

      London: Cuthell and Martin; J. Murray, 1803. No Dust Jacket. Medical Electricity and “Frankenstein” Aldini, Giovanni (1762-1834). An account of the late improvements in galvanism, with a series of curious and interesting experiments. . . . 4to. xi [1], 221 [3, incl. adverts. leaf]pp. 4 engraved plates, engraved vignette on title illustrating the medal struck in Aldini’s honor by the faculties of Guy’s and St. Thomas’s Hospitals. London: Cuthell and Martin; J. Murray, 1803. 278 x 202 mm. Quarter morocco, marbled boards in period style. Tears in title repaired, unobtrusive library stamps on title and plates, otherwise very good. First Edition, including the First Editions in English of Aldini’s Dissertationes duae (1794). Aldini, the nephew of Galvani, was the premier apologist for his uncle’s theories of animal electricity. His Account of the Late Improvements represents his first book-length treatment of galvanism; it was translated from his original French manuscript, and included supplements taken from his previous short papers in Latin, as well as an account of Aldini’s sensational galvanic experiments performed on executed criminals. This work, which is rare on the market, is in many ways the most dramatic of all the early works on medical electricity. Aldini’s book was the outcome of a successful tour of England, during which he demonstrated aspects of galvanism at hospitals and on the body of a murderer, George Foster, who had been executed at Newgate Prison on 18 January 1803. This last demonstration, during which “the jaw began to quiver, the adjoining muscles were horribly contorted and the left eye actually opened” (p. 193), seized the imagination of the British public and remained an enduring theme in popular culture. Mary Shelley, who knew of Aldini’s work, used the idea of galvanic reanimation to brilliant effect in her classic novel Frankenstein (1818). Aldini’s experiments on cadavers were important for the development of cardiac electrostimulation, while his successful treatment of “melancholy madness” (schizophrenia) with electricity anticipated modern electroshock therapy. Aldini performed his Newgate experiments with the help of Joseph Carpue, who published the first English book on medical electricity later that same year (Garrison-Morton 1989). Garrison-Morton 1989.1. Schechter, “Background of clinical cardiac electrostimulation,” N. Y. State J. Med. (1971-72), p. 2578. Licht, “History of electrotherapy,” Ther. Elect. & Ultraviolet Rad. (1967), pp. 25-26. Dibner, Galvani-Volta, pp. 21-24. Fulton & Cushing, A Bibliographical Study of the Galvani and the Aldini Writings on Animal Electricity (1936) No. 26.

      [Bookseller: Jeremy Norman's Historyofscience.com ]
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        Abhandlung über die Entbindungskunst.

      Gr.-folio. 7 n.n. Bl., 216 S., 24 n.n. Bl. Mit gestochener Titelvignette, 2 Anfangsvignetten, 46 gestochenen Kupfertafeln und 21 Vignetten im Text. Halblederband um 1840 mit rotem, goldgeprägtem Rückenschild und wenig Rückenvergoldung. 2 Teile in 1 Band. Waller 6594. - Hirsch-H. IV, 229. - Blake 307. - Garrison-M. 6161 (für Ausabe St. Petersburg 1791). - HOH 1161 (ebenfalls für Ausgabe 1791). - Titelauflage der ersten Ausgabe von 1791 bei der nur das Titelblatt mit dem Verlag und Erscheinungsjahr verändert wurde, ansonsten identisch mit der Erstausgabe. Mohrenheim wurde Leibarzt von Katharina II, auf deren Befehl das Werk gedruckt wurde. Die Qualität der 46 Tafeln, die meist in Lebensgrösse gestochen sind, machen das Buch zu einem der berühmtesten Werke der Geburtshilfe des 18. Jahrhunderts. - Titelblatt angestaubt und mit alter Papierrestauratur am unteren Rand. Das erste nicht nummerierte Blatt des Inhaltsverzeichnis mit Japanpapier geklebt. Marmorpapierbezug des Einbanddeckels verblasst. Ecken etwas bestossen. - Résumé: Reissue (Titelauflage) of the first edition (1791). Mohrenheim became personal physician of Katharina II. She instigated Mohrenheim for this work. With 46 copper plates with life-sized images. Half calf about 1840 (bumped). - Titel and the first not numbered leaf with repairings.

      [Bookseller: EOS Buchantiquariat Benz]
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        Works of Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Viscount St. Alban, and Lord High Chancellor of England, The

      1803. A Fine Set of Bacon’s WorksBACON, Francis. The Works of Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Viscount St. Alban, and Lord High Chancellor of England. In Ten Volumes. London: Printed for J. Johnson…by H. Bryer, 1803.Ten octavo volumes (9 1/8 x 5 3/8 inches; 231 x 136 mm.). Engraved frontispiece portrait by James Fittler in Volume I.Bound (by Bickers?) for Blackwell (stamp-signed on the verso of the front free endpaper) in early twentieth-century maroon scored calf. Covers ruled in gilt, smooth spines ruled and lettered in gilt, gilt turn-ins decoratively tooled in gilt, marbled endpapers, edges sprinkled green. A near fine set.Comprising, Volume I: The Life of the Lord Chancellor Bacon, Of the Advancement of Learning, Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (Centuries I-VIII); Volume II: Sylva Sylvarum (Centuries IX-X), Physiological Remains, Medical Remains, Medical Receipts, Works Moral, [and] Theological Works; Volume III: Works Political; Volume IV: Law Tracts [and] Maxims of the Law; Volume V: Writings Historical [and] Letters; Volume VI: Letters (continued) [and] Letters, Speeches, Charges, Advices, &c.…Volume VII: Instauratio magna; Volume VIII: Instaurationis magna pars II, III and IV; Volume IX: Instaurationis magnae pars V, Opuscula philosophica, [and] Opera civilia et moralia; Volume X: Opera civilia et moralia (continued), De sapientia veterum, Meditationes sacrae, [and] Epistolae.

      [Bookseller: David Brass Rare Books, Inc. ]
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        An Essay on the Principle of Population; or, a View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness; with an Inquiry into our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occations. A New Edition, very much Enlarged.

      London, Printed for J. Johnson, by T. Bensley, 1803. Large 4to. Later brown hcalf w. four raised bands, single gilt lines and red leather title-label on back. First three and last 14 leaves a bit brownspotted, t-p. and last two leaves marginally repaired at hinge, otherwise a very nice, clean and solid copy. VIII, (4), 610 pp.. The Great Quarto-edition, being the second edition of this first and most influential book on population. The work was first printed anonymously in 1798. This edition, though being the second, may be considered as a new work, which Malthus himself also claimed; -it is thoroughly revised and much enlarged (nearly four times the length of the original essay), the title has been changed (the title of the first is merely: "An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society with Remarks on the Speculation of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers"), and with this edition, Malthus does accept authorship of the work (by not publishing it anonymously). All the later editions were minor revisions of this second one. "In the course of this inquiry, I found that much more had been done, than I had been aware of, when I first published the essay. The poverty and misery arising from a too rapid increase of population, had been distinctly seen, and the most violent remedies proposed, so long ago as the times of Plato and Aristotle. And of late years, the subject had been treated in such a manner, by some of the French economists, occasionally by Montesquieu, and, among our own writers, by Dr. Franklin, Sir James Steuart, Mr. Arthur Young, and Mr. Townsend, as to create a natural surprise, that it had not excited more of the publick attention" (Preface to the second edition, p. IV). The controversial views, because of which the work became so influential, are most provocative and eyeopening in the second edition, in which he for instance for the first time advocates moral restraint (meaning sexual abstinence and late marriage) and elaborately explains his comparison between the increase of population and food. "The "Essay" was highly influential in the progress of thought in the early nineteenth-century Europe.... "Parson" Malthus, as Cobbett dubbed him, was for many, a monster and his views were often grossly misinterpreted.... But his influence on social policy, whether for good or evil, was considerable. The Malthusian theory of population came at the right time to harden the existing feeling against the Poor Laws and Malthus was a leading spirit behind the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834." (PMM 251).Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834), called the "enfant terrible" of the economists, was an English demographer, statistician and political economist, who is best known for his groundbreaking views on population growth, presented in his "Essays on the Principle of Population", which is based on his own prediction that population would outrun food supply, causing poverty and starvation. Among other things this caused the legislation, which lowered the population of the poor in England. Malthus actually turned political, economic and social thought upside down with this work, which has caused him to be considered one of the 100 most influential persons in history (Hart, The 100: A Ranking of the most Influential Persons in History, 1978). Of course, he was condemned by Marx and Engels, and opposed by the socialists universally, but the work was of immense impact on not only politics, economics, social sciences etc, but also on natural sciences. For instance both Darwin and Wallace considered Malthus a main source in their development of the theory of natural selection, quoting him as being a great philosopher and his Essay on Population as being one of the most important books ever. "Malthus's idea of man's "Struggle for existence" had decisive influence on Charles Darwin and the theory of evolution. Other scientists related this idea to plants and animals which helped to define a piece of the evolutionary puzzle. This struggle for existence of all creatures is the catalyst by which natural selection produces the "survival of the fittest"... Thanks to Malthus, Darwin recognised the significance of intraspecies competition between populations of the same species (e.g. the lamb and the lamb), not just interspecies competition between species (e.g. the lion and the lamb). Malthusian population thinking also explained how an incipient species could become a full-blown species in a very short timeframe." (Wikipedia). The second edition must be considered the most important of all the editions. This is far more a work on the problems of over-population than it is a response to Godwin and Condorcet on their works (as is mainly the first edition). "Not so much shocked by his own conclusions, in his "Essay on Population" (first ed. 1798), as driven by a naturally inquiring mind, he travelled for three years through Europe gleaning statistics and then published a second edition (1803)." (Catlin, A History of the Political Philosophers, 1939, p. 377). Printing and the Mind of Man 251 (first edition)

      [Bookseller: Lynge & Søn A/S]
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