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Displayed below are some selected recent viaLibri matches for books published in 1556

        Le Antichitá de la Cittá di Roma. Brevißimamente raccolte da chiunque ne ha scritto, ò antico ò moderno;

      Venetia, Ziletti 1556.. kl.-8°. 12 Bll., 316 S. Mit gest. Titelvign. u. Initialen. Pgmt. d. Zt. m. goldgepr. Rückensch. In excellent condition. EA Cicognara 3787f.; Schudt 704 - Seltene, erste Ausgabe des Romführers mit Ulisse Aldrovandis Beschreibung der antiken Statuen, die auch Mitteilungen über zeitgen. Plastiken, wie die Werke Michelangelos enthalten

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Burgverlag]
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        JOANNIS LEONIS AFRICANI, DE TOTIUS AFRICAE DESCRIPTIONE, LIBRI IX. Quibus non solum Africae regionum, insularum, & oppidorum situs, locorumque intervalla accuratè complexus est, sed regum familias, bellorum causas & eventus, resque in ea memorabiles, tam à seipso diligenti observatione indagatas, quam in veris Maurorum annalibus memoriae traditas, copiose descripsit, recens in Latinam linguam conversi Joan. Floriano interprete

      Antwerp: Johannes de Laet, 1556. First Edition of the Latin translation of this seminal book by Hasan ben Muhamed el-Wazzan-ez-Zayyati (1485-1552), known by his Latin name Johannes Leo Africanus. . Engraved title-page with the vignette and woodcut initials. 8vo, Late 17th or early 18th century French polished calf, the covers with single fillet line at the borders, elaborately decorated in gilt on the spine within compartments separated by double gilt fillet lines, redmorocco lettering label gilt, period marbled endleaves, edges stained red, armorial bookplate. 332 pp. A very fine copy, text very bright and clean, a touch of very occasional toning, hinges strong and sound, the binding in very pleasing and well preserved condition. VERY IMPORTANT AND RARE FIRST EDITION OF THE PRIZED LATIN TRANSLATION OF THE FIRST GREAT WORK ON AFRICA. During the years 1511-1517 Leo Africanus traveled to Fez, Morocco, Tunis, and across the Sahara Desert to Timbuktu. He visited the native sates on the Upper Niger to Kario, Houssa, Bornou and Lake Chad. He also made a voyage to Constantinople and Egypt and then crossed the Red Sea to Arabia. He was subsequently captured by the Venetians and presented to Pope Leo X whose name Leo he adopted as his surname. The Pope persuaded him to translate the Arabian manuscript account of his travels into Italian. The account was then translated by Floreanu into Latin. This is generally considered to be the first book published in Europe by a person of primarily African descent. The book was considered the most important on the geography of Africa and an especially important source for all information on the continent. The book was printed in a multitude of languages over hundreds of years after the first Italian and Latin editions were issued. The English translation did not appear until 1600. Until the great European voyages and explorations into Africa in the 1600’s and 1700’s, Leo Africanus’ work was considered the primary source for all studies on the Sudan and even of Africa. First edition copies in condition such as this are very rare on the open market.

      [Bookseller: Buddenbrooks, Inc.]
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        Cronica generale d'Hispagna, et del regno di Valenza. Nella qvale si trattano gli avenimenti, & guerre, che dal diluuio di Noe insino al tempo del re Don Giaime d'Aragona, che acquisto Valenza in Spagna si seguitarono

      Vinegia: Appresso Gabriel Giolito de' Ferrari,, 1556. *The price of this item HAS BEEN temporarily REDUCED until Sunday, July 28. Order now for BEST SAVINGS! (sale item) composta dall' eccellente M. Anton Beuter, maestro in sacra theologia, & nuouamente tradotta in lingua italiana dal S. Alfonso d'Vlloa ; con dve tavole, la prima de' capitoli, & la seconda delle cose piu notabili.; 14.5 cm. tall, [38 leaves] (beginning with title and including a double page map), 533, [1] (colophon) pp.; later marbled paper covered boards with calf spine now rubbed and worn, new endpapers added but title detached, the map cut short at bottom margin with loss of border and small portion of North Africa, the central image of Spain is not damaged, general light age toning to text, the second map mentioned is not present; A translation of the first part of "Coronica general de toda Espana",. Photos available upon request.

      [Bookseller: Zubal Books]
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        Wintertheil der Postill oder Predigbuchs. Evangelischer warheyt und rechter Catholischer Lehr uber die Evangelien, so nach Ordnung der Allgemeynen Kirchen, vom Advent an, biß auff Ostern gelesen werden, und auff jeden Sontag Zehen sonderlicher Predig Allen Gottßförchtigen, Guthertzigen, vnd sonderlich dem eynfältigen gemeynen Christlichen Volck zu nutz, Wolfart, vnd Trost, Im Löblichen Ertzdhomstifft zu Meyntz, Durch ... Herrn Johan Wild, Dhomprediger daselbs, gepredigt vnd in diese Form gestelt. Herausgeber Philipp Agricola

      Mainz, Behem 1556. 34 cm. (4), 607, (1) Blatt mit 23 Textholzschnitten. Blindgeprägter Leder-Band der Zeit über Holzdeckeln - NDB V, 101f (vgl.) - VD16 W 2988 - Welzig 2 (vgl.) - Wild (1494 - 1554), Franziskaner und Domprediger zu Mainz, war einer der berühmtesten Kanzelredner des 16. Jahrhunderts. "Seine Kanzelreden, die er alle niederschrieb, zeichnen sich durch Friedensliebe und Milde aus - er will nicht "Christen wider Christen hetzen" und nennt Luther namentlich - und legen großen Wert auf die Erklärung der Liturgie" (NDB). Einige der Holzschnitte monogr. "AH" (Nagler, Monogr. III, 587). Bestoßen, Rücken vollständig und Deckel stellenweise neu bezogen, in den Deckeln Wurmlöcher, Schließen entfernt, im Text vereinzelt Wurmspuren, Blattränder stellenweise fleckig, Titel und 2 Blatt durch Faksimile ergänzt, Stempel auf Widmung und Blatt 1. -

      [Bookseller: Wenner Antiquariat]
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        De re metallica libri XII. - De animantibus subterraneis liber

      Basel: Hieronymus Froben and Nicholas Episcopius, 1556 Book. Near Fine. Hardcover. 1st Edition. Folio - over 12 - 15" tall. Folio (320x195 mm). [10], [2: blank], 538 [i.e. 502], [74] pp. With woodcut printer's marks on title and bb6v, 2 folding woodcut plates inserted after i2 (the first plate shaved at fore-edge just into image, the second trimmed at head), about 270 woodcut illustrations and diagrams in text (many full page). Mainly marginal wormholes (heavier in final 17 leaves of index affecting a few letters), old inscription crossed off title-page, occasional very light marginal spotting, tear reinforced on p.453. 17th-century full calf, decorated boards with blind fillets, roll-stamps and fleurons, spine with 5 raised bands, richly gilt in compartments, blue edges (slightly rubbed, some worming to spine and boards). A very fine copy in a beautiful near-contemporary binding, interior bright and clean. Collated complete. ----- Dibner 88, Horblit 2b, PMM 79, Norman 20, Adams A-349; Brunet I, 113; Duveen pp.4-5; Hoover 17. - FIRST EDITION OF 'THE FIRST SYSTEMATIC TREATISE ON MINING AND METALLURGY AND ONE OF THE FIRST TECHNOLOGICAL BOOKS OF MODERN TIMES' (PMM). De re metallica combines a profound technical and financial knowledge of mining with an underlying interest in the health and daily routine of mine workers. The twelve books include important sections on mechanical engineering, the use of water-power, blowing of furnaces, transport of ores, and 'embrace everything connected with the mining industry and metallurgical processes, including administration, prospecting, the duties of officials and companies, and the manufacture of glass, sulphur and alum' (PMM). The fine series of almost 300 woodcuts, some signed with the monogram 'RMD', were used for 101 years in seven editions, and are generally attributed to Hans Rudolf Manuel Deutsch (fl.1525-1572) or, less commonly, Blasius Weffring..

      [Bookseller: Milestones of Science Books]
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        De Re Metallica

      Translated from the First Latin Edition of 1556 by Herbert Clark Hoover; With Biographical Introduction, Annotations, and Appendices... by Herbert Clark Hoover and Lou Henry Hoover. Approximately 300 illustrations reproduced from the woodcuts in the Latin edition. Autographed inscription by Herbert Hoover on note paper mounted on front free endpaper. [xxxi], 637 pp (partially uncut). (33.8 x 21 cm). Quarter vellum, cream colored cloth, lettered in black on backstrip. Light wear (tear in fly leaf), very good copy in custom designed clamshell case. With hand calligraphed bookplate, dated February 6, 1986, Stanford University, commerating the gift of this copy of the volume "In honor of Ida and Cecil Green on the occasion of their sixtieth wedding anniversary" and signed by the three donors.

      [Bookseller: Bauer Rare Books]
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        Lyttilton Tenures Truelye Translated into Englishe

      1556. Littleton, Sir Thomas [1402-1481]. Lyttilton Tenures Truelye Translated into Englishe. [Imprinted at Londo[n] in Fletestrete Near to S. Dunstones Church. By Thomas Marshe, Anno 1556]. 180, [2] ff. Octavo (5-1/4" x 3-1/2"). Eighteenth-century calf, gilt fillets and lettering piece to spine. Some rubbing to extremities, corners bumped and lightly worn, a few minor nicks and scratches, a few vertical creases to spine, armorial bookplate (of Guy Phillips) to front pastedown. Title printed within woodcut architectural border. Light toning to text, edges trimmed closely with some loss to fore-edge of title page and a few headlines and side-notes, chips to fore-edges of ff. 10 and 27 repaired. Early annotations to title page and a few leaves, interior otherwise clean. * Written during the reign of Edward IV [1442-1483] and first published around 1481, Littleton's Tenures is the first English treatise on a specific topic and probably the most revered treatise in the history of the common law. Much admired for its learning and style, it is concerned with tenures and other issues relating to real property. This venerable work, which Coke called "the ornament of the Common Law, and the most perfect and absolute work that ever was written in any humane science," is considered a landmark because it renounced the principles of Roman law (and Latin) in favor of guidelines and doctrines drawn from the Year Books and, when necessary, hypothetical cases. "Five books stand out pre-eminently in the history of English law - Glanvil, Bracton, Littleton, Coke, and Blackstone, and of these Littleton's book is the first great book upon English law.... It showed that [the common law] possessed principles and doctrines of its own which were scientifically exact and yet eminently practical, because they were founded upon the actual problems of daily life" (Holdsworth). OCLC locates two copies (at Harvard Law School and Cambridge University). The ESTC locates another copy at the William Salt Library, England. Holdsworth, A History of English Law II:573. English Short-Title Catalogue (ESTC) S3242. Beale, Bibliography of Early English Law Books T47.

      [Bookseller: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.]
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        Praxis Rerum Criminalium: Praetoribus, Propraetoribus, Consulibus,

      1556. Damhouder, Josse (Joost) de [1507-1581]. Praxis Rerum Criminalium, Elegantissimis Iconibus ad Materiam Accommodis Illustrata, Praetoribus, Propraetoribus, Consulibus, Proconsulibus, Magistratibus, Reliquisque id Genus Iustitiariis ac Officiariis, Non Modo Utilis Sed & Necessaria. Antwerp: Apud Ioannem Bellerum, 1556. [x], 567, [98], [1] pp. 55 large woodcuts depicting crimes and punishments in text. Octavo (6-1/4" x 4"). Later three-quarter calf over marbled boards, rebacked, raised bands and gilt title to spine, edges rouged, corners mended, endpapers renewed. Some rubbing to extremities, heavier rubbing to boards, front hinge cracked. Light toning to text, faint dampstaining in places, light soiling to title page. Annotations in early hand to title page and several places in text, some affected by trimming of margins. A nice copy. * Second (or third) edition. First published in Leuven and Antwerp in 1554, this was the first comprehensive study of criminal procedure published in northern Europe. A synthetic work drawn mostly from Roman-Dutch sources, it was based on Philip Wielant's Practycke Crimineele [editions from 1439 to 1519] and other earlier treatises. Published in Latin, Dutch and French, it was standard authority throughout the continent for many years. This edition is illustrated throughout with woodcuts depicting adultery, murder, theft and many other crimes. Damhouder was an advisor to the Duke of Burgundy and a prolific author of legal and religious treatises. Dekkers, Bibliotheca Belgica Juridica 44.

      [Bookseller: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.]
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        Tractatus brevis et utilis, de erigendis figuris coeli, verificationibus, revolutionibus et directionibus

      Wittenberg: G. Rhaus Erben, 1556. Hardcover. Very Good. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 8vo. [16 x 10 cm], 104 ff. with two folding tables. Bound in rubricated vellum (music manuscript) with title on spine. Extensive annotations on front endpaper (religious), title page (with a dedication from Garcaeus to Jacob Milich), and on the first of several extra blanks bound in at end; scattered annotations and corrections. Strip of the lower margin of A2 replaced, not affecting the text. [Bound with:]_____. Tractatus brevis et utilis proponens methodum doctrinae eclipsium. Wittenberg, Joh. Crato, 1556. 80 ff., with a folding table of declinations not called for by Zinner. Extensive annotations on title page (with a dedication from Garcaeus to Milich), scattered annotations and corrections. [And with:]REINHOLD, Erasmus. Themata, quae continent methodicam tractationem de Horizonte rational ac sensili deque mutatione horizontium et meridianorum. Wittenberg, Joseph Clug, 1541. 12 ff. Strip of the lower margin of B4 replaced, not affecting the text. Light foxing to second t.p., one quire toned, marginal waterstain to last few leaves. Otherwise excellent.Rare first edition of the Tractatus de erigendis figures coeli, documenting Copernican influence on 16th-century astronomical literature, with two ex dono dedications to the Wittenberg mathematician and physician Jacob Milich, (see below)-indicating that Milich, whose numerous collaborations with Melanchthon are already well-documented, was a here-to-fore unknown of the Wittenberg Circle, the informal group of Copernicans centered around Rheticus and Reinhold.The present work is essentially astrological, dealing chiefly with the casting of horoscopes. It thereby reflects, however, the mathematical rigor that 16th C astronomers applied to astrological prediction: Garcaeus insists upon an accurate astronomical basis for such predictions, citing Copernicus more than twenty times and drawing upon Copernicus's calculations to get celestial positions of the planets. The second Tractatus, an extremely rare astronomical text published the same year by another Wittenberg publisher, also includes references to Copernicus. Such references are clear evidence that only 13 years after the publication of De Revolutionibus, Copernicus was well-known and esteemed as a mathematician and astronomer, and his name was appearing frequently in print. Both works are dedicated by Garcaeus to Jacob Milich (1501-1559), the astronomer, physician, and professor of mathematics at Wittenberg from at least 1535, where he presided as Dean of Arts during a public "Oratio de dignitate astrologiae," written by himself or possibly Melanchthon. Milich evidently taught at the university from 1535 onward (placing him in Wittenberg during the first printing of De rev in 1543), and "seems to have been such a close collaborator in Melanchthon's cause that even his contemporaries mistook Milich's commentary on the second book of [Pliny] . . . as a work by Melanchthon" (Kusukawa). Indeed, Garcaeus' respect for the physician's learning is such that, among the genitures of "learned men" printed in his Astrologiae methodus (Basel 1576), Milich's geniture is given prior to those of Copernicus, Camerarius, Erasmus and even Melanchthon himself-prior to every contemporary, in fact, but Reinhold, who authored the third work in the present volume. Among Milich's medical works, Thorndike also records orations on the lives of Galen and Avicenna, and anatomical and cardiac treatises printed among Melanchthon's Declamationes (1558). Milich is also the namesake of the lunar crater Milichius.Johannes Garcaeus (1530-1575) was a German astronomer, mathematician, meteorologist and astrologer who studied at Wittenberg. The works of Erasmus Reinhold, professor of Mathematics at Wittenberg, also promoted Copernicanism. This first

      [Bookseller: Martayan Lan, Inc.]
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        Thesaurus M. Tullii Ciceronis

      Carolum Stephanum (Charles Estienne), Paris, 1556. First Edition. Hardcover (Full Leather). Good Condition. Period full calf, worn, hinges cracked, spine degraded, corners worn. Boards sewn back on some time ago to strengthen the weakening cords and are holding but loose; long, wide scrape on rear cover. Scattered foxing and toning, old stamp and stains to title, wear to final page; printers device on title, colophon on final page. Charles Estiennes impressive collection of Ciceronian Latin based in large part on Nizzoli's work, and one of the great works of the 16th century Ciceronian movement, along with Robert Estiennes 1532 thesaurus. Nizzoli had earlier published an augmented version of Robert Estienne's Linguae Latinae Thesaurus, adding many words that Robert had intentionally omitted and incurring his wrath. Lacking front blank, otherwise complete; in two columns, (vi), 1591. Adams S, 1746. Size: Folio. Quantity Available: 1. Shipped Weight: Under 1 kilo. Category: Language & Linguistics; Antiquarian & Rare. Inventory No: 043239. .

      [Bookseller: Pazzo Books]
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        De re metallica, libri XII:

      Basle: Hieronymus Froben and Nicolaus Bischoff, March, 1556. quibus Officia, Instrumenta, Machinae, ac omnia denique ad Metallicam spectantia, non modo luculentissimè describuntur, sed & per effigies, suis locis insertas, adiunctis Latinis, Germanicisque appellationibus ita ob oculos ponuntur, ut clarius tradi non possint. Eiusdem De animantibus subterraneis Liber, ab Autore recognitus: cum Indicibus diversis, quicquid in opere tractatum est, pulchrè demonstrantibus. Folio (317 × 219 mm) in sixes, complete with blank leaf [alpha]6. Seventeenth-century calf, skilfully rebacked with original spine laid down, relined, spine gilt in compartments, red morocco label, double gilt rules. Woodcut title device, repeated on Bb6v, 2 woodcut plates (edges folded in), woodcut illustrations and diagrams in the text, white-on-black initials. Roman, Greek, and gothic types. Binding rubbed and with light scoring, early manuscript notes at head of title; an excellent copy, clean and well-margined, of an important book not uncommonly found in poor state. First edition. "The first systematic treatise on mining and metallurgy and one of the first technological books of modern times" (PMM). The book is extensively illustrated with a fine series of almost 300 woodcuts, some signed with the monogram "RMD", generally attributed to Hans Rudolf Manuel Deutsch (fl. 1525–1572) or, less commonly, Blasius Weffring. Preparation of the woodcuts delayed publication until four months after the author's death. Mining as an industry underwent dramatic changes in medieval Europe, with the centre of technological development being central Europe. From his base in Saxony, the prodigiously scholarly Georgius Agricola (the Latinized name of Georg Pawer) was ideally placed to discuss the technologies used, the chemistry behind the processes of mineral extraction, and – reflecting his role as town physician at Joachimsthal, a centre of mining and smelting works – the health and daily routine of mine workers. One of the prime issues confronting medieval miners (and one which Agricola explains in detail) was the removal of water from mining shafts. Written over a 20-year period between 1530 and 1550, the 12 books have an earlier treatise on subterranean zoology, De animantibus subterraneis (first published Basel: 1549), appended, and "embrace everything connected with the mining industry and metallurgical processes, including administration, prospecting, the duties of officials and companies, and the manufacture of glass, sulphur and alum" (PMM).

      [Bookseller: Peter Harrington]
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        Apophthegmatum ex Optimis Utriusque Linguae Scriptoribus

      Lyon: Jean Frellon, 1556. Octavo. (24), 1130, (22)pp. First Lyon edition of Wolffhart's encyclopedic collection of apothegms from Classical sources. This edition appears one year after the first edition, which was published by his brother-in-law in Basel, and it is one of a handful of editions that appeared within Wolffhart's lifetime. He died in 1561. The publisher Frellon is noted for printing the 1547 edition of Icones Historiarum Veteris Testamenti, with Holbein's woodcuts, as well as for introducing John Calvin to the Spanish ecclesiastical fugitive Michael Servetus in 1546. Rare: only four institutional holdings of this edition have been recorded worldwide, three of which are in the United States. Occasional underlining and sporadic marginalia. Light marginal wrinkling and few chips to extremities of title page, else a fine copy. In a later binding of full vellum over boards.

      [Bookseller: Bromer Booksellers]
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        Thesaurus M. Tullii Ciceronis

      Carolum Stephanum (Charles Estienne), Paris, 1556. First Edition. Hardcover (Full Leather). Good Condition. Period full calf, worn, hinges cracked, spine degraded, corners worn. Boards sewn back on some time ago to strengthen the weakening cords and are holding but loose; long, wide scrape on rear cover. Scattered foxing and toning, old stamp and stains to title, wear to final page; printers device on title, colophon on final page. Charles Estiennes impressive collection of Ciceronian Latin based in large part on Nizzoli's work, and one of the great works of the 16th century Ciceronian movement, along with Robert Estiennes 1532 thesaurus. Nizzoli had earlier published an augmented version of Robert Estienne's Linguae Latinae Thesaurus, adding many words that Robert had intentionally omitted and incurring his wrath. Lacking front blank, otherwise complete; in two columns, (vi), 1591. Adams S, 1746. Size: Folio. Quantity Available: 1. Shipped Weight: Under 1 kilo. Category: Language & Linguistics; Antiquarian & Rare. Inventory No: 043239. .

      [Bookseller: Pazzo Books]
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        Les Histoires de Dictis Cretensien, traitant des guerres de Troye, & du retour des Grecz en leurs pais, apres Ilion ruiné, interpretèes en francois. Par Ian de La Lande gentilhomme breton, de la maison de monseigneur le duc d'Anguien.

      Paris, Vincent Sertenas (par Estienne Groulleau 1556), 1556.In-8°, cc. (24), 146, al frontespizio marca tipografica incisa raffigurante due donne che sostengono un cerchio sormontato dal sole, con in basso il motto 'Vincenti non victo gloria', bei capilettera figurati all'inizio di ogni libro, legatura in pergamena floscia con laccetti applicati in epoca più recente. Traduzione francese di questo testo molto raro scritto da Ditti Cretese, che si presume sia stato il cronista della guerra di Troia al fianco del re di Creta Idomeneo, viene considerato l'autore di un 'opera su tavolette in lingua Fenicia che venne ritrovata ai tempi dell'Imperatore Nerone. Brunet II, 699

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Xodo]
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        THOMAE DE VIO CAIETANI CARDINALIS TITULI S. XYSTI IN PRAEDICABILIA PORPHYRII Praedicamenta & libros posteriorum analyticorum Aristotelis castigatissima commentaria, nunc primum ab innumeris erroribus diligentissime castigata

      APUD IUNTAS 1556 In 4. Dim. 33x22,5 cm. Pp. 8 (n.n.)+111. Interessante e rara giuntina del 1556 stampata a Venezia, eredi di Giunta Lucantonio di questa interessante opera di Thomas de Vio Caietani (1469-1534) originario di Gaeta (Latina). Caietano è considerato come uno dei primi pensatori che ha sistematizzato il pensiero di San Tommaso d'Aquino. De Vio commentò la "Summa theologica" di San Tommaso per lottare contro le tesi di Lutero. L'opera è un commentario all'analitica posteriore e predicamenti di Aristotele. Bella incisione all'interno. Bella marca editoriale che rappresenta giglio fiorentino che poggia su un'anfora. Ai lati iniziali L. A.. In cornice figurata con due putti che poggiano il piede sul giglio. Purtroppo l'ultima pagina 112 è l'unica mancante. Opera di grandi dimensioni. Legatura in pergamena con antiche note manoscritte e decorazioni al dorso. Antiche note manoscritte all'interno e disegni. Copertina in mezza pergamena coeva in discrete condizioni generali con usure e parti mancanti ai margini e dorso; segni di tarlo. Legatura in buone condizioni a parte le pagine da 105 a 111 staccate ma presenti. All'interno le pagine si presentano in buone condizioni con fioriture. Gore d'umidità al margine destro e superiore da 10 alla fine; al margine inferiore da pag. 43 alla fine. Parte mancante al margine di piegatura da pag. 49 a 64. Parte mancante al margine destro a pag. 64 senza perdita di testo. Pagina 112 mancante. Parti mancanti al contropiatto anteriore. Interesting and scarce Giunta edition of 1556 published in Venice, eredi di Giunta Lucantonio of this interesting work by Thomas de Vio Caietani (1469-1534) originated from Gaeta (Latina).Caietano is considered as one of the first scholar who systematized the thoughts of Saint Thomas d'Aquino. De Vio commented the "Summa theologica" of Saint Tommaso to fight against the thesis of Luther. The work is a commentary to the posterior analytic and the predicaments of Aristotle. Beautiful engraving inside. Beautiful editorial mark representine a Florence lily on an vase. On the sides initials L. A.. In figurated frame two childs. Unfortunately the last page 112 is missing. Work of big size. Parchment cover with manuscripted titles and decorations in the spine. Ancient manuscripted notes and drawings inside. Half parchment coeval cover in fair general conditions with wearings and missing parts in the edges and spine; woodworm sings. Binding in good conditions apart for pages from 105 until 111 detached but present. Inside pages are in good conditions with foxings. Humidity stains in the right edge and in the upper edge from page 10 until the end; in the lower edge from pag. 43 until the end. Missing part in the folding edge from pag. 49 until 64. Missing part in the right edge in pag. 64 with no loss of text. Page 112 is missing. Missing parts in the internal part of the front plate.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Sephora]
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        Dipnosophistarum sive coenae sapientium libri XV.

      S. Honoratus (colophon: Jacques Faure excudebat) 1556 In 8°; pagg. (24), 898, (28), 1 carta bianca; marca tipogr. al frontesp. Legatura in pergamena moderna con filetti oro e tit. al dorso. Ristampa in formato ridotto della prima ediz. latina pubblicata a Venezia, tradotta da Natale De Conti nello stesso anno. Tratta delle abitudini gastronomiche, del vino e del banchetto presso gli antichi. Esemplare ben conservato, leggera uniforme ossidazione della carta, firma di possesso al frontesp. leggermente erasa. Adams A-2098 cita l'edizione di Venezia, ma non conosce questa; Vicaire 50; Simon Bibliotheca Bacchica II 59.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Perini s.a.s.]
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        SUMMA OMNIUM CONCILIORUM

      IN AEDIBUS IOAN. STEELSII 1556 In 16. Dim. 15x10 cm. Pp. 8 (n.n.)+420. Importante opera del 1556, uno studio sulle dottrine conciliari di Bartolomeo Carranza (1503-1576). Carranza fu un importante teologo domenicano e giurista alla corte dell'Imperatore Carlo V e per un pò di tempo lavorò come Inquisitore nei Paesi Bassi. Tuttavia un anno dopo fu accusato di eresia ed imprigionato per sette anni. I testi più importanti su questi concilii vennero pubblicati con il suo commento. Il volume analizza la storia dei concilii papali da San Pietro fino a Papa Giulio II (1550-55). Diverse parti dedicate alle eresie protestanti ed a temi come stregoneria, magia, idolatria, eresia ecc... Opera collazionata e risultata completa. Numerazione singola. Tagli decorati a secco. Copertina in piena pergamena coeva con titolo manoscritto al dorso. In buone condizioni. Raro, alto valore. Copertina in pergamena coeva con titolo manoscritto al dorso in buone condizioni generali con lievi usure ai margini e dorso. Legatura in buone condizioni. All'interno le pagine si presentano in buone condizioni con fioriture e bruniture. Lievi gore di umidità marginali. Important work of 1556, a study about the concilium doctrines by Bartolomeo Carranza (1503-1576). Carranza was an important dominican theologist and jurist in the court of the Emperor Carlo V and for a short time worked as an Inquisitor in Netherlands. One year after was accused of heresy and imprisonned fo seven years. The most important texts about these councils were published with his comment. The volume analyzes the history of pope councils from Saint peter until the Pope Julius II (1550-55).Different parts are dedicated to protestant heresies and to themes as qitchery, magic, idolatry, heresy etc... Collationed and complete work. Single numbering. Embossed decorated external edges. Full parchment coeval cover with manuscripted title in the spine. In good conditions. Scarce copy, high value. Full parchment coeval cover with manuscripted title int he spine in good general conditions slightly worn in the edges and spine. Binding in good conditions. Inside pages are in good conditions with foxings and yellowings. Slight humidity stains in the edges.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Sephora]
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        Tractatus brevis et utilis, de erigendis figuris coeli, verificationibus, revolutionibus et directionibus

      G. Rhaus Erben Wittenberg: G. Rhaus Erben, 1556. Hardcover. Very Good. 8vo - over 7¾ - 9¾" tall. 8vo. [16 x 10 cm], 104 ff. with two folding tables. Bound in rubricated vellum (music manuscript) with title on spine. Extensive annotations on front endpaper (religious), title page (with a dedication from Garcaeus to Jacob Milich), and on the first of several extra blanks bound in at end; scattered annotations and corrections. Strip of the lower margin of A2 replaced, not affecting the text. [Bound with:]_____. Tractatus brevis et utilis proponens methodum doctrinae eclipsium. Wittenberg, Joh. Crato, 1556. 80 ff., with a folding table of declinations not called for by Zinner. Extensive annotations on title page (with a dedication from Garcaeus to Milich), scattered annotations and corrections. [And with:]REINHOLD, Erasmus. Themata, quae continent methodicam tractationem de Horizonte rational ac sensili deque mutatione horizontium et meridianorum. Wittenberg, Joseph Clug, 1541. 12 ff. Strip of the lower margin of B4 replaced, not affecting the text. Light foxing to second t.p., one quire toned, marginal waterstain to last few leaves. Otherwise excellent.Rare first edition of the Tractatus de erigendis figures coeli, documenting Copernican influence on 16th-century astronomical literature, with two ex dono dedications to the Wittenberg mathematician and physician Jacob Milich, (see below)-indicating that Milich, whose numerous collaborations with Melanchthon are already well-documented, was a here-to-fore unknown of the Wittenberg Circle, the informal group of Copernicans centered around Rheticus and Reinhold.The present work is essentially astrological, dealing chiefly with the casting of horoscopes. It thereby reflects, however, the mathematical rigor that 16th C astronomers applied to astrological prediction: Garcaeus insists upon an accurate astronomical basis for such predictions, citing Copernicus more than twenty times and drawing upon Copernicus's calculations to get celestial positions of the planets. The second Tractatus, an extremely rare astronomical text published the same year by another Wittenberg publisher, also includes references to Copernicus. Such references are clear evidence that only 13 years after the publication of De Revolutionibus, Copernicus was well-known and esteemed as a mathematician and astronomer, and his name was appearing frequently in print. Both works are dedicated by Garcaeus to Jacob Milich (1501-1559), the astronomer, physician, and professor of mathematics at Wittenberg from at least 1535, where he presided as Dean of Arts during a public "Oratio de dignitate astrologiae," written by himself or possibly Melanchthon. Milich evidently taught at the university from 1535 onward (placing him in Wittenberg during the first printing of De rev in 1543), and "seems to have been such a close collaborator in Melanchthon's cause that even his contemporaries mistook Milich's commentary on the second book of [Pliny] . . . as a work by Melanchthon" (Kusukawa). Indeed, Garcaeus' respect for the physician's learning is such that, among the genitures of "learned men" printed in his Astrologiae methodus (Basel 1576), Milich's geniture is given prior to those of Copernicus, Camerarius, Erasmus and even Melanchthon himself-prior to every contemporary, in fact, but Reinhold, who authored the third work in the present volume. Among Milich's medical works, Thorndike also records orations on the lives of Galen and Avicenna, and anatomical and cardiac treatises printed among Melanchthon's Declamationes (1558). Milich is also the namesake of the lunar crater Milichius.Johannes Garcaeus (1530-1575) was a German astronomer, mathematician, meteorologist and astrologer who studied at Wittenberg. The works of Erasmus Reinhold, professor of Mathematics at Wittenberg, also promoted Copernicanism. This first

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        CRONICA GENERALE D' HISPAGNA, ET DEL REGNO DI VALENZA... NUOVAMENTE TRADOTTA IN LINGUA ITALIANA DA ALFONSO D' ULLOA... VINEGIA, GABRIEL GIOLITO DE' FERRARI 1556

      VINEGIA, GABRIEL GIOLITO DE' FERRARI...ALFONSO D' ULLOA... IN-8°, PERGAMENA SETTECENTESCA(76), 533, (3)PP.CON MAPPA DELLA SPAGNA INCISA IN LEGNO SU DUE PP. INSEGNA TIPOGRAFICA NEL FRONTESPIZIO E IN FINE;ALCUNI CAPILETTERA N.T. EDIZIONE ORIGINALE DELLA TRADUZIONE ITALIANA DEDICATA AD ANTONIO MOCENIGO. >. (BONGI, ANNALI DI G. GIOLITO, I, P. 498. GRAESSE, I, P. 357. PALAU, 288828. www.libreriabrighenti.it

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        Per Totum Orbem Celebratissima, Omnibus tam Ius Dicentibus Quam

      1556. Ferrari, Giovanni Pietro [fl. 1389-1416]. Corte, Francesco [d. 1495], Editor. [Landriano, Bernardino da, (15th-16th cent.)]. [Riccio, Giovanno (16th. cent.)]. Per Totum Orbem Celebratissima, Omnibus Tam Ius Dicentibus Quam Advocatis non Modo Utilis, Sed Etiam Necessaria: Illustrata Copiosissimis Additionibus Iur. V. Docto. Do. Francisci de Curte, Do. Bernardini Landriani & Aliorum in Practica Excellentium. Huic Etiam Accesserunt Doctissimae Rerum Summae D. Ioan. Ricio Veneto Iureconsultissimo Autore Emendatius, Quam Antea. Adiecimus Postremo Recens & Emendatum Rerum Verborumq; Indicem Locupletissimum, In quo Nihil ad rem Pertinens Desideres. Lyons: Apud Mauricium Roy & Lodovicum Pesnot, 1556. [xl], 533 pp. Main text printed in double columns. Quarto (9-1/2" x 7"). Contemporary paneled vellum with elaborate tooling, raised bands to spine, ties lacking. Some soiling and rubbing to extremities, corners bumped, boards slightly bowed, "1556" and "146" in fine early hand to spine, front hinge starting. Attractive woodcut printer device and decorated initials. Early owner signatures to front pastedown and free endpaper, early underlining and brief annotations to a few leaves. Some toning, interior otherwise fresh. Ex-private library. Location label to spine, bookplate to front pastedown, stamp to front free endpaper. An appealing copy of a scarce title. * Third edition. This collection of court cases with extensive commentary was completed around 1416. It circulated widely in manuscript and was first printed in 1519. It went through at least ten editions by the end of the sixteenth century. In 1559 the Roman Curia attempted to suppress this book because of the author's critical opinion of the canon courts. KVK locates 2 copies of this edition, 13 of all editions. Adams, Catalogue of Books Printed on the Continent of Europe, 1501-1600 F271.

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        "La Terra de Hochelaga nella Nova Francia"from Terzo Volvme delle Navigationi et Viaggi

      Venice, 1556. THE EARLIEST PRINTED VIEW OF A NATIVE AMERICAN SETTLEMENT AND OF MONTREAL CANADA Woodcut: 123/8" x 167/8" References: F. St. George Spendlove, The Face of Early Canada (Toronto, 1958) 5, Plate 1; S. M. Morison, The European Discovery of America (New York, 1971) 410-417; R. V. Tooley, The Mapping of America (London, 1985) 211. This woodcut, published in Venice, is the first printed plan of an urban area in North America and is a particularly valuable record of a Native American settlement. Although largely imaginative, the plan was a close attempt to achieve scientific accuracy. The woodblock for the first state of the map was destroyed by fire in 1557 and for the second issue of 1556 a new woodblock was cut. The third edition (1606) is identical to the second, except that vermin had damaged the block, resulting in areas void of imprint. "La Terra de Hochelaga nella Nova Francia" is based upon Jacques Cartier's second voyage to the New World, begun in 1535, and must have been derived from a sketch or description brought home by the explorer. On October 2, Cartier arrived at the Huron village of Hochelaga, the future site of Montréal. As can be seen in Ramusio's woodcut, cut by Matteo Pagano, Cartier and his men were greeted by over one thousand Native Americans, presenting them with gifts and corn bread. The celebrations continued throughout the night with dancing and bonfires by the river edge. Hochelaga was surrounded by open maize fields and required significant fortification due to its location on one of the favorite warpaths of the Five Nations. It was protected by a wooden wall and two redoubts. Inside the wall the town contained approximately fifty bark and wood dwellings, each with several rooms and a centrally located open fireplace. After greeting the Chief of Hochelaga in the central plaza, Cartier and some of his men climbed Mount Royal, seen to the left of Ramusio's view. On the return from the excursion and back to their boats, some of Cartier's men were carried piggyback by obliging Native Americans and this too is illustrated in Ramusio's plan.. Book.

      [Bookseller: Arader Galleries]
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        "Universale della Parte del Monde Nuovamente Ritrovata"from Terzo Volvme delle Navigationi et Viaggi

      Venice, 1556. A FIRST ISSUE OF THE EARLIEST MAP TO DEPICT THE AMERICAS ACCURATELY Woodcut: 121/2" x 163/4" References: Carl I. Wheat, Mapping of the Transmississippi West 1540-1861 (San Francisco, 1958-1963) 1: 21; Philip D. Burden, The Mapping of North America: A List of Printed Maps 1511-1670 (Rickmansworth, 1996), 29-30. Although this map appears in Giovanni Battista Ramusio's Terzo Volvme delle Navigationi et Viaggi it is generally assumed to be the work of the great Italian cartographer Giacomo Gastaldi. In the introduction Ramusio noted that he asked Gastaldi to prepare five different maps for the volume. This map of the western hemisphere is, according to Carl Wheat, "the earliest cartographic reflection" and "an advance of first importance" of European knowledge about the American West. Of groundbreaking significance, it is the earliest obtainable map to accurately depict the Americas. It is the first map to depict the names derived from the travels of Francisco Vasquez Coronado, the first European to travel extensively in what is now the southwestern United States. The account of his journey, conducted between 1540 and 1542, is contained within Ramusio's book and this map includes the settlement names of Quivera, Cicuic, Axa, Cucho, Cibola and Tiguas, as learnt from Coronado. The Sierra Nevadas appear on the map for the first time, knowledge of which was derived from Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo's explorations of the California coastline in 1542. The map also includes an early reference to Florida and depicts its peninsular shape, albeit inaccurately. A native of Venice, Giovanni Battista Ramusio spent most of his life as a civil servant to the Venetian Republic. He traveled extensively in service to the Republic, was well versed in languages, and became knowledgeable in geography. In his three volume work, Terzo Volvme delle Navigationi et Viaggi, he brought together details of a large number of voyages to all parts of the world, indeed some are only known to us through it. Volume three, preparation for which started as early as 1550, dealt entirely with the New World.. Book.

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        Athenaei dipnosophistarum sive coenae sapientvm libri XV.

      Natale de Comitibus Veneto, nunc primùm è Græca in Latinam linguam vertente: Cum pluribus ex manuscriptis antiquitissimis exemplaribus additis: quæ in Græcè hactenus impressis voluminibus non reperiebantus. Lyon, Sebastien Honorat, 1556. 8vo. (24),+ 898 pp.+ (28). Some staining to the last 100 pages and the title page. 17th century panelled full calf with three raised bands, rebacked preserving the original spine with general wear and rubbing to the binding. Owner's signature of Campbell dated 1706 on the title page with notations in the margins covering the first 70 pages. Graesse I, 244. Ebert 112. Hoffmann 397f. "Lugduni Jacobus Faure excudebat" appears on the colophon. Second edition of the first Latin translation, by Natalis de Comitibus (1520-1582), and based on a Greek text edited by Marcus Musurus, first published by the Aldine Press in 1514. It is important not only due to its wide range of information regarding different cuisines, but also the music as well as the entertainments during banquets. It also describes the intellectual talk that was the center of Greek culture and references a number of quotations from classical works that have since vanished

      [Bookseller: Centralantikvariatet]
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        De re & praxi geometrica, Libri tres, figuris & demonstrationibus illustrati. Vbi de Quadrato geometrico, & virgis seu baculis mensoriis, necnon aliis, cum mathematicis, tum mechanicis.

      Lutetiae (Paris), Aegidium Gourbinum, 1556. 4to. (24x17 cm.). Later limp vellum with ms. title on spine. Title with printers device in woodcut. Initials in woodcut. Ff (4),56 (=(8),102 pp.). 1 full-page woodcut illustration of the quadrant and many diagrams and illustrations in the text. Upper right corner of titlepage repaired with paperpulp, and a tear to corner on F 2 repaired, not affecting the text. Light scattered brownspots, but a good broad-margined copy.. First edition as a separate text published posthumously by Fine's son the year after his father's death. The work was originally issued as part two of Finé's "Protomathesis" from 1532. In this work Finé shows the varied use of the quadrant in measuring distances, proportions, solids etc. as a derivation of the trigonometric quadrant from the eleventh century "quadrans vetustissimus", as also described by Appian in his "Instrumentum...primi mobilis" 1534. - "Finé dealt only with the strictly trigonometric use of the quadrant, determination of the right and versed sines of a given arc - or vice versa - and the products or ratios of two sines. Virtually ignoring the application of its properties to astronomical calculations..."(DSB). "Fine apparently built very large instruments of four or five feet in size and thus was able to graduate them in finer detail than their simpler hand-held cousins. An illustration shows a geometric square with 120 divisions in the quadrant-a significant improvement over the usual dozen or so on the shadow scales of the smaller instruments. One illustration shows a mechanism for finding the heights of towers by observing their reflection in a mirror.After describing the use of quadrants, geometric squares and the Jacob's staff, Fine includes a section of areas and volumes, ending with an illustration of finding the volume of a wine barrel." (Tomash Erwin Library)'Protomathesis', Finé's most famous and influential work consists of four parts (as above mentioned, the present work being the first separate printing of the second part), each part divided into more parts. In a sense it looks more like a collection of separate works, for each part has its own separate title-page, usually dated a year or two earlier than the whole work, which appeared in 1532. Despite this indication of the separate volumes having been published separately, it seems not to have been the case. Oronce Finé (1494-1555) played an important role in the intellectual and cultural worlds of sixteenth century France. His influence was expansive, ranging from mathematics to printing, cartography to technology. His lecturing and textbooks were instrumental in disseminating knowledge of the mathematical arts throughout Europe. Finé had edited mathematics and astronomy books for a Paris printer. Among the texts which he edited were Peurbach's Theoricae Novae Planetarum, which presented Ptolemy's epicycle theory of the planets, and Sacrobosco's Tractatus de Sphaera, a book on astronomy in four chapters.Fine's scientific work has by some been characterized as encyclopedic, elementary, and unoriginal, however, the goal of his broad range of publications was to popularize the university science that he himself had been taught.Adams: F 466. - Poggendorff I:748. - Brunet II:1261. Tomash Erwin Library F63

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        Athenaei dipnosophistarum sive Coenae sapientvm libri XV. Natale de Comitibus Veneto, nunc primù è Græca in Latinam linguam vertente: Cum pluribus ex manuscriptis antiquitissimis exemplaribus additis, Mediceae praesertim bibliothecae, in hac posteriore editione additis, quæ in Græcè hactenus impressis voluminibus non reperiebantur.

      Basileae [Basel], per Henrichum Petri, Mense Augusto Anno 1556. 8vo. (50)+1122 pages. With woodcut vignettes and initials, including a full page woodcut on the last page. Bound in a delightful later half leather binding from the 18th century with raised bands on the spine and a simple gilt line decoration. The title on the spine is blindtooled in the leather. Spine a little dry and the corners a little bumped with the leather worn through. Inside with an old inscription on the inner cover as well as a newer stamp on the flyleaf. Name on flyleaf. With a little browning and foxing. The titlepage and the first page have a repair, but with no apparent loss of text.. Graesse I, p. 244.** Delightful copy of Athenaeus' 'Dinner-table philosophers' or 'Deipnosophistae' from early 3rd century AD. The work is a series of learned dinner conversations on literary, historical and antiquarian topics giving a great insight in the daily life of the Roman upper class as well as earlier Greek history. Particularly the book is an invaluable source of antique cookery as well as homosexuality

      [Bookseller: Vangsgaards Antikvariat]
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        De naturalium effectuum causis, sive de Incantationibus, Opus abstrusioris philosophiae plenum, & brevissimis historiis illustratum atque ante annox XXXV compositum, nunc primum uerò in lucem fideliter editum. Adiectis breuibus scholijs à Gulielmo Grataro lo Physico Bergomate. Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas. [i.e. De Incantationibus].

      Basel, [Per Henrichum Petri, 1556 - on colophon]. An absolutely lovely copy of the exceedingly scarce first edition, first printing, of one of the most influential and important works in the history of modern thought. A work that has for a long time been overlooked due to the gross neglect of the history of Renaissance philosophy, but which has nonetheless been seminal to the development of scientific and philosophical thought from the 16th century and onwards. With a purely naturalistic and immanent view of the natural process, Pomponazzi here frees man's thought from the bounds of religion and provides modern thinkers and scientists with pure empiricism and naturalism. "Er will das "Wissen" and die Stelle des "Glaubens" stellen" - "die "dämonische" Kausalität des Glaubens weicht der Kausalität der Wissenschaft" (Cassirer, p. 110 + 111). 8vo. Contemporary full limp vellum, with vellum cords to hinges. Remains of vellum ties to boards. A bit of brownspotting, but all in all a lovely, completely unrestored copy in its first binding. Five large woodcut initials and large woodcut printer's device to verso of last leaf. (16), 349, (3). Adams: P-1827; Wellcome: I:5153; DSB: XI:71-74.A.H. Douglas: "The Philosophy and Psychology of Pietro Pomponazzi", 1910.M.L. Pine: "Pietro Pomponazzi: Radical Philosoper of the Renaissance", 1986.Thorndyke: "A History of Magic and Experimental Science", Vol. V, 1966 (4th printing)P.O. Kristeller: "Eight Philosophers of the Italian Renaissance", 1965.J.H. Randall, in: "The Renaissance Philosophy of Man", 1956 (4th impression).B.P. Copenhaver & C.B. Schmitt: "Renaissance Philosophy", 1992.E. Cassirer: "Individuum und Kosmos in der Philosophie der renaissance", 1969 (3. Aufl. - orig. 1927).See also: Kristeller: "Renaissance Thought and its Sources"; "Medieval Aspects of Renaissance Learning"; "Renaissance Thought II, Papers on Humanism and the Arts". "Pomponazzi's thought and reputation were extremely influential in the centuries after his death. Even before it was printed, his treatise "On incantations" circulated widely in manuscript among philosophers, physicians and early modern naturalists (see Zanier 1975). Due to his mortalist theory of the soul, 17th-century "free thinkers" regarded Pomponazzi as one of their own, portraying him as an atheist (see Kristeller 1968; Paganini 1985). Enlightenment thinkers of the 18th century pushed to extremes his distinction between natural reason and faith, while 19th-century positivists, such as Ernest Renan and Roberto Ardigò, saw in Pomponazzi a forerunner of their own beliefs and a champion of naturalism and empiricism." (SEP).. Exceedingly scarce first edition of Pomponazzi's seminal "De Incantationibus", perhaps the most original work of natural philosophy of the Renaissance and arguably the first work of what comes to be the Enlightenment. The work, which is one of Pomponazzi's most important productions (along with his treatise on the immortality of the soul), constitutes a forerunner of Naturalism and Empiricism and could be considered the first true Enlightenment work ever, causing Pomponazzi, our greatest Renaissance philosopher, to be generally considered "The last Scholastic and the first man of the Enlightenment" (Sandy, Randall, Kristeller). The appeal to experience is the main concern of the work, and its strict and completely novel way of treating the subject matter resulted in a hitherto unattained elevated position of philosophy in the Latin West, providing to philosophy a new method that remains dominant to this day and without which we would scarcely be able to imagine modern philosophy. Proclaiming the victory of philosophy over religion, the "de Incantationibus" changed the entire history of philosophy - philosophy being to Pomponazzi the supreme truth and the final judge of all phenomena."Pomponazzi's conclusion [in the "De Incantationibus] results from a dramatic change in method which in turn is based on a profoundly new attitude toward philosophical inquiry. Medieval theologians and philosophers as well as most Renaissance thinkers were content to limit the role of reason in nature because they sincerely believed that the Christian God intervened in the natural order to create miraculous occurrences. As we have seen, this belief prevented their scientific convictions from destroying Christian doctrine by exempting central Biblical miracles from natural process. Even those who held that Christian revelation and Aristotelian science were irreconcilable maintained a sincere fideism which allowed each universe to remain intact, each standing separate from the other. But once Pomponazzi applied the critical method of Aristotelian science to all religious phenomena, Christian miracles were engulfed by the processes of nature. Absorbed by the "usual course of nature", the miracle could no longer be the product of divine fiat. Indeed Christianity itself became merely another historical event, taking its place within the recurring cycles of nature, and destined to have a temporal career within the eternal flow of time." (Pine, p. 273)."De Incantationibus" constitutes one of the single most important works of the Renaissance. Bringing everything in the world under the general laws of nature, the history of religion as well as all other facts in experience, "De Incantationibus" gives us, for the first time in the history of philosophy an outline of a philosophy of nature and of religion, an outline that came to be seminal in the history of philosophy and science throughout the following centuries. With the main aim of the work being to determine the fact that there is no such thing as "supernatural", no magic, no omens, no witchcraft, no divine intervention, no apparitions, etc., etc. - all marvelous events and powers observed in experience or recorded in history have their natural, scientific explanation, they are all within the scope of principles common to all nature -, it is no wonder that it was placed on the index of forbidden books immediately upon its publication, as the only of Pomponazzi's works ever. The analysis of the history of religions and the theory of the nature and use of prayer that Pomponazzi here develops is hugely interesting and so far ahead of its time that one hardly believes it. E.g. the notion that religious doctrines all aim, through fables and myths (which he disproves), to preserve the social order rather than to discover the truth, is not something you will find in any other work of the Middle Ages or the Renaissance. "[H]e brings the whole phenomena of religious history - the changes of religious belief, and the phases of thaumaturgic power - under certain universal laws of nature. Of these facts as of all others, he suggests, there is a natural and a rational explanation; in them the powers that are at work in all nature are still operative; and they are subject to the laws and conditions that govern nature generally - the laws of change, of development, of growth and decay, and transformation in decay." (Douglas, p. 299)."In regard to the religious issue, I have tried to show that he makes a claim for the absolute truth of philosophy and relegates religion to the purely practical function of controlling the masses. Religious doctrines contain a kind of truth because they can persuade men to act so as to preserve the social order. But religious doctrine has social value rather than speculative veracity. [...] rational truth is the only truth. It is really compatible only with complete disbelief. And I think that this is the statement that Pomponazzi makes. The only doctrines that he accepts are those of philosophy. Philosophy rejects the personal Christian God acting within history and eliminates the miracles of religion. Philosophy reduces to the absurd the notion of a life after death. And finally philosophy destroys revelation itself by viewing it as the product of heavenly forces rather than the act of divine will." (Pine, pp. 34-35). The work was originally written in 1520, but was not published in Pomponazzi's life-time. It circulated in manuscript form, however, and was also as such widely noted. In 1552, 27 years after Pomponazzi's death, the manuscript was brought to Basel by Pomponazzi's student Guglielmo Gratarolo, who had had to flee Italy due to his anti-religious views. Here, in Basel, he had the book printed for the first time, with a foreword written by himself, in 1556. This was the very first time that the book was published, as it had also not been included in the standard edition of Pomponazzi's collected works, published at Venice the year after his death, 1525 - presumably due to its dangerous and revolutionary views.In his preface, Gratarolo expresses fear that someone may think him either over curious or less Christian for publishing this book. He furthermore explains that he had purchased the manuscript 20 years earlier and brought it with him North when leaving Italy 6 years previously. "Granting, however, that there may be something in the work which does not entirely square with Christianity, Gratarolo thinks that it should not be suppressed or withheld from the scholarly public, since it contains more solid physics and abstruse philosophy than do many huge commentaries of certain authors taken together." (Thorndyke, V, p. 99-100). Come the Renaissance, the idea of eliminating demons and angels and attempts at a showdown with magical transformations and the like were not completely novel in themselves. Much scientific thinking of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance carried such beliefs that had in some form or other been current for a long time. But up until Pomponazzi's treatise, these ideas had always been surrounded by hesitance and a clear aim at still protecting the miraculous nature of Christianity itself, not leading the theories forward and not letting them bear any relevance. "Let us pause here a moment to estimate the place of this radical treatise [i.e. "De Incantationibus"] in the history of European rationalism. [...] It was Pomponazzi's achievement to go beyond these earlier hesitations and qualifications, particularly in regard to the astrological determination of religious belief. By dramatic shifts of emphasis and the extension of certain ideas to their logical limits, Pomponazzi utterly transformed the context in which these earlier views occurred. In their newly radicalized form, they challenged the supremacy of revelation by elevating philosophy to a position hitherto unattained in the Latin West". (Pine, p. 268)."[...] Even this brief sketch makes clear that Pomponazzi came at the end of a long scientific tradition which had absorbed, and to some degree, subordinated Aristotelian-Arabic science and astrology to the Christian universe. But if we look at each strand of this tradition, we can see how Pomponazzi carried these concepts to their furthest limits." (Pine, pp. 268-72). Pomponazzi clearly sought to explain all miraculous cures, events, etc. through natural powers. All sequences and concoctions which could seem magical or supernatural are within the same framework as other observed sequences and concoctions in nature. We may not be able to explain all of them (although Pomponazzi does attempt in the treatise to provide specific and elaborate natural, physical explanations of a large number of "magical" and "supernatural" events), but that is merely a lack in our intellect or understanding and by no means because these occurrences or events are not governed by nature and the physical laws of nature. "This whole mode of explanation of the marvelous in nature and history is constantly pitted against the orthodox theory which attributed magic and miracles to the agency of angels or demons. The book "De naturalium Effectuum Causis" is a uniform polemic against that theory, as essentially a vulgar superstition. It is the tendency of the vulgar mind, he says, always to ascribe to diabolic or angelic agency events whose causes it does not understand." (Douglas, p. 275). "These fictions are designed to lead us to truth and to instruct the common people who must be led to the good life and turned away from evil just like children, that is to say, by the hope of reward and the fear of punishment; and it is by these vulgar motives that they are led to spiritual knowledge, just as children pass from delicate nourishment to more solid nourishment. Hence it is not far from my concept or from the truth that Plato taught the existence of angels and demons not because he believed in them but because it was his aim to instruct the ignorant." (Pomponazzi, "De Incantationibus", 10, pp. 201-202).In order to understand the monumental accomplishment of Pomponazzi's "De Incantationibus", one must realize which tradition he is inscribed in, namely that of Italian Aristotelianism (as opposed mainly to the Renaissance Platonism). It is within this long tradition that he effects a revolution. "In the Italian schools alone the emerging science of nature did not mean a sharp break with reigning theological interests. To them it came rather as the natural outcome of a sustained and co-operative criticism of Aristotelian ideas. Indeed, that mathematical and mechanical development which by the end of the sixteenth century produced Galileo owes very little to the Platonic revival but received powerful stimulus from the critical Aristotelianism of the Italian universities." (Ren. Phil. of Man, p. 12).Pomponazzi stood at a crossroad in the history of Aristotelianism. He still studied the great logicians and natural philosophers of the 14th century, which his Italian humanistic colleagues had given up (focusing instead on "man" and his place in the universe), but at the same time he had a highly original approach to the teachings of Aristotle and a unique uninhibited approach to the nature of the universe, and he responded philosophically to the achievements of humanism, always seeking the truth and the "naturalist" explanation. Of that critical Aristotelianism which sought to find the true meaning of the works of Aristotle, lay them bare, and develop them further to find the true nature of the universe, to explain how the world functions without any preconceived notions (like the belief in Christ, etc.), Pomponazzi was a forerunner. With his "De Incantationibus", this "last scholastic and the first man of the Enlightenment" paved the way for the Enlightenment of the centuries to come, for rational free thinking. His quest against the theologians and "his scorn for all comfortable and compromising modernism in religion, and his sober vision of the natural destiny of man" (Randall, p. 268) combined with his refusal to leave the bounds of the Aristotelian tradition, his meticulous use of the medieval method of refutation, and his thorough rationalism, enabled him to revolutionize the Aristotelianism of the 16th century - and indeed the entire trajectory of philosophy of the ages to come - and invoke the period of scientific free-thinking that breaks free of Christian doctrines and which later comes to be the Enlightenment. "Against Pico's denial of astrology as incompatible with human freedom, he tried to make an orderly and rational science of the stars, opposed to all superstition - the naturalist's answer to the Humanist". (Randall, p. 277)."During the twelve decades or so between Pomponazzi's arrival (1484) and Galileo's departure in 1610, the learned community that Shakespeare called "fair Padua, nursery of arts", achieved a distinction in scientific and medical studies unmatched elsewhere in Europe. Thus, Pomponazzi's career in northern Italy brought him close to the most exciting advances of his time in science and medicine. In keeping with the nature of his university appointments, he approached Aristotle from a perspective quite distant from Bruni's humanism or Lefèvre's theologizing. [...] Pomponazzi's Aristotelianism developed entirely within the framework of natural philosophy". (Copenhaver & Schmitt, p. 105). "With this final explanation, Pomponazzi has discovered natural causes for all miraculous events and hence has eliminated the miracle as a category for understanding the process of nature. [...] As we have seen, Pomponazzi's theory offers three fundamental natural explanations of events which Christianity ascribes to the miraculous intervention of angels and demons. [...] Here Pomponazzi's method takes its most radical turn. Biblical miracles are now also found to have natural causes. Moses, we learn, performed his task by natural means. The "dead" revived by the prophets were not really dead. And the acts of Christ and the Apostles can be explained "within natural limits"." (Pine, pp. 254-56)."The histories of other religions record miracles similar to those of Christianity, and Pomponazzi justifies his frequent citation of historians in a philosophical work as authorities for past natural events of rare occurrence. Such is the most detailed and carefully worked out, the most plausible and at the same time most sweeping expression of the doctrine of astrological control over the history and development of religions that I have seen in any Latin author." (Thorndyke V, pp. 108-9).FULLER DESCRIPTION AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST-

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