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Displayed below are some selected recent viaLibri matches for books published in 1550

        Das ganz Franckreich/so Vorzeiten Narbonensis, Lucdonensis, Belgica und Celtica ist genennt worden

      Artist: Münster Sebastian ca ; issued in: Basle; date: ca1550 - - technic: Woodcut; - colorit: original colored; - condition: Very good; - size (in cm): 30 x 36; - description: Map shows total France.; - vita of the artist: Sebastian Münster (1488 ? 1552) belongs to the very important Comographers of the Renaicance. He issued his first famous Cosmographia in 1544 with 24 double paged maps with German description of the world. It had numerous editions in different languages including Latin, French, Italian, English, and Czech. The last German edition was published in 1628, long after his death. The Cosmographia was one of the most successful and popular books of the 16th century. It passed through 24 editions in 100 years. This success was due to the notable woodcuts , some by Hans Holbein the Younger, Urs Graf, Hans Rudolph Deutsch, and David Kandel. It was most important in reviving geography in 16th-century Europe. His first geographic works were Germania descriptio (1530) and Mappa Europae (1536). In 1540 he published a Latin edition of Ptolemy's Geographia with illustrations. The 1550 edition contains cities, portraits, and costumes. These editions, printed in Germany, are the most valued of the Cosmographias.

      [Bookseller: Antique Sommer& Sapunaru KG]
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        Gerichtzordnung Jmm fürstnthumb Obern und Nidern Bayrn Anno 1520 aufgericht.

      (München, Andreas Schobser), um 1550. - Folio, circa 29,5 x 20,4 cm. 16 (1 w.), 87 num, 1 w. Bl., Titel in Rot und Schwarz mit grossem Holzschnitt Neuerer Pergamentband unter Verwendung einer lateinischen liturgischen Handschrift des 15. Jh. VD 16, B 992; IA 114.998; Schottenloher 29477; Pfister I, 480; Lentner 2609. Vierte Ausgabe der unter Herzog Wilhelm IV. von Bayern (1493-1550) erstmals 1520 herausgegebenen Gerichtsordnung für die altbayerischen Fürstentümer Ober- und Niederbayern. Die erste Ausgabe ist 1520 datiert, die vorliegende vierte, im Todesjahr des Herzogs publizierte ist durch verschiedene Korrekturen erkennbar. Der hübsche, grosse Titelholzschnitt stammt von dem Münchener Hofmaler Caspar Clofigl. Er zeigt die beiden Herzöge, Wilhelm IV. und Ludwig von Bayern in kostbaren Prunkrüstungen mit reichem Helmschmuck in Form eines flügelschlagenden Adlers. Gemeinsam präsentieren sie das Landeswappen des Königreichs Bayern. Die Szene ist in eine Renaissance-Loggia gestellt, im Hintergrund sieht man eine Landschaft mit einer Stadt und einer Burg. Von den Architravbalken hängt jeweils eine Tabula mit den Initialen der Herzöge Wilhelm und Ludwig. Der Holzstock war bereits 1516 für die Bayerische Landesordnung angefertigt worden (vgl. die Abbildungen von Murray und Schottenloher). - Etwas wasserfleckig, Titel und letzte Seite angeschmutzt, Titel rechts leicht beschnitten, sonst gut erhalten, mit beiden weissen Blättern (mit hübschem Wasserzeichen), ansprechend in Pergament gebunden unter Verwendung einer schönen Handschrift in Schwarz, Rot und Blau. [Attributes: First Edition; Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Thomas Rezek]
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        Aphricae Tabula I

      Artist: Ptolemy/Münster Sebastian Claudius ca ; issued in: Basle; date: ca1550 - - technic: Woodcut; - colorit: original colored; - condition: Very good; - size (in cm): 27,5 x 34; - description: Map shows the northern part of Africa and the southern part of Spain with the strait of Gibraltar. With decorative ship representation.; - vita of the artist: Sebastian Münster (1488 ? 1552) belongs tot he very important Comographers oft he Renaicance. He issued his first famous Cosmographia in1544 with 24 double paged maps with German description of the world.It had numerous editions in different languages including Latin, French, Italian, English, and Czech. The last German edition was published in 1628, long after his death. The Cosmographia was one of the most successful and popular books of the 16th century. It passed through 24 editions in 100 years. This success was due to the notable woodcuts ,some by Hans Holbein the Younger, Urs Graf, Hans Rudolph Deutsch, and David Kandel. It was most important in reviving geography in 16th-century Europe.His first geographic works were Germania descriptio (1530) and Mappa Europae (1536). In 1540 he published a Latin edition of Ptolemy's Geographia with illustrations. The 1550 edition contains cities, portraits, and costumes. These editions, printed in Germany, are the most valued of the Cosmographias. Claudius Ptolemy (arround 100- 160 a.C.) Geographia, gives a list of geographic coordinates of spherical longitude and latitude of almost ten thousand point locations on the earth surface, as they were known at his times. The list is organized in Tabulae which cor- respond to specific regions of the three known continents at that time, Africa, Asia and Europe. Research on Ptolemy?s Geographia has started at the University of Thessaloniki, Greece, in the eighties, focused mainly, but not exclusively, on data re- lated to territories which are now under the sovereignty of the modern Greek state. The World of Ptolemy is classified in Regions, since each Chapter is referred to one of them, giving by this way the concept of Atlas as it is understood today.

      [Bookseller: Antique Sommer& Sapunaru KG]
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        Tutte le Opere di Nicolo Machiavelli Cittadino et Secretario Fiorentino, Divise in V. Parti et di Nuovo con Somma Accuratezza Ristampate.

      Sans Mention, Sans metion 1550 - Fort in-8 ( 210x150 mm ) plein vélin ivoire, titre manuscrit à l'encre sur dos lisse, fils de reliure externes, tranches couleur brique.Ex-libris manuscrit en queue de dos et sur la page de titre ( Gassmann ).Ex-libris à l'étiquette collée en contre plat ( Bibliotheca Dinard ).Vélin du second plat découpé ( absent ).Page de titre des Oeuvres. Tavola dell'Opere. Clemens Papa VII. Page de titre : Historie di Nicolo Machiavelli al Santissimo et Beatissimo padre Signore Nostro Clemente VII. Proemio dall'Autore ( 8 pages ).- Historie Fiorentine di Nicolo Machiavelli. 351 pages.- Il Principe di Nicolo Machiavelli al Magnifico Lorenzo di Pietro de Medici. La vita di Castruccio Castracani da Lucca. Il Modo che tenne il Duca Valentino per Ammazzare Vitellozzo Vitelli, . I Ritratti delle Cose della Francia et dell'Alamagna. 116 pages.- Discorsi di Nicolo Machiavelli sopra la prima deca di T. Livio a Zanobi Buondelmonti et a Cosimi Rucellai. 304 pages.- I Stte Libri dell'Arte della Guerra. 158 pages.- L'Asino d'Oro di Nicolo Machiavelli con tutte l'Altre sue Operette : La contenenza delle quali haurai nella seguente carta. Capitolo dell'occasione a Filippo de Nerli, Capitolo di Fortuna a Giovan Battista Soderini, della ingratitudine a Giovanni Folchi, dell'ambitione a Juigi Guicciardini, decennale Cioè compendio delle Cose Fatte in X anni in Italia, Novella Piacevolissima, Mandragola Comedia, Clitia Comedia. 170 pages. Anciens

      [Bookseller: Librairie FAUGUET]
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        Ecclesiasticae historiae gentis Anglorum Libri quinque diligenti studio à mendis, quibus hactenus scatebant, vindicati

      Antwerpen, Johannes Grauius 1550.. Mit 2 kleinen Holzschnitt-Druckermarken. 4 Bll. (l. w.),, 263 S., 6 Bll. - Angebunden: Grudius, Nicolaus: Apotheosis illustris ac verè Magnanimi Herois, Domini Maximyliani ab Aegmonda, Comitis Burani ... Accessit Epitaphium eiusdem Comitis Burani, Autore Gasparo Schaetto. Antwerpen, Diesthemius, 1549. 10 Bll. Brauner blindgeprägter Lederband d. Zt. 39,5 x 19 cm. I.: Adams B452; Graesse I, 321; Ebert 1835 Anm.; Jöcher I, 905 f. - Erste Ausgabe mit dem zuvor unveröffentlichten fünften Buch; diese Ausgabe übersetzte Thomas Stapleton 1565 in seine vielbeachtete englische Ausgabe. - Der angelsächsische Benediktiner und Geschichtsschreiber Beda Venerabilis (Beda der Ehrwürdige, um 673 - 735) war Priester in Newcastle upon Tyne und einer der bedeutendsten Gelehrten des Frühmittelalters. Bedas in Latein geschriebene Kirchengeschichte des englischen Volkes ist eines der bedeutsamsten Quellen zur angelsächsischen Geschichte, die beginnend von der Eroberung durch Caesar bis zum Jahr 731 reicht. Er schildert darin nicht nur die Kirchengeschichte sondern auch die Entwicklung der verschiedenen angelsächsischen Königreiche. Das Werk wurde zum Vorbild für zahlreiche Universalchroniken des Mittelalters. - II.: Jöcher III, 912 f. - Der niederländische humanistische Dichter Nicolaus Grudius (1504 - 1570 oder 1571) war erfolgreich in verschiedenen Stellungen in der burgundisch - habsburgischen Verwaltung tätig. - - - Mit dem Exlibris der Bibliothek Nordkirchen und einem weiteren. - Wenig gebräunt, sehr gutes Exemplar!

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Turszynski]
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        PIROTECHNIA. Li dece libri della Pirotechnia....

      Vinegia, per G. Padoano, a instantia di C. di Navò, 1550. In-8 p. (mm. 211x158), p. pergamena molle coeva, tit. ms. al dorso, 8 cc.nn., 167 cc.num., 1 c.nn. con marca tipografica al recto; bel frontespizio figurato, ornato da grandi iniziali ed illustrato nel t. da numerose e interessanti vignette xilografate (lavori metallurgici, forni, ecc.). Nell'opera “si tratta non solo la diversità delle minere (sic), ma ancho quanto si ricerca alla prattica di esse e di quanto s'appartiene all'arte della fusione over getto de metalli, e d'ogni altra cosa a questa somigliante”. "Seconda edizione" (la prima è del 1540). E' questa la prima e più importante opera italiana di metallurgia; precede quella dell'Agricola; contiene anche interessanti capitoli sull'alchimia. Cfr. Duveen, p. 79 - Gamba,1261 - Brunet,I,954: "Ce traité, qui a eu beaucoup de succès dans le temps, se trouve difficilement, quoiqu'il en ait été fait plusieures éditions" - Choix de Olschki,IV,4156 per un'ediz. del 1559: "Ouvrage intéressant pour l'histoire des arts et des métiers, illustré de très nombreux bois curieux". Nel ns. esempl. 8 carte iniziali e 8 finali con alone, altrimenti ben conservato.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Malavasi sas]
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        Antiphonal Leaves

      Italy: np, 1550. Very Good. Two large conjugate antiphonal leaves (bifolium) with later large miniatures of reclining monks. An exquisite rare bifolium with complementary reclining monks (added later) with large (approximately three-inch) floral border along the bottom and sides. With beautiful reds, greens, yellow, browns, and gold (including thick gold halos on the monks). With notes and text in black with red highlights. Also with two large initials, one in blue and gold with a red border, the other red and gold with a blue border. The monks are a full eight inches long; the one on the left reaches (with his hand) 6.25 inches high; the one on the right 4.25 inches. The leaves together are 27 inches wide and 18 inches tall. (Framed = 31.5 x 23 inches). Vellum, likely 16th century Spanish; float-matted in fine ornate frame. Note: The monks were added later, either in the 19th or 20th century. Stitched repair in border of right leaf, a few smudges. A beautiful set of leaves, very handsomely framed.

      [Bookseller: The Manhattan Rare Book Company]
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        Libro de Jesus Hiio de Syrach, qu'es llamado, el Ecclesiastico traduzido de Griego en lengua Castellana

      En Leon [i.e. Strassburg] en Casa de Sebastian Grypho [i.e. Augustin Fries] 1550 - First Edition in Spanish of Ecclesiasticus [BIBLE IN SPANISH]. [ENZINAS, Francisco de, translator]. [Ecclesiastics]. Libro de Jesus Hiio de Syrach, qu'es llamado, el Ecclesiastico. traduzido de Griego en lengua Castellana En Leon [i.e. Strassburg]: en Casa de Sebastian Grypho [i.e. Augustin Fries], 1550. First edition in Spanish of Ecclesiasticus. Small octavo (6 x 3 5/8 inches; 151 x 91 mm). [3], 109 leaves. With numerous woodcut initials. With an imitation Gryphius woodcut device printed in reverse on title. We could only locate 3 copies at libraries, Cambridge, Madrid and Copenhagen. No other copy besides this present copy has been at auction in the past 50 years. Early 19th-century mottled sheep. Boards tooled in gilt. Spine stamped in gilt. With red morocco spine label, lettered in gilt. Board edges tooled in gilt. Marbled endpapers. Some minor dampstaining, mainly to lower blank margin of preliminaries. Signature G is toned. Leaves O3 and O4 with marginal paper repair, not affecting text. Final leaf is toned and has a near invisible paper repair, not affecting text. Overall a very good copy. "A native of Burgos educated at Louvain and Wittenberg, Francisco de Enzinas (1518-52) was a humanist scholar and Protestant convert who produced the first Spanish version of the New Testament, printed in 1543 in Antwerp. He formed a partnership with the Strassburg printer Augustin Fries to publish Spanish translations of Greek classics and the remainder of the Bible, of which he was only able to complete Psalms, Ecclesiasticus, Job, and Proverbs before his death. Baudrier VIII, 241 (not having seen or located a copy, citing Brunet supplement II, 712)" "Even before the complete edition of Castellio's Latin Bible appeared Enzinas, who had already produced a Spanish Bible [New Testament] in Antewerp (in 1543), had translated the Psalter, the Wisdom of Solomon, Jesus Sirach [present copy], and the book of Job into Spanish. All of these appeared with the false address 'En Leon, en casa de Sebastian Grypho', though they were in fact his translations from manuscript versions of Castellio's edition. Enzinas continued to work on his translations until his death on 30 December 1552. He had planned to have his Spanish Bible printed in Geneva, but this (fortunately for Calvin) never came to pass." (Gilly, Spanien und der Basler Buchdruck, pp. 342-9, 510-11.) Found in (Sebastian Castellio, 1515-1563: Humanist and Defender of Religious .By Hans R. Guggisberg, Bruce Gordon). "FRIES, Augustine: printer in Zurich and Strasburg began to print at the former place about 1540. In 1547 he printed two books in English by John Hooper [Heitz p. 39]. Soon after this he moved to Strasburg and there printed among other things several works in Spanish by Franzisco de Enzinas in 1550 and 1551 [Wiffen I pp 179 etc.]" (A Century of the English Book Trade: Short Notices of All Printers. By Edward Gordon Duff). HBS 67900. $10,000 [Attributes: First Edition; Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: Heritage Book Shop, ABAA]
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        Orlando Furioso dirigido al principe Don Philipe nuestro Señor, traduzido en Romance Castellano, por don Ieronymo de Urrea. An se añadido breves moralidades arto neceßarias a la declaratio[n] de los ca[n]tos, y la tabla es muy mas aumentada.

      Lyon, Macé Bonhomme for Guillaume Rouillé, 1550. - 4to. 436 p + [4]p index. Roman & italic letter. Text in 8-line heroic cantos printed in 2 columns. Title with printer’s device surrounded by grotesque architectural woodcut border, large oval woodcut portrait of author on recto of 2nd leaf, 46 woodcut illustrations in the text (50 x 90mm) with ornamental horizontal borders, 2 historiated woodcut initials. Renaissance style morocco binding gilt; top edge git (Pacchiotti,Torino). The influential first Spanish translation of the celebrated epic romance in octavos considered one of the greatest literary achievements of the Italian Renaissance. The final version of Ariosto’s parody of the chivalric legends of Charlemagne and the Arab invasions of France was published in Ferrara in 1532 to be translated into Spanish as early as 1549 by Jerónimo Jiménes de Urrea (c1510 — c1573), Aragonese writer and a distinguished soldier from Epila, Zaragoza. Urrea’s translation is an acknowledged major source for Cervantes’s Don Quixote which contains numerous references to Orlando Furioso. The 45 cantos are dedicated to King Philip II of Spain. It was first published at Antwerp in 1549 and is here offered in its second printing. The charming woodcuts showing heroic feats are impressions from blocks cut for the attractive Giolito editions (‘the first Ariosto illustrations of any artistic merit’ – see Mortimer, Italian 16th Century Books, I, 36). Top margins shaven, 2 quires toned, last leaves with light waterstain, margins of 2 leaves strengthened, otherwise a good copy with an early old ownership initial stamp in tailend margin of title. Agnelli-Ravignani 1550; Baudrier X, p219; Gültlingen VIII, p90, 131; Heredia 5200; Palau 16597; USTC 116146. [Attributes: Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: Hünersdorff Rare Books ABA ILAB]
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        De ecclesiae autoritate, & de ueterum scriptis libellus. Autore Philip. Melant.

      - Wittenberg, Iosephus Klug, 1550. 8vo. A8-G8, H2. Last page blank. Title within woodcut frame. Stain in margins. Bound together with:MELANCHTON, Philipp (preface) || CRUCIGER, Caspar. Enarratio symboli Niceni, complectens ordine doctrinam ecclesiae Dei fideliter recitatam. Cum praefatione Philippio Melanchtonis ad doctores ecclesia Dei in Saxonia. Wittenberg, Iohannis Lufft, 1550. (8),+ 64, 64-78, 80-151 ll. Leaf 3 cut with loss of pagina headline, a small wormhole in upper margin ll. 113-119 and stain in upper corner. Half calf from mid 18th-century, gilt spine with worn beige label, ink stain on spine. Owner?s signature on the first title leaf, Nicolaus Nicolai, dated 1617 and, partly over crossed, Severin Paulus [.] also dated 1617. From the library of Ericsberg, with its book plate VD16 M3084 resp. C5845. Hartfelder 459 for the second work. Not in Adams. The first work is one of many 16th-century editions of ?De ecclesiae autoritate?, first published in Wittenberg 1539. ?On the Authority of the Church and the Writings of the Ancient Father? ?occupies a prominent place in the canon of his theological writings. Few texts of the Reformation period state so clearly the principles according to which the Fathers and the councils of the church may be considered authentic sources for Christian doctrine? The second work by Cruciger contains a preface by Melanchton, Caspar Cruciger (1504-48) was a pupil of Melanchtons who become head master of the new prostestant Johannnisschule in Magdeburg. He also edited the Wittenberg edition of Luther's Works. [Attributes: Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: Centralantikvariatet]
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        Kriegserinnerungen. 95 meist farbige Postkarten, und 2 Photos 1. Weltkrieg.

      Album von Julius Friedl, Wien, - Album mit Einsteckecken für Postkartensammlung. Einband leichte Gebrauchsspuren. Sonst sehr gut erhalten. 15234 Regal 3 Sprache: Deutsch Gewicht in Gramm: 1550 2°. Leinen mit farbiger Einbandzeichnung. [Attributes: Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Richart Kulbach]
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        Ritratto di Papa Giulio III

      1550 - Bulino, circa 1550, in basso a destra l’excudit di Antonio Salamanca. Bellissima prova, impressa su carta vergata coeva, in ottimo stato di conservazione. Ritratto di papa Giulio III (1550-1555), con tiara papale, contenuto entro elaborata cornice ovale. L'opera non è descritta da Bartsch e Passavant ed è attribuibile per motivi stilistici alla mano del Beatricetto. Al verso, timbro di collezione Thomas Jefferson Coolidge jr (Lugt 1429). Molto rara. Engraving, circa 1550, published by Antonio Salamanca. Excellent work, printed on contemporary laid paper, in good condition. Portrait of Pope Julius III (1550-1555), bearded, papal tiara. Oval within ornamental border. This work is not described by Bartsch ad Passavant and could be ascribed to the hand of Beatrizet. Mark of collection Thomas Jefferson Coolidge, Jr. (Lugt 1429), on verso. Very rare. Undescribed. Dimensioni 217 300mm

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquarius]
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        Das Heilig Judisch Land mit Ausztheilung der Zwolff Geschlechter

      Basilea 1550 - Esemplare pubblicato nella "‘Cosmographia oder beschreibung Aller Lander.", edita a Basilea nel 1588. Per la realizzazione di questa mappa, Munster si basò su quelle di Mercator e Ziegler, arricchendola con numerose vignette. L’orientazione insolita della mappa vede l’Ovest in alto con la linea costiera che corre da sud-ovest a nord-est. la zona litoranea, è notevolmente accurata per il periodo, e va da Sidone e la terra dei Fenici nel nord, a Gaza nel sud. Gli ultimi nove accampamenti degli israeliti erranti durante l'esodo sono mostrati insieme con le divisioni tribali. Il cartiglio contiene un indice delle località che appaiono sulla mappa, con ogni voce in grassetto seguito dal corsivo per i nomi alternativi con cui il sito era conosciuto. Xilografia, finemente colorata a mano, in ottime condizioni. Published in ‘Cosmographia oder beschreibung Aller Lander.’, Basle 1588. Munster based this map of the Holy Land on maps by Mercator and Ziegler and filled it with numerous woodcut vignettes. The unusual orientation of the map places west at the top with the coastline running southwest to northeast. The shoreline is remarkably accurate for the period, covering from Sidon and the land of the Phoenicians in the north, to Gaza in the south. The last nine encampments of the wandering Israelites during the Exodus are shown along with the tribal divisions. The cartouche contains an index of place names that appear on the map with each boldfaced entry followed in italics by the alternative names by which the site was known. Woodcut, with fine colour, very good condition. Dimensioni 345 365mm

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquarius]
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        IMPERATORUM et Caesarum Vitae, cum Imaginabus ad vivam effigiem expressis. Huic aeditioni additi sunt cum Icunculis, et elencho, versus Ausonii, Mycilli, et Vellei poëtarum paucis ingentem historiam complectentes.

      Lugduni, apud Balthazarem Arnolletum, 1550. - Petit in-8. 16pp. 235pp. Plein veau moucheté, filet doré encadrant les plats, dos à nerfs orné (charnières un peu fendues). Edition Originale. Charmant volume réunissant sous un format portatif les notices biographiques des empereurs romains et leur portrait gravé sur bois d'après les médailles. Petit accroc à un feuillet avec perte de quelques lettres. Trace de cachet à la page de titre et au dernier feuillet. Très rare. [Attributes: First Edition; Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: Librería Comellas]
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        Vallo libro continente appertinente à Capitanij, ritenere & fortificare una Città con bastioni, con noui artificij de fuoco aggionti, come nella Tauola appare, & de diuerse sorte poluere, & de espugnare una Città con ponti, scale, argani, trombe, trenciere, arte gliarie, caue, dare auisamenti senza messo allo amico, fare ordinance, battaglioni, & ponti de disfida con lo pingere. Opera molto utile con la esperientia de l'arte militare.

      [Colofón: Stampata in Vineggia: per gli heredi di Piero Rauano, & compagni, MDL], Venecia 1550 - [Para pedidos desde fuera de España, por favor, consulte las condiciones de venta y envío, tipo B. / For orders to be delivered outside Spain, please, let you see our sale and shipping terms, type B. / Pour les commandes à livrer hors d'Espagne, s'il vous plait, voyez les conditions de vente et de livraison, type B.].- // 8º, (150x115 mm.).- [8], 71, [1] h.; sign.: i8, A-I8; frontispicio con orla xilográfica alegórica firmada 'Eustachivs' [Eustachio Celebrino]; iniciales xilográficas; 46 ilustraciones intercaladas en el texto, de ellas, 21 xilografías, de las que 10 a toda página, y 25 composiciones de formaciones militares realizadas con tipos de imprenta; cursiva romana; marca tipogáfica de la Sirena al final, en verso de I8.- // Encuadernación s. XVIII en cartoné mudo; lomo y planos mudos. Pequeña rotura (7mm.) en margen lateral de A2; muy leve marca de humedad antigua en punta inferior derecha desde A3 hasta D8; punta inferior de A7 remarginada antiguamente. Completo de I8 con la marca tipográfica en el verso.- // Proc.: En verso de portada, exlibris manuscrito de 158X, 'questo libro jo franco. Riuda compré a Roma l'ano 158X.'; exlibris manuscritos diminutos en margen superior de portada y al pie del verso de última página, 'Ch. de Foucauld'.- // Refs.: Brunet, V, 1063; Cockle, 765. Para la portada, Masséna, V, 2096 y 2226.- // Publicada por primera vez en la inencontrable edición napolitana de 1521, el tratado de della Valle conoció más de 20 ediciones en 100 años, traduciéndose en 1529 y 1554 al francés y en 1620 y 1644 al alemán. Se ha sugerido que parte de la obra de Diego de Álava y Viamont, El perfeto capitan, instruido en la ciencia militar, y nueva ciencia de la artillería, impresa en 1590, pero escrita varios años antes, era una traducción, lo que pese a la semejanza del título no es cierto. La obra de della Valle, la primera en su género, está muy relacionada con que en el siglo XVI se produjeron dos drásticas novedades en lo que al arte militar se refiere. La primera, que el peso que haste entonces venía concediéndose a la caballería y a las batallas a campo abierto como el núcleo de las guerras cedió ante la importancia cobrada tanto por los pequeños asedios como por la infantería dotada de armas de fuego. La segunda, que la ciencia de las fortificaciones, que hasta entonces era materia propia de los tratados de arquitectura, pasó a ser una necesidad a desarrollar durante las acciones militares, no solo por los asedios (tanto para realizarlos como para resistirlos), sino también por la necesidad de considerar lo relacionado con la artillería y la balísitica: la presencia de los cañones obligaba a pensar en cómo hacer mayor daño en las fortalezas y, simultáneamente, en cómo fortificarse para minimizar los efectos de los cañonazos enemigos. Ambas circunstancias estaban relacionadas con que el XVI fue un siglo en el que los ejércitos 'nacionales' estaban dispersos en multitud de focos, de modo que los capitanes al mando en cada uno dependían de sus propios conocimientos técnicos para los necesarios planteamientos estratégicos. No en vano el siglo XVI verá la aparición de academias de oficiales, con la Mecánica y las Matemáticas como parte de las disciplinas en las que formarse. El tratado de della Valle no es propiamente ni un tratado de fortificaciones ni uno de artilleria, sino, como certeramente decía en el título, consejos para el desarrollo de las acciones militares reuniendo los conocimientos de los que debería disponer un oficial para mantener la disciplina, llevar a cabo asedios o defenderse contra ellos, combinar los ataques de tropas y de artillería o resistirlos, proteger a tropas y maquinaria en trincheras, etc., con ilustración de los medios necesarios. ¡Incluso ofrece un modelo de escafandra con tubo de respiración para atacar andando bajo el agua! La orla xilográfica de la portada que figura en todas las ediciones que los Rauano hicieron de la obra de dellla Valle, con Marte y Bellona presidiéndola, [Attributes: Hard Cover]

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        Fig. 10

      Artist: Anonymus ; issued in: ; date: ca 1550 - - technic: Copper print; - colorit: original colored; - condition: Perfect condition; - size (in cm): 13 x 17; - description: Map shows total Asia with Asia minor, India, China and Southeast Asia.

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        Ioannis Calvini Commentarii in Epistolam ad Hebraeos. [und] Ioannis Calvini Commentarii in Secundam Pauli Epistolam ad Corinthios. [und] Ioannis Calvini commentarii, in quatuor Pauli Epistolas: ad Galatas, ad Ephesiois, ad Philippenses, ad Colossenses. [und] De vitandis superstitionibus quae cum sincera fidei confessione pugnant. Libellus Ioannis Caluini. Ejusdem, excusatio ad Pseudonicodemus. Philippi Melancthonis, Martini Buceri, Petri Martyris responsa de eadem re, Calvini ultimum responsum cum appendicibus. Quibus accessit Responsum pastorum Tigurinae Ecclesiae. [und] Ioannis Calvini commentarii in epistolam ad Titum.

      Genevae [Genf], per Ioannem Gerardum, 1549-1548-1548-1550-1550. - 8° (21x14), [8] Bl., 215 S., 157 S., [1] wBl., [4] Bl., 323 S., 144 S., 42 S., [1] wBl, mit großen Druckermarken auf 4 Titelblättern, mehrere Metallschnitt-Initialen auf schwarzem Grund, brauner reich geprägter Rindslederband über Holzdeckeln, gemalter Rückentitel zwischen den Bünden, gepräg Titel auf DeckelReste von Messingschliessen auf den Deckeln (Bänder fehlen), Kapitale bestossen, kleine Bezugsfehlstelle an der obEcke des VDeckels bzw untEcke des HDeckels, vordGelenk gebrochen und angelockert (stabil), leeres vordVorsatzblatt entfernt, Besitzvermerk des 19. Jh. auf Innenspiegel und 1. Titelblatt, Papier leicht gebräunt, sehr vereinzelte kleine Eckeabrisse im äussersten weissen Rand, etwa 10 Bl. mit alten Marginalien, wohlerhaltenes Exemplar im prächtigen originalen Renaissance-Einband, [Erichson, Bibliographia Calviniana, 9/8/8/10/11].- Sammelband mit 5 Erstausgaben von Johannes Calvins Genfer Drucker Jean Girard, Geneve.- [Attributes: First Edition]

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        Libelli Seu Decreta a Clodoveo, Et Childeberto, & Clothario, Prius...

      1550. A Landmark in the Recovery of Early Medieval Law Du Tillet, Jean [d. 1570], Editor. Libelli Seu Decreta a Clodoveo, Et Childeberto, & Clothario, Prius Aedita, Ac, Postremum a Carolo Lucide Emendata, Auctaque Plurimum, In Quibus Haec Habentur. Capitula ex Isidori Junioris Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum Lib. V. Pactum Pro Tenore Pacis DD. Childeberti & Clotharii Regum Decretio Clotharii Regis. Sententiae de Septem Septenis. Lex Salica. Decretem Childeberti Regis. Recapitulatio Legis Salica. [Paris: Charlotte Guillard, 1550]. [ii], [3]-127; [1], 70; [1], 95; [1], 56; 15; [2], 119, [1] pp. Six parts one, each preceded by divisional title page. Octavo (4-1/4" x 3-1/4"). Contemporary limp vellum, title panel and blind ornaments to spine. Light soiling, spine darkened, corners bumped, small recent owner bookplate to front pastedown, front hinge cracked. Light toning to text, light soiling to title page of first part, later owner annotations in pencil to front pastedown. An appealing copy of a rare title. $3,000. * First edition. An important landmark in the recovery of early medieval law, this volume contains critical editions of the principal texts of Frankish, Burgundian, Germanic, Saxon, Salic and Ripuarian law (Lex Alemannorum, Antiquae Burgundionum Leges, Ripuariorum Leges a Theodorico Rege Francorum Latae, Antiqua Baivuariorium Lex and Vetus Lex Saxonum.) The list of topics treated in these codes includes commerce, land ownership, inheritance, criminal procedure and civil procedure. A French humanist jurist and associate of Cujas, Du Tillet was also the Bishop of Brieuc. He edited Ulpian's Regulae and assisted Cujas with his edition of the Theodosian Code. This volume was reissued in 1573 with an original title page by Jacques de Puy. Both editions are otherwise identical. Charlotte Guillard was France's first important female printer. She was renowned for the quality of her typography. Later editions were published in 1580 and c. 1600. All are rare. OCLC locates 4 copies of the first edition in North America, 2 in law libraries (Library of Congress, UC-Berkeley). Adams, Catalogue of Books Printed on the Continent of Europe, 1501-1600 L644.

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        Arte subtilissima, por la qual se enseña a escrevir perfectamente, hecho y experimentado, y agora; de nuevo añadido

      Saragossa, Pedro Bernúz, 1550 (23 July). The Arte subtilissima is the revised second edition of the first calligraphy and handwriting manual published in Spain. The woodblocks of the first edition (1548) are re-employed, except for three; twenty-four "Tablas mas estudiadas y mas esmeradas que antes" are added, and these enlarge the book by two gatherings (sixteen leaves). One of the new blocks is dated 1547, seven are dated 1550, and sixteen are undated. J.P.R. Lyell's complaint that Iciar's writing books were "thumbed out of existence" is validated by modern bibliographical tools: ten copies of the 1548 first edition, some just fragments, are recorded in public collections worldwide. Our 1550 second edition is less rare, but equally difficult to find complete and in good condition: twelve copies are recorded public collections, of which at least four are incomplete. [img-2371-left-large_default] Fig. 1. A monument of the Spanish Renaissance ( height of binding 197 mm) Iciar, Juan de Durango (Viscaya) circa 1522-after 1572 Logroño? Arte subtilissima, por la qual se enseña a escrevir perfectamente, hech o y experimentado, y agora; de nuevo añadido. Saragossa, Pedro Bernúz, 1550 (23 July) quarto (194 × 133 mm), (86)ff. signed A 6 B-L 8 , not foliated or paginated. Woodcut compartment on title-page incorporating insignia of the dedicatee Philip (later Philip ii, King of Spain), fine woodcut portrait of the author aged 25 (folio A4 verso), each letterpress text page enclosed by a four-piece woodcut border (of which there are four designs), full-page woodcut writing samples (some cut white-on-black using criblé techniques), every block (or group of blocks) signed by the cutter Juan de Vingles either in full, with his mark of a sacred heart surmounted by a crown (in one design supported by the lion of Lyons), or his initials idv ; devices of the printers Jorge Coci and Pedro Bernúz on final leaf. 1 provenance Earls of Macclesfield, Shirburn Castle, embossed stamp on title-page and following two leaves, exlibris South Library dated 1860 on paste-down -- Sotheby's, 'The Library of the Earls of Macclesfield, Part Six: Science P-Z plus Addenda', London, 26 October 2005, lot 2237 Repaired when rebound in the eighteenth-century: title-leaf laid down, margins of folios F5 and F6 repaired, marginal paper repairs in other leaves (occasionally touching borders and signature letters), slight staining; however, for a book of this kind, in unusually fine state of preservation. binding eighteenth-century English calf; gilt frame on covers, spine gilt in compartments. The Arte subtilissima is the revised second edition of the first calligraphy and hand­writing manual published in Spain. Like the Italian manuals on which it is modelled, it shows a wide range of styles and alphabets, including the chancery italic, book hands (roman and italic), commercial hands, Roman capitals (including a set copied with few modifications from Dürer), the gothic script, the rotunda, capitals suitable for illumination, monograms and Greek and Hebrew alphabets. The work was an immediate success (six editions appeared before 1566) and continues to be esteemed to this day: 'There can be no doubt that Yciar's book has to be counted among the finest calligraphic copy-books to be found anywhere at any time'. 2 [img-2368-left-large_default] Fig. 2.LeftPortrait of the author cut by Juan de Vingles. Page height 194 mm The author, the Basque Juan de Iciar, worked from about 1547 until about 1573 at Saragossa, a centre of culture and the cradle of Spanish printing, as a teacher (of writing and arithmetic) and as a copyist, particularly of choir and service-books for church use, which he wrote in a gothic rotunda style (he is shown on the title-page writing a formal alphabet in a book with one hand and holding a choir book in the other). His aim was to teach children as well as adults, and in the instructions which accompany his specimens, Iciar - influenced by his fellow countrymen Juan Vives and Alejo Vanegas - considers various pedagogical problems, such as whether children should be taught reading before writing, or simultaneously (folios A5-6), and recommends as teaching aids sheets of tin ('hojas de Flandres', D5 verso - the idea is similar to that underlying the use of slate and chalk: the child rubs out mistakes with his fingers, and becomes less inhibited in his writ­ing) and alphabets carved in tablets of wood or metal ('una tablilla de box, o de metal muy lisa', L4 verso - an apparatus mentioned by Quintilian, endorsed by Erasmus and Palatino: the pupil moves a pen in grooves cut into the letters, until the shapes and movements become natural). The second edition, as befitted its new dedication, to the prince Philip, Regent of Spain, was revised as an elegant picture book. The author, or perhaps his printer, lightened the text: some instructions (notably the 'Trata de letra Aragonesa', on folio E8 verso in the 1548 edition) were abbreviated, some recipes ('para bermellon... para hazer tornasol... para hazer verde lino... agua gomada; y para destemper la clara del hueuo... para preparar la glossa', folios B6 recto-B8 verso in the 1548 edition) were excised, and the concluding 'Trato del modo como este libro se hizo', in which Iciar described how the blocks were made for his book (folio I7 in the 1548 edition), was deleted. A new 'Epistola Al Lector' and Latin verses in praise of the author by 'Blasij Spesij Doctoris Medici' are introduced. [img-2369-left-large_default] Fig. 3.LeftOne of the new blocks cut by Juan de Vingles for this second edition. RightA block reprinted from the first edition (1548). Page height 194 mm [img-2370-left-large_default] Fig. 4. 'Letras de Compas para Illvminadores', cut by Juan de Vingles. Page height 194 mm The woodblocks of the first edition are re-employed in the second edition, except for three (two models of a 'Letra Gotica Echada' and a 'Trata de la letra tratizada', folios D5 recto-D5 verso, D6 verso in the 1548 edition). To their number, twenty-four 'Tablas mas estudiadas y mas esmeradas que antes' ('Epistola Al Lector', A3 verso) were added, and these enlarge the book by two gatherings (sixteen leaves). One of the new blocks is dated 1547, seven are dated 1550, and sixteen are undated. 3 In the new prefatory letter, Iciar claims that certain mistakes ('algunas faltas') in the old blocks have been corrected, and that other blocks have been improved by the addition of flourishes ('muchos rasgos '). The corrections seem to be no more than several erasures of the date '1548' and substitution of '1550' (e.g. C2 recto, C2 verso). The alteration of old blocks to enhance their decorative effect was more systematic; a typical embellishment is the stippling of the background of blocks printed white-on-black (e.g. C6 verso, C7 recto, E6 verso, H3 recto, H3 verso). This work, together with the presentation of Iciar's text within broad frames of newly-cut border ornament (two pieces are dated 1550), and the introduction of an attractive sub-title (a block from the Jorge Coci-Pedro Bernúz stock, in use since 1548; see reproduction by Sánchez p.354), make this one of the most beautiful books of the Spanish Renaissance. Iciar's engraver was Juan de Vingles (1498-circa 1552), a son of the Lyonese printer Jean i de Vingles (active 1493-1513), whose device of the initials iv within a crowned heart he adopted. Juan is first recorded in Spain in 1534, when he cut a block for the printer Carlos Amorós of Barcelona; 4 in 1535, he was working at Saragossa for Pierre Hardouyn; in 1547-1550 he was collaborating with Juan de Iciar; and he is last heard of in 1552, working as a publisher at Pau in the south of France, in partnership with Henri Poivre. He took his inspiration from many sources, including Lyonese editions of Horae and Alciati's Emblems, printed in 1548. 5 The woodcut border enclosing the title is from the block utilised for the 1548 edition, printed by Bartholomé de Nágera 'a costas de Alonso de Frailla, y Iuan de Iciar, y Iuan de Vingles', on 22 August 1548 (Sánchez no. 278). The fine and highly original woodcut por­trait of Iciar also was cut for the first edition, and it reappears in Iciar's Arithmetica prac­tica printed at Saragossa by Pedro Bernúz 'a costa del auctor y de Miguel de Cepilla [Zapila] mercador d'libros', on 16 February 1549 (Sánchez no. 285). It seems that Miguel de Zapila was involved also in publishing the 1550 Arte subtilissima: the title-page of the copy reproduced by Cotarelo y Mori (pl. 72) has his imprint 'A costa de Miguel Cepilla mercader de libros' added in the lower margin. J.P.R. Lyell's complaint that Iciar's writing books were 'thumbed out of existence' 6 is vali­dated by modern bibliographical tools: perhaps ten copies of the 1548 first edition, some just fragments, are recorded in public collections worldwide. 7 Our 1550 second edition is less rare, but equally difficult to find complete and in good condition. These copies are known to the writer: ● Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek, OTM: KL 08-223 ● Avignon, Bibliothèque municipale, 8° 14227 ● Cambridge, ma, Harvard University, Houghton Library, Department of Printing & Graphic Arts, Typ W 560.50.460 8 ● Chicago, Newberry Library, Wing Collection, ZW 540 I.164 ('imperfect: t.-p. and many leaves mutilated, mended') ● Lisbon, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, RES. 5564 P ● London, British Library, C 31 h14 (lacking A1-2, A5-6, H4-5) ● Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, R/31877 ('Ej. falto de las hoj. 12, 36 y 86') 9 ● Madrid, Universidad Complutense, B. Histórica-Fco. Guerra 3499 10 ● New York, New York Public Library, Spencer Collection (Baron Achille Seillière -- Robert Hoe copy, washed and rebound by Chambolle-Duru) 11 ● New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 12 ● Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce YY 13 (ff.1-50) ● Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, Reserve 8- S- 14639 ● Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Res-V-1463 (lacking B8, D8, E1-2, E7-8, F1-2, L8). Just four complete copies 13 have passed through the auction sale rooms in the last sixty years: ● the Stirling-Maxwell copy (sold by Christie's, London, 20 May 1958, lot 79: bound in old morocco gilt, £200 to W.H. Schab) ● Stanley Morison's copy (sold by Sotheby's, London, on 28 November 1961, lot 509a: margins of 28 leaves restored, pen facsimile on A3, bound in 19th-century half-morocco, £75; resold on 1 June 1977, lot 135: £850) ● the Richard Ford -- Otto Schäfer copy (sold by Sotheby's, New York, 1 November 1995, lot 124: leaves remargined, some restored with pen facsimile, $8000) ● the Hippolyte Destailleur -- Carl W. Jones -- Arthur & Charlotte Vershbow copy (sold by Christie's, New York, 9-10 April 2013, lot 232: 'Internal marginal tear on E5, some browning and spotting', bound in contemporary vellum, $37,500). references Juan M. Sánchez, Bibliografía aragonesa del sigloxvi (Madrid 1913-1914), no. 301; Emilio Cotarelo y Mori, Diccionario Biográfico y Bibliográfico de Calígrafos Españoles (Madrid 1914-1916), i, pp.356-357; Claudio Bonacini, Bibliografía delle arti scrittorie e della calligrafia (Florence 1953), no. 2074; Antonio Palau, Manual del librero hispano-americano (Barcelona 1954), no. 117834; Juan de Yciar: a facsímile [prepared from the Hofer-Harvard and Stanley Morison copies] of the 1550 edition of the Arte Subtilissima, with a translation by Evelyn Shuckburgh, introduction by Reynolds Stone (London 1960); Catalogo colectivo de obras impresas en los Siglosxvialxviiiexistentes en las bibliotecas españolas (Madrid 1975), I-52; A.S. Osley, Scribes and Sources (Boston 1980), pp.127-147; Iberian books: books published in Spanish or Portuguese or on the Iberian Peninsula before 1601, edited by Alexander S. Wilkinson (Leiden & Boston 2010), p.415 no. 10503 1. Francisco Vindel, Escudos y marcas de impresores y libreros en España (Barcelona & Madrid 1942-1950), nos. 149-150. 2. Alfred Fairbank and Berthold Wolpe, Renaissance Handwriting (London 1960), no. 78. 3. 1547: 'Letra redonda castellana', E1 recto; 1550: B8 verso, C1 recto, C3 verso, C4 recto, D5 recto, I4 verso, I5 recto); undated: C8 verso, D1 recto, D1 verso, D2 recto, D3 verso, D4 recto, D4 verso, E4 verso, E5 recto, E7 recto, G8 verso, H1 recto, H1 verso, H2 recto, H2 verso, I5 verso. 4. Antonio Gallego, Historia del grabado en España (Madrid 1979), p.97. 5. Henry Thomas, 'Juan de Vingles: a sixteenth-century book illustrator' in The Library, fourth series, 18 (1937), pp.121-176, figs.1-6. 6. J.P.R. Lyell, Early book illustration in Spain (London 1926), p.145. 7. ● Cambridge, University Libraries, Td.56.1 ● Cambridge, ma, Harvard University Libraries, TypW 560.48.460 ● London, British Library, C.31.h.9 ● Madrid, Real Academia de la Historia, 2/1495 ● Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España, R/8611 ● Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Res/4 Graph. 98 (Fugger copy; see Kulturkosmos der Renaissance: die Gründung der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek, catalogue of an exhibition in the Staatsbibliothek, Munich, 7 March-1 June 2008, Wiesbaden 2008, pp.234-235 no. 84) ● Oxford, Bodleian Library, Johnson p 209 (19 ff. only) ● Vilanova i la Geltrú, Biblioteca Museu Victor Balaguer, 1 "B" XVI-A/33 (defective). Wilkinson, op. cit., p.415 no. 10501, cites two further copies which we have not independently verified: New York, Hispanic Society of America; Palma de Mallorca, Biblioteca Pública del Estado. 8. David Becker, The Practice of Letters: the Hofer Collection of Writing Manuals, 1514-1800 (Cambridge, ma 1997), pp.17-18 no. 36. 9. Catálogo colectivo de obras impresas en los siglos xvi al xviii existentes en las bibliotecas expañolas (Madrid 1975), I-44. 10. Una biblioteca ejemplar: tesoros de la colección Francisco Guerra en la Biblioteca Complutense, edited by Marta Torres Santo Domingo (Madrid 2007), pp.45-47, 267 no. 2 (two reproductions). 11. Entered in the Library's Dictionary Catalog 1911-1971 (Boston 1979), volume 363, p.408 (also in the National Union Catalog, volume 263, p.339), but not in the local online catalogue (catnyp). 12. W.M. Ivins, Jr., 'A Gift of Writing Books' in The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 23 (1928), p.298. 13. A copy lacking three leaves, restored with pen facsimile, was sold by Sotheby's, New York, 4 December 1996, lot 257 ($3500); a fragment (60 of 86 leaves) was offered by Librairie Sourget, 'Catalogue 34: Manuscrits enluminés et livres précieux', Chartres 2007, item 13 (€11,500); and a copy with leaves lacking and in facsimile, in a nineteenth-century half-vellum binding, was sold by Alde, 'Livres anciens et modernes', Paris, 1 June 2011, lot 210 (€1,800).

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        Septentrionales regiones

      1550. Woodcut, mm 250x340, colored. Very attractive early map of Scandinavia. Second state of Munster's map, published first in 1545, based upon the Olaus Magnus map of 1539. Good condition, some water stains in bottom margin. From a latin edition of "Cosmographia universalis", a milestone in cartography, first published in 1544, the earliest German description of the world. About 40 editions of the Cosmographia appeared between 1544 and 1628.

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        De asse, et partibus eius, libri V.Lione, apud Sebastianum Griphium , 1550.

      Lione, apud Sebastianum Griphium 1550 - Cm. 17,5, pp. 815 (81) + 1 c.b. Graziosi marchi tip. a frontespizio e colophon. Leg. coeva in piena perg. molle. Minime mancanze di perg. al margine esterno del piatto posteriore e alla parte bassa del dorso, qualche alone sparso, perlopiù marginale. Esemplare peraltro nel complesso genuino e ben conservato. Ben conservato. Guillaume Budé (1467-1540), celebre umanista parigino, va annoverato anche fra i principali esponenti dell'umanesimo giuridico. Budé ricoprì numerose cariche pubbliche, partecipò al movimento della Riforma umanistica e diede un decisivo contributo alla creazione del Collège de France e del patrimonio librario della Biblioteca Nazionale. Oltre alle celebri opere giuridiche, Budé scrisse anche importanti commentari sulla lingua greca e soprattutto il De asse, trattato sulle monete e sulle misure antiche, reputato uno dei più autorevoli contributi cinquecenteschi sul tema. Cfr. Kvk; non in Einaudi che menziona altre edizioni. [Attributes: Hard Cover]

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        Septentrionales regiones

      Basilea 1550 - Woodcut, mm 250x340, colored. Very attractive early map of Scandinavia. Second state of Munster's map, published first in 1545, based upon the Olaus Magnus map of 1539. Good condition, some water stains in bottom margin. From a latin edition of ìCosmographia universalisî, a milestone in cartography, first published in 1544, the earliest German description of the world. About 40 editions of the Cosmographia appeared between 1544 and 1628. cartografia.

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        Venedig

      Basilea 1550 - Veduta a volo d’uccello di Venezia, tratta dalla "Cosmographiae Universalis." edizione in tedesco, Basilea fine del XVI secolo. Taken from Meunster's "Cosmographia Universalis ", german edition of the second half of the XVI century. G. Moretto (a cura di) "Venetia - Le immagini della Repubblica", s. 13 Dimensioni 410 345mm

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        Manuscript Crown Revenue Survey during the Reign of Boy King Edward VI - Son of Henry VIII

      A significant document from young Edward's Reformation with details of revenues earned by the vast confiscation of monasteries, taxing clergy, and feudal exploitation, as well as monies controlled and embezzled by William Cavendish, this document being the fateful audit that led to his conviction. Westminster, circa 1736-1758. Manuscript fair copy of the Royal Revenue Survey, originally produced for young King Edward VI in 1552, subsequently copied in manuscript and bound in leather two centuries later, most conceivably by the Exchequer's Clerk of the Pell Office which at the time was Sir Edward Walpole (1706-1784). Folio. 85 pages in a fine manuscript hand, on Dutch made laid paper with watermark initials LV and LGV, and a crown motif. Half calf, seven raised bands to spine, marbled endpapers. Gilt title to front "Public Revenue Anno Quinto Regni Edwardi Sexto" and to spine "Survey of Royal Revenue Edward VI." With the special gift bookplate of the Constitutional Club Library, indicating the donor to be barrister, politician and member of the Club, Reginald Charles Edward Abbot (1842-1919), 3rd Baron Colchester. Volume measures approximately 27 x 42 x 3 cm. A singular and fascinating document revealing a pivotal work performed by the leading financial administrators of the King's court. The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, holds a similar volume from the year 1607, else they are exceedingly scarce. While the dates of the actual revenue survey (30 Sept 1550 - 29 Sept 1551) and the original assessment report (10 December 1552) are revealed herein, the period in which the present manuscript copy was made is best be estimated by the paper on which it is penned. The leafs are laid paper of Dutch origin, featuring a regal crowned fleur-de-lys watermark with the initials LVG which may be for the renowned papermaker Lubertus Van Gerrivink [Gerrevink], and a countermark to the opposite side simply being the initials IV which was the mark of the esteemed paper maker Jean Villedary of Hattem, Holland. The watermark of papermaker Jean Villedary (1668-1758) was used from 1668-1758 during his lifetime, and posthumously until 1812. The name or initials of Jean Villedary as watermarks cover a period of 150 years. The initials IV of Jean Villedary appear on a number of books and manuscripts in the public archives and libraries of both England and Holland. They also appear with the names and watermarks of Lubertus or Lucas Van Gerrevink, C. and I. Honig, Adriaan Rogge, and Van der Ley. The initials I.V. and L.V.G. together have been found on paper dated as early as 1736. It is not known for certain whether Villedary worked in conjunction with the other Dutch paper makers, or whether they counterfeited his initials, which had become a hallmark of excellence. However, the likelihood of the King's court being swindled is slim, therefore these are most likely the genuine watermarks of Villedary and Gerrevink, working in collaboration, and so, dating the paper to 1736-1758. A book published in 1857, "The Literary Remains of King Edward the Sixth," states that a modern transcript was held in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, possibly referring to the present work. Lubertus [Lubbert] Van Gerrivink was a Dutch paper maker, prominent in the period and also celebrated for his high quality paper, therefore a logical choice for the royal courts. He was associated with several English paper mill firms, and obtained patents for his distinct watermark in 1726 and 1727. ["LVG" was the watermark of three prominent papermakers of the period: Lubertus van Gerrevink of Egmond a/d Hoef, North Holland; his successor Lucas van Gerrevink of Alkmaar; and also L. van Groot (or Grooten). The paper on which in 1776 Thomas Jefferson penned his "First Ideas" for the Virginia Constitution was marked L.V.G. and also said to be of Dutch origin.] The official "Survey of Royal Revenue" commissioned in 1550 by young King Edward VI, through his Regency Council, facilitates an exceptional opportunity to learn of the finer details of the English monarchy's finances and some of the radical new policies established in the early years of the English Reformation, and also to scrutinize one notorious treasurer's embezzling schemes. An especially lengthy expense log was submitted by nobleman and courtier Sir William Cavendish (c. 1505-1557), Treasurer of the King's Chamber, who was found of fraud in 1553 after this audit. Profitability of various revenue courts are assessed, some of which had just recently installed by the king's predecessors, others that would soon to be abolished. A section pertaining to the Crown's monastic possessions, then recently acquired through the confiscation of Catholic churches and monasteries, illustrates the great monetary advantage to the crown and to a select few nobles to whom the lands and profits were granted, by reforming of the Church of England to Protestantism. Private expenditures made for the king include salaries for his physician, apothecary, guards, astronomer, entertainers, a dresser, and the like. Copied in the mid-1700s with the original vellum document in hand, the audit is very detailed and most assuredly contains information previously unknown. The monetary values, and specific calendar dates, remain somewhat cryptic and would be most interesting to decipher as they are written in a form of medieval stylized Roman numerals, of which there were many variants. There are few surviving documents which utilized such numbering systems, and even fewer scholars who possess the skill to unravel the italic lowercase substitutions. The document begins with an introductory certification, naming the parties who effected the survey. With embellished calligraphic capital letters subtly featuring wild deer which were hunted in the region, it states the contents as follows: "The Certificate of Thomas Lord Darcy of Chiche Lord Chamberlain to the Kings Majesty, Thomas [Thirlby] Bishop of Norwich, Sir Richard Cotton Knt. Comptroller of the King's most honorable household, Sir John Gate Knt. Vice-Chamberlain to his Majesty and Captain of his Highnesses guard [Gentlemen Pensioners Royal Guard], Sir Robert Bowes Master of the Rolles, and Walter Mildmay Knt. one of the Kings two Generall Surveyors commissioners appointed by the Kings commission under the Great Seal of England ... for the survey and examination of the state of all his Majesties Court of Revenue, as in the same commission bearing the date Westminster the [..23rd..] day March in the sixth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord Edward the Sixth by the Grace of God King of England France and Ireland... .... present certificate being divided into two parts, doth in the first contain as well the whole Revenue in certaintys & royaltys answerable to his Majesty in the said courts also the payments allowances and deductions... for one full year ending at the Feast of Saint Micheal the Archangell in the fifth year of his Majesty's reign as by several certificates of the Officers of the same courts of Revenue... And in the second part divers and sundry notes and remembrances made by the said commissioners upon the examination of the state of the courts... ye officers of the same tending to the [...] of the Kings Revenues... his charges now born out of the same and the well assured yearly answering of the said Revenue... as hereafter ensueth." English courtier Thomas Lord Darcy, 1st Baron Darcy of Chiche KG (1506-1558) was officially created Baron Darcy of Chiche on 5 April 1551, to serve as Lord Chamberlain of the Household, and in this role he led a commission to reform the revenue courts. The Revenue Survey described in the present text was already underway at the time of his appointment, Darcy having been involved initially as Vice-Chamberlain of the Household (1550-1551). The results were recorded in March 1552, one year after his appointment, according to the present manuscript. Another notable who participated in the audit was English statesman Sir Walter Mildmay (circa 1523 - 1589), then as one of the two Surveyor Generals of the Court of Augmentation, and an appointed Commissioner to the Revenue Survey. He had previously been assigned by King Henry VIII to the dissolution of the chantries. Mildmay soon proved himself a skillful financier. In 1550 he was directed, together with the Earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert, to examine the accounts of the King's mints, and in 1551 superintended the establishment of a new mint at York. In December 1551 he was a Commissioner to inspect the Courts which controlled the Crown lands. On 2 January 1552 he was commissioned to levy the King's debts; on 21 November to settle with the Crown accountants the effect of a fall in the value of money; and in December to audit the funds belonging to the king's officers. In 1552 and 1553 he superintended the receipt by the crown of plate, jewels, bells, and the like, surrendered by dissolved monasteries or chantries. For his services he received many grants of land in Gloucestershire, Berkshire, Cornwall, Essex, and London. He also served as Chancellor of the Exchequer of England under Queen Elizabeth I. And if a medieval document is to be valued in part by its connection to treachery or treason, this volume does not disappoint. The King's officer of finance, entrusted with the prestigious appointment "Treasurer of the Chamber," Sir William Cavendish was charged with embezzlement of royal revenues immediately after this audit was complete. The timing of this document is most remarkable in terms of Cavendish's charges of treason in the way of defrauding the king. As previously described, the present survey was made in 1550-1551, and the report completed in December 1552. Some time would have been required for the king's council to review the information, and within only a few months, in 1553, Cavendish was [for a second time] accused of embezzling a significant amount of money. "The Office of the Treasurer of the Kings Chamber, Sir William Cavendish, Knight, Treasurer: Payments in the said Office" is the heading for a long and detailed nine pages of expenses. Innumerable salaries are listed, some of which include the Officers of the Armoury, Officers of ye Jewell House, Dresser of ye King's Chamber, Officers of the Crossbows and Longbows, Keepers of beares and mastives, Players of Interludes, other "Keepers" of this and that, various "Artilicers" which included gardeners and many other labourers, and specifically for young King Edward VI himself - surgeons, footmen, watermen, yeomen, physician, apothecary, an astronomer, gunners serving in the tower of London, yeoman of the henchmen, the king's goldsmith and surveyor of his mints, and so forth. Administrative and other expenses included costs and expenses of messengers, posts, offerings and almes. Cavendish's embezzlement and creative accounting become evident in the vague contexts of certain entries, such as expenses claimed for "reparations," ambiguously described "rewards," "annuities paid to divers persons until ye King come to ye age of xviii years" and other annuities granted to "Strangers." A somewhat personal glimpse of the young king's daily life is also illustrated here, naming several musicians as his entertainers - a trumpet player, harper, bagpiper, violinist. Grooms cared for hounds, presumably for hunting, and one man looked after the "bears and "mastives." Sir William Cavendish (circa 1505 - 1557) was an English nobleman, politician, knight and courtier, appointed Treasurer of the Chamber for Edward VI from 1546 to 1553. Following his successful career as a financial expert holding public office in the Exchequer, which brought him much wealth, in 1530 he became one of Thomas Cromwell's "visitors of the monasteries" when King Henry VIII annexed the property of the Catholic Church, demanding the surrender of their property to the crown, and in that year seized the abbey at Sheen. At the end of the decade, he was further involved in the dissolution of the monasteries, and was accused of accumulating extra riches unfairly during the dissolution. In 1541 he was auditor of the Court of Augmentations, and received grants of land in Hertfordshire formerly belonging to the dissolved monasteries. In 1546 he became Treasurer of the King's Chamber, was knighted, and was sworn of the privy council. Edward VI showed as much affection for Cavendish as Henry VIII, continued him in his office and largely increased his landed property by fresh grants of monastic estates. In 1553 he was removed from his post on account of embezzlement. Although of ill-repute, he was evidently respected for his skills. Cavendish conformed under Mary, and was reappointed by her, as Treasurer of the Royal Chamber. This part of the document further mentions The Lord Marques, being William Parr, 1st Marquess of Northampton, 1st Earl of Essex and 1st Baron Parr, who was convicted of high treason and sentenced to death on 18 August 1553, whose life and title were also spared. He was Edward VI's 'beloved uncle' and one of the most important men at Edward's court, especially during John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland's time as leader of the government. He was created Marquess of Northampton in 1547, and was convicted of high treason and sentenced to death on 18 August 1553 after the accession of Mary I. He was, however, released in the autumn. His titles were restored to him by Elizabeth I in 1559. True to the legacy of the reigns of young Edward VI and his father before him, the volume contains firsthand information on the dissolution of Catholic monasteries, and to whom the confiscated monies were appropriated, by way of the Court of Augmentations - the most important revenue court in Reformation England. Terming the procedure "Reversion of Lands Granted for Terme of Life," over 21 pages, the report identifies monies earned across the Kingdom including Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Huntingtonshire, London, Kent, Surrey, Gloucestershire, Devon, Cronwall, Warwickshire, Yorkshire, Salop [Shropshire], Westmoreland, Richmond, the Isle of Man, North and South Wales, and yet more. Each location is assigned a "possession" value, which was ascertained by an auditor. A payment is made to the "forfeiter" after the calculation of the auditor's time, rent and stipends in place, decay [loss] of rents from the tenements, and any "reparations to the king." Occasionally there was a "Captain and Keeper" to pay as well. All parties hired by the King's court to complete the transaction were paid "fees and allowances" including a number of surveyors, one auditor and one court receiver per location, and sometimes other court officers and ministers. Numerous individuals are named. A summary further disperses annuities and pensions, fees and allowances to the officers and ministers of the Court of Augmentation, fees to "Divers persons" for keeping [maintaining and/or guarding] the king's retained lands including gardens, forests, etc. Founded in 1535-36 during the reign of Henry VIII, the Court of Augmentations was the most important of a number of financial courts instituted. Its purpose was to administer monastic properties and revenues confiscated by the crown at the dissolution of the monasteries. The court had its own chancellor, treasurer, lawyers, receivers and auditors. Monks were placed in positions elsewhere or granted pensions; debts owed by the monasteries had to be paid; and the monasteries' property itself was assessed and then disposed of by sale or lease. The confiscation of church property that had begun under Henry VIII, resumed under Edward VI - notably with the dissolution of the chantries. Church reform was therefore as much a political as a religious policy under Edward VI. By the end of his reign, the church had been financially ruined, with much of the property of the bishops transferred into lay hands. In this document, the establishment is called "Court of Changmentations & Revenues of the Kings Majestys Crowne." The auditor named is Thomas Mildmay, who was previously the Auditor of the Court of Augmentations for Henry VIII. He is the father of Sir Walter Mildmay, one of King Edward VI's Surveyor Generals and a key participant in the Revenue Survey. Replete with detail, this document outlines and tallies the finances of King Edward VI, ruler of the Kingdom of England and then only 13 years old, for the duration of one year in the fiscal calendar, ending specifically on the Feast of Saint Michael 1551, during the fifth regnal year of Edward VI. [The fifth regnal year was from 28 January 1551 to 27 January 1552]. Dissecting these dates and festivities identifies the financial period surveyed as spanning from 30 September 1550 to 29 September 1551. As well as the aforementioned, presented in the audit of the Court of Exchequer, revenues came from Fee Fermes (feudal farm rent and/or farming revenue tax), Ffines and Americaments, and Customs charged on imported goods. The obsolete term "ulnage" is used, being a fee for inspection or measurement taken at the farms, the measurement unit being ell(s). Customs are charged at ports such as Bridgwater, Ipswich, Newcastle, Sandwich in Kent, Yarmouth and others. Other charges were imposed for homage, "fellons goods seized by the sheriff", "forfeiture upon penal statute", and rent for the castle warden of Dover. Interesting notations from this court include a fee of the Master of the Kings Carriers. Several of the king's personal aids are named, including his armourer, wardrobe keeper, embroiderer, cup bearer, chief server, a carpenter in the Tower of London, the keeper at the palace at Westminster, the keeper of the jewells and robes in the palace of Westminster, the keeper of the writs and rolls in the common place, and many more. There are further audit reports for the Court of Wards and Liveries which was responsible for administering a system of feudal dues as well as wardship and livery issues; for the Duchy of Lancaster which provides a source of independent income to the Sovereign through assets; and the Court of the First Fruits and Tenths which was established in 1540 to collect from clerical benefices certain monies that had previously been sent to Rome. Clergy had to pay a portion of their first year's income (known as annates) and a tenth of their revenue annually thereafter. Originally, the money was paid to the papacy, but Henry VIII's 1534 statute diverted the money to the English Crown as part of his campaign to pressure the Pope into granting him an annulment of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon. In 1554, only two years after this audit was presented to the king, the latter Court was dissolved, and responsibility for administration of these revenues passed to the Office of First Fruits and Tenths, a department of the Exchequer. Other sources of royal revenue are numerous in the volume, for example, sales of wood, profit from coal mines, patent seals, customs and butlerage charged on wine. Expenses include a veritable plethora of staff, and everything from the king's clothing to shipwrecks. An interesting succinct list headed "Yearly Charges to be Considered" which have no value assigned , include the Admiralty, the Ordnance, the King's purse, New Year's gifts, charges of Ireland, charges from the Revenue Courts, and the King's Great Wardrobe. None too surprising, a 3-page balance sheet of sorts concludes with the statement, "And so the payments exceed the receipts this year, which is supplied from the Kings Majestys coffers of England [the Treasury]..." Finally, the volume concludes with 22 pages summarizing the role of each of the aforementioned courts, a section headed "Remembrance of things touching the Kings customs," a list of proposed fees for the work performed in making this survey, and a tally of "yearly allowances increased without the King's special license" reported at the Court of First Fruits and Tenths. Six names listed at the end as signors of the original document include Thomas Lord Darcy, Richard Sutton, Walter Mildmay, John Gatte, Thomas Bowring, and Robert Bowes. Miscellaneous notes on the medieval English fiscal system: The primitive financial institutions of early England centered around the king's household. In other words, royal revenue preceded the national economy in importance. Revenue dues collected by the king's agents, rents, or rather returns of produce from land, and special levies for emergencies formed the main elements of the royal income which gradually acquired greater regularity and consistency. There was little financial organisation until the 11th century, when the influence exercised from Normandy, which so powerfully affected the English rulers at this time, tended towards the creation of records of revenue claims as well as a central treasury. The "Dialogue of the Exchequer" (circa 1176) presented a comprehensive system which secured the receipt of royal income by providing a thorough audit of accounts - as is recorded in the present document. Through the descriptions of these financial institutions, it is possible to ascertain the forms of revenue held by the crown. Thus, the ingenuity expended on the Exchequer's administrative machinery had as its aim the increase of the king's resources, a subject in which all politically involved churchmen and lawyers were deeply involved. The records of the Exchequer were kept in the Pell Office, adjacent to Westminster Hall, until the 19th century. The office was named after the skins (then "pells" or pelts) from which the rolls were made. Here, the receipts and payments were entered upon two rolls of parchment, the one called the "introitta" which was the record of monies received, and the other the "exitus" or the record of monies issued. In 1552, under Edward VI, the "Declarations of the State of the Treasury" were deemed unreliable and were replaced by declarations made by the Clerk of the Pells - this after fraudster Treasurer William Cavendish "earned" exorbitant income while the king himself incurred a deficit. A statement of all moneys issued was subsequently entered by the 'Clerk of the Pells' on the issue roll. The foremost Clerks of the Pell are, John Uvedale from 1516-1549, unknown during the period of this survey 1549-1555, Edmund Cockerel from 1555-1560, etc.

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        PROCESSIONARIUS secundum ordinem Cisterciensem noviter impressus: correctus auctus et emendatus. Cum multis aliis additionibus nusque impressis.

      Caesar Augustae (Zaragoza), (à la fin:) Bartholomei a Nagera, 1550. - Petit in-8. 222ff. non chiffrés. Plein maroquin brun doublé, dos à nerfs orné, double filet doré sur les plats, doublure de maroquin havane guilloché à froid et encadré de filets et d'une guirlande dorée (reliure espagnole postérieure, vers 1950?). Précieuse édition de ce recueil des chants liturgiques qui étaient vocalisés pendant les processions des cisterciens espagnols. Elle fut imprimée à Saragosse avec la musique notée et peut être considérée comme la première édition complète du processionnal cistercien, car elle ne fut précédée que par un petit livret de 64 pages imprimé dans la même ville en 1516. Les processionnals sont des livres liturgiques contenant les paroles et la musique des chants qui accompagnaient les processions religieuses: essentiellement des répons, des antiennes et des hymnes. Il s'agit habituellement d'ouvrages manuscrits mais c'est principalement en Espagne, pays fortement attaché à la tradition des processions, que se développa au 16e siècle une activité éditoriale autour des processionnals. Le présent volume est rarissime. Nous n'avons pu en localiser que deux exemplaires complets (British Library et Washington University Pullman Library). En Espagne, les collections patrimoniales n'en répertorient que 4 exemplaires seulement, tous incomplets. Ordiozola, notamment, n'en connaissait aucun exemplaire complet. Belle impression gothique aux encres rouge et noire, avec la musique notée à chaque page. La gravure au verso du titre est légèrement épidermée avec d'infimes manques. Très bon exemplaire, malgré des marges un peu courtes par endroits. Palau, 238140. Odriozola, Catálogo de libros litúrgicos, españoles y portugueses impresos en los siglos XV y XVI (1996), 649 (ne connaissait aucun exemplaire complet). Sanchez, Bibliografía Aragonesa del siglo XVI, n°298 (décrivant un exemplaire incomplet du titre). [Attributes: Hard Cover]

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        De bello pelopon-nensium libri octo

      J. Gennepaus, Koln 1550 - In folio, (4), 271 pp, rilegatura in mezzo vitello secolo XIX con marca al dorso, ristampa dell’edizione di Colonia edita da C.Heresbach(1476-1576) e stampata da E.Cervicornus nel 1527, traduzione in latino di Laurentius Valla (1452) apparsa per la prima volta nel 1483, minime bruniture, copia ben preservata 1 volume in folio, (4), 271 pp, half calf-leather binding of mid-nineteenth century with a mark on the back, reprint of the edition of Cologne edited by C. Heresbach (1476-1576) and printed by E. Cervicornus in 1527, Latin translation by Laurentius Valla (1452) first availability in 1483, minimal browning, very good copy. [Attributes: Hard Cover]

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        La Natività

      1550. Acquaforte su ferro, monogrammata in lastra in alto al centro. Esemplare nel secondo stato di tre con il numero 12 aggiunto in alto a sinistra. Magnifica prova, particolarmente nitida e contrastata, impressa su carta vergata priva di filigrana, rifilata al rame o con sottilissimi margini, in ottimo stato di conservazione. Questo lavoro deriva dall'analogo capolavoro inciso al bulino dal Durer, rispetto al quale è in controparte. Timbro di collezione al verso non identificato. Etching on iron, monogrammed on plate at top centre. Example in the second state of three with the number 12 added at upper left. Magnificent proof, with good contrast and sharp details, on laid paper, no watermark, trimmed at the platemark or with very narrow margins, in very good conditions. This print derives from Durer's engraving bearing the same name, of which this work is a mirror-image. Unknown collector' stamp on verso. Bartsch, Hollstein 1, II/III. Dimensioni in mm. 158 X 223

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        Ercole e Nesso

      1550 - Bulino, 1550, datato e monogrammato il lastra, in basso a sinistra. Della serie "Le fatiche di Ercole". Magnifica prova, ricca di toni, impressa su carta vergata coeva, rifilata alla linea marginale, in ottimo stato di conservazione. Nel margine inferiore iscrizione latina su due righe: Viribus evulsas manu tellure columnas. Nominis aeterni Chon monumeta ponit. La serie è basata sulle anonime silografie veneziane dell'inizio del '500, ispirate dai versi di Boccaccio, già fonte per Albrecht Durer e Giovanni Andrea Vavassore. Al verso, timbro di collezione d’Arenberg (Lugt 567). Engraving, 1550, dated and signed with monogram on a tablet lower left. In lower margin two lines Latin text: Viribus evulsas manu tellure columnas. Nominis aeterni Chon monumeta ponit Very good work printed on contemporary laid paper, trimmed on the marginal line, in excellent condition. The prototypes for the iconography of this series were taken from a series of anonymus Venetian woodcuts which Boccaccio's text asa a source. Collection's mark of Duke d’Arenberg on verso (Lugt 567). The New Hollstein, p. 93 n. 93 Dimensioni 70 107mm [Attributes: Signed Copy]

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