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11 offprints on nuclear magnetic resonance, from library of Emilio Segre.
1934-1945 Discovery of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance From the Library of Nobel Prize Winner Emilio Segre Rabi, Isidore I. (1898-1988) et al. The molecular beam resonance method for measuring nuclear magnetic moments: The magnetic moments of 3Li6, 3Li7, and 9F19. Offprint from Phys. Rev. 55 (1939). 526-535pp. Diagrams. 268 x 201 mm. Original green printed wrappers. Offered with a collection of 10 offprints on magnetic moment, nuclear spin and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as listed below. 1934-1945. Original printed wrappers or without wrappers as issued. Fine apart from light browning. From the library of Nobel Laureate Emilio Segre (1905-89). First Separate Edition. Rabi won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1944 for devising the resonance method of magnetic moment measurement, which is not only of central importance in physics, but is also the foundation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which revolutionized medical imaging in the last decades of the twentieth century. Rabi's achievement is documented in detail in the first chapter of Mattson and Simon's The Pioneers of NMR and Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: The Story of MRI (1996). The paper offered above was the first to contain a complete account of the Rabi team's magnetic resonance experiments (see Mattson & Simon, p. 70). Of the papers that we list below, six of them (nos. 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9) are cited in Mattson and Simon's select bibliography of Rabi's works (pp. 743-44). The last paper in this group, dated 1945, was written by Rabi and Felix Bloch, another NMR pioneer; Bloch had independently worked out the details of magnetic resonance at Stanford University, and would receive a share of the 1952 Nobel Prize in physics for his development of new methods for precise measurement of nuclear magnetism. Rabi received his doctorate in physics from Columbia University in 1927, and afterwards traveled to Europe to study physics with Bohr, Pauli, Stern and Heisenberg. From Stern, Rabi learned the molecular-beam method, which appealed to him so much that he established his own molecular beam laboratory at Columbia in 1931, shortly after being appointed to the university's physics faculty. Working with some of the best young American physicists of the time, Rabi refined the molecular-beam apparatus so that he could measure the spin, or rotation, of the sodium nucleus in 1933; measure the magnetic moment of the proton and neutron of the heavy isotope of hydrogen in 1934 [nos. 1-2 below]; refine the beam by the "T-method," in which the magnetic field itself could be made to rotate to determine signs (positive and negative) within the field; and in 1937, begin the development of the method of magnetic resonance that led to his Nobel Prize-winning experiments. As Hans Bethe observed, there were three key events in the formative years of nuclear physics, one of them being the discovery of the quadrupole moment of the deuteron. Without Rabi's development of the magnetic resonance method to a state of considerable precision, this discovery would not have been possible (Magill, The Nobel Prize Winners: Physics, II, p. 513). In 1937, Rabi published a paper entitled "Space quantization in a gyrating magnetic field" (Phys. Rev. 51: 652-54), which set the stage for the development of magnetic resonance by combining theory with the results of his T-method experiments. However, it was not until a few months later, when Rabi learned of the failed attempts of Dutch physicist Cornelis Gorter to detect nuclear magnetic resonance in solid matter, that the Rabi team began their experimental investigations in earnest. As Norman Ramsey, then one of Rabi's team members, writes: "In September 1937, Gorter visited Rabi's laboratory at Columbia University and described his brilliantly conceived but experimentally unsuccessful efforts to observe resonant heating of a substance in a strong static magnetic field when also subjected to a weak field oscillating at the precession frequency of the nucleus in the static field. Rabi then fully appreciated the advantage of using an oscillatory field and promptly invented the molecular beam magnetic resonance method. Two successful molecular beam magnetic resonance apparatuses were soon constructed by Rabi, J. R. Zacharias, S. Millman, and P. Kusch, and by J. M. B. Kellogg, Rabi, [N. F.] Ramsey and Zacharias. . . . As expected, the first magnetic resonance was observed by Rabi, Zacharias, Millman and Kusch [ in "The molecular beam resonance method for measuring nuclear magnetic moments"], who were studying the easily detected LiCl molecule. [This paper contains] the first reported nuclear resonance curve. Kellogg, Rabi, Ramsey and Zacharias soon extended the method to the molecule H2 [nos. 4, 9] "(Ramsey, "Early history of magnetic resonance," Phys. Perspectives 1 (1999): 123-135; quotation taken from p. 126). These offprints are from the library of Emilio Segre, discoverer of the element technetium, and recipient of half of the 1959 Nobel Prize for his work on the antiproton. Segre had also studied at Stern's molecular beam laboratory (although not at the same time as Rabi), and the two knew each other well; see Segre, A Mind Always in Motion, p. 102. 1. (with J. R. Zacharias) The magnetic moment of the proton. Offprint from Phys. Rev. 46 (1934). 157-163pp. Illustrated. 267 x 199 mm. Without wrappers as issued. 2. (with J. R. Zacharias) The magnetic moment of the deuton. Offprint from Phys. Rev. 46 (1934). [163]-165pp. Illustrated. 267 x 199 mm. Without wrappers as issued. 3. (with V. W. Cohen) Measurement of nuclear spin by the method of molecular beams. Offprint from Phys. Rev. 46 (1934). 707-712pp. Illustrated. 267-199 mm. Without wrappers as issued. 4. (with J. M. B. Kellogg, N. F. Ramsay & J. R. Zacharias) An electrical quadrupole moment of the deuteron. Offprint from Phys. Rev. 55 (1939). 2pp. Diagrams. 268 x 201 mm. Original green printed wrappers. 5. (with P. Kusch & S. Millman). On the nuclear magnetic moment of beryllium. Offprint from Phys. Rev. 55 (1939). [1]pp., unpaginated. 268 x 201 mm. Original green printed wrappers. 6. (with P. Kusch & S. Millman) The nuclear magnetic moments of N14, Na23, K39 and Cs153. Offprint from Phys. Rev. 55 (1939). 1176-1181pp. Diagrams. 268 x 201 mm. Original green printed wrappers. 7. (with J. M. B. Kellogg, N. F. Ramsey & J. R. Zacharias) The magnetic moments of the proton and the deuteron: The radiofrequency spectrum of H2 in various magnetic fields. Offprint from Phys. Rev. 56 (1939). 728-743pp. Diagrams. 268 x 201 mm. Original green printed wrappers. 8. (with J. M. B. Kellogg, N. F. Ramsey & J. R. Zacharias) An electrical quadrupole moment of the deuteron: The radiofrequency spectra of HD and D2 molecules in a magnetic field. Offprint from Phys. Rev. 57 (1940). 677-695 mm. Illustrated. 268 x 201 mm. Original green printed wrappers. 9. (with P. Kusch & S. Millman) The radiofrequency spectra of atoms: Hyperfine structure and Zeeman effect in the ground state of Li6, Li7, K39 and K41. Offprint from Phys. Rev. 57 (1940). 765-780pp. Diagrams. 268 x 201 mm. Original green printed wrappers. 10. (with F. Bloch) Atoms in variable magnetic fields. Offprint from Rev. Mod. Phys. 17 (1945). 237-244pp. 267 x 200 mm. Without wrappers as issued.
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