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[Six Plans of the Different Dispositions of the English Army Under the Command of the late General Braddock in North America]
London: Thomas Jefferys, [1758]. 1) A Map of the Country between Will's Creek & Monongahela River shewing the rout and Encampments of the English Army in 1755. Hand-coloured. 19 numbered references. Plate mark: 13 3/8 x 8 5/8 inches. Unnumbered. 2) A Plan of the Line of March with the whole Baggage. Troop positions hand-coloured. 12 roman numeral numbered references. Plate mark: 13 1/4 x 8 1/2 inches. Numbered I in the lower right corner. 3) A Plan of the disposition of the Advanced Party consisting of 400 Men to defend the Workers in making the Road. Troop positions hand-coloured. Plate mark: 13 3/8 x 8 1/2 inches. Numbered II in the lower right corner. 4) A Plan of the Encampment of the Detachment from the little Meadows. Troop positions hand-coloured. 10 lettered references. Plate mark: 13 1/4 x 8 5/8 inches. Numbered IV in the lower right corner. 5) A Plan of the Field of Battle and disposition of the Troops, as they were on the March at the time of the Attack on the 9th of July 1755. Troop positions hand-coloured. 1 numbered and 21 lettered references. Plate mark: 13 1/4 x 8 5/8 inches. Numbered V in the lower right corner. [With:] A Plan of the Line of March of the Detachment from the little Meadows. Photozincographic facsimile on laid paper. Troop positions handcoloured. Plate mark: 131/4 x 8 1/2 inches. Numbered III in the lower right. Very rare series of maps and plans of Braddock's Expedition -- one of very few contemporary cartographic sources for a pivotal moment in the French & Indian War. The encroachments of France into the Ohio Valley in 1752 prompted Virginia governor Robert Dinwiddie to dispatch George Washington and a force of Virginia militia to construct a fort at the confluence of the Ohio, Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers (i.e. present day Pittsburgh). In February 1754, a superior French force overtook the partially constructed fort, with Washington and his troops retreating some sixty-five miles to Great Meadows. The French completed construction and renamed the stronghold Fort Duquesne, after the Marquis Duquesne, the governor-general of New France. Fearing that a French force would attack his position, Washington launched an assault on a small French force in the region. Surprising the French encampment with a larger force of Virginia soldiers and Seneca Indian warriors led by Tanacharison, the French surrendered after a short battle. Following the battle, Washington met with the French party's commander Joseph Coulon de Jumonville to discuss terms; at the meeting an Indian warrior (some say Tanacharison himself) attacked, killed and mutilated the French commander. Upon hearing of this disgraceful act, a large French force attacked Washington's position at Great Meadows, forcing his surrender of Fort Necessity. Among the terms of surrender was the imprisonment of Captain Robert Stobo, a British officer under Washington, until Jumonville's captured soldiers were released (they had been moved from Great Meadows prior to the battle). During his confinement at Fort Duquesne, Stobo studied the layout of the stronghold and was able to smuggle out to Washington a plan of the fort, along with a plan of attack. By that time, Major General Edward Braddock had arrived in Virginia and used Stobo's manuscript plan as the basis for his expedition to take the fort. In the late spring of 1755, Braddock assembled his troops at Fort Cumberland. The considerable force of 2200 soldiers, principally Virginia Militia, included George Washington, who served on Braddock's staff. Other notables who participated in the expedition were Thomas Gage, Charles Lee, Horatio Gates, Daniel Boone and Daniel Morgan. During the planning stages of the expedition, Washington had urged Braddock to forego the usual European military formations and tactics and to instead adapt to the rough terrain and the chaos of the Indian warriors. His sage advice would be ignored and the expedition would proceed very slowly across the difficult terrain. On 9 July 1755, Braddock's force finally crossed the Monongahela, and less than ten miles from Fort Duquesne were ambushed by a detachment of French and Indian forces. Although the British and Virginia soldiers outnumbered their opponents, they were quickly overwhelmed. Washington would later write that Braddock's forces, "by the usual Halooing and whooping of the enemy, whom they could not see, were so disconcerted and confused as soon to fall into irretrievable disorder. A general panic took place among the Troops from which no exertions of the Officers could recover them." During the battle, Braddock would be mortally wounded and would be carried from the field by Washington. Indeed, seventy percent of the British force would be killed or wounded. During the battle, Washington himself would have two horses shot from under him and four bullets through his coat. This series of maps and battle plans which depict the dispostions of the Enlish Army under Braddock during the disastrous expedition, were drawn by Braddock's aide- de-camp Captain Robert Orme and was published by Jeffery's in 1758 as a separate publication. Sabin writes: "This series of plans is extremely rare. I know of but two perfect copies---one in the possession of Mr. John A. Rice, of Chicago; the other, with Mr. William M. Darlington, of Pittsburgh, Pa." Jefferys would reissue the plates a decade later in his General Topography of North America (where they appeared as plates 46-52). As the present set does not have the General Topography plate numbers, they are from the separate publication. Orme's original journal, with the original manuscripts of the maps, is located in the British Museum. Schwartz, French and Indian War, Figure 30 (citing the plans as extracted from Jeffery's 1768 General Topography of North America); Thomson 107 (as a separate publication by Jefferys in 1758); Sabin 7212; Streeter Sale 1021; Phillips, A List of Maps of America, p. 269; C.f. Phillips, Geographical Atlases 1196.
      [Bookseller: Donald Heald Rare Books]
Last Found On: 2013-07-20           Check availability:      Biblio    


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