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CONDITIONS DE PAIX / CONDITIONS OF PEACE.
[Paris. 1919]. - xv,[1],415pp. printed in French and English on facing pages, plus four large folding maps. Folio. Original printed wrappers. Wrappers rather creased and worn, with several short tears, and one tear about 1 1/2 inches in front wrapper penetrating to blank endsheet. Some tears in maps at tabs, but generally clean inside and about very good. One of several preliminary printings of the provisions of what was to become the June 28 1919 Treaty of Versailles, including as the first section the Covenant of the League of Nations, and the point-by-point demands made of a defeated Germany. As is often the case, this copy is docketed on the front wrapper in a contemporary hand: "Secret et Confidentiel." This printing transmitted authentic copies of the French and English texts for the purposes of study and discussion by the negotiating parties prior to the imminent signing. There were several preliminary printings of the text made in the weeks before June 28, 1919, with differences in form and content. The present copy contains a table of contents at the front, which is not present in another copy we have examined, perhaps indicating that this was one of the final printings made before the final version was agreed on. Shortly after the treaty was signed at least two interim printings were run off, the first with the Protocols separate and laid in, the second with the Protocols integral and incorporated in the wrapper title. Eventually, the "official" published edition, with its various forms and issues, was printed. The Treaty of Versailles is of monumental importance in American and world history. The treaty, made with Germany at the end of the First World War, concluded a war of unrivalled devastation while also sowing the seeds for the Second World War, just twenty years on the horizon. The United States, guided by Woodrow Wilson's vision, played a central role in the crafting of the treaty. The U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty, however, based on the objection of several senators to the Covenant of the League of Nations (which was included as Part I of the settlement), thereby largely removing American influence and involvement from the international scene in the inter-war period. The Treaty of Versailles was a wide-ranging and ambitious document, which sought not only to address the immediate postwar settlement, but also to punish Germany for its actions in starting and prosecuting the war, attempted to remake the map of Europe, and created a supra-national political organization, the League of Nations. The Covenant of the League of Nations comprises the first part of the treaty. The next most famous part is that dealing with reparations, which includes Article 231, the infamous "war guilt clause." By this article, Germany accepted the responsibility of her and her allies "for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies." The intent of the article was to affix legal and financial responsibility on Germany, but it took on moral implications, and was used by Hitler during his rise as an example of Allied perniciousness. Germany had to agree to pay reparations to the allies in the sum of 20,000,000,000 gold marks, the amount to be modified by a reparations commission in 1921. Germany also had to recognize the independence of Austria and agree not to compromise that independence in the future. Germany's borders were redrawn, with Alsace-Lorraine being given to France, West Prussia to Poland, and other lands, such as Danzig and the Saar Basin, stripped away. She lost her overseas possessions, the Rhineland was occupied, and the German army was limited to 100,000 men and largely disarmed. Other provisions address issues of tariffs, ports, labor, aerial navigation, prisoners of war, and more. As has been noted, the many punitive measures of the Treaty of Versailles did mu
      [Bookseller: William Reese Company - Americana]
Last Found On: 2017-10-24           Check availability:      AbeBooks    

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