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Anatomische Forschungen über Johann Sebastian Bach's Gebeine und Anlitz nebst Bemerkungen über dessen Bilder.
Abh. Sächs. Ges. Wiss., 22/5. - Leipzig, S.Hirzel, 1895, Gr.8, (8), 42 pp., 15 Textfiguren, 1 Foliotafel, orig. Broschur. First Edition!Facial Depiction - "The earliest examples of scientific facial reconstructions were produced by the German anatomists, Wilhelm His (1831-1904) (1895) and Hermann Welcker (1822-1897) (1867), who authenticated the remains of Johann Sebastian Bach and Dante by reconstructing the soft tissues onto a plaster cast of the skull using facial tissue measurements recorded from a number of cadavers. These scientists employed sculptors to produce the three-dimensional facial reconstructions. Kollinan and Buchly (1898) also reconstructed the face of a Neolithic woman using the facial tissue measurements taken from hundreds of women from the area. Other early attempts at facial reconstruction were performed on prehistoric skulls and ancient archaeological specimens (Wilkinson, 2004). Probably the most significant pioneer in early facial reconstruction work was the Russian anthropologist, Mikhail Gerasimov (1971), who developed a technique that relied upon anatomical knowledge and sculptural skills. He was a stickler for anatomical accuracy and against the general consensus of contemporary anatomists and anthropologists Gerasimov suggested that details of facial features could be determined from analysis of the skeletal morphology. A great deal of craniofacial research was produced in Russia, led by Lebedinskaya, Balueva and Veselovskaya (1993), following Gerasimov's death in 1979. Although there were early attempts at facial reconstruction in the US (Taylor, 2000), it was not really taken up until 1946 when the anthropologist Wilton Krogman took a serious look at the procedure and, with the aid of sculptors, carried out studies into the accuracy of the technique (Moss, Linney, Grindrod, Arridge, & Clifton, 1987). What has become known as the American three-dimensional method was developed from the work of Krogman by the forensic artist, Betty Pat Gatliff, and the physical anthropologist, Clyde Snow (Snow, Gatliff, & McWilliams, 1970), who carried out an accuracy study and were involved in numerous forensic investigations. Many other nthropologists worked with artists to produce 2D facial reconstructions (Taylor, 2000), several police artists developed 2D facial depiction methods (Caldwell, 1981 Taylor, 2000), and anthropologists published facial standards for use in facial reconstruction (George, 1993 Krogman & Iscan, 1986). ..." Tim Valentine & Josh P Davis, Forensic Facial Identification: Theory and Practice of Identification (2015), p.100siehe - Welcker. H. (1867). On the skull of Dante. Anthropological Review. 56-71 Welcker. H. (1883). Schiller's Schädel und Todtenmaske, nebst Mitteilungen.
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