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2020-03-26 14:33:13
EINSTEIN, ALBERT
Autograph Letter Signed [ALS]
Zurich: np, 1913. FIRST EDITION. Fine. A CRITICAL MOMENT IN THE DISCOVERY OF GENERAL RELATIVITY: AUTOGRAPH LETTER SIGNED TO LUDWIG HOPF FROM 1913 WHERE EINSTEIN'S ABANDONS THEREQUIREMENT OF GENERAL COVARIANCE. Background of the Letter - Einstein's struggles with general covariance:"In developing general relativity, Einstein sought to satisfy many requirements. However we shall see the his efforts were dominated by a single theme, covariance," specifically general covariance, which was "an important concept for Einstein as he tried to generalize a theory of relativity. It meant that the relationships between their components remained the same even when there were arbitrary changes or rotations in the space and time coordinate system." (John D. Norton, "General covariance and the foundations of general relativity: eight decades of dispute"; Walter Isaacson, Einstein: His Life and Universe).By early 1913, Einstein had been struggling with his equations for general relativity for many years and "after many aborted attempts, Einstein eventually derived, at the end of the Zurich Notebook, a field equation that became known as the core of the Entwurf theory. It primarily satisfied the principles rooted in classical physics, namely, the correspondence principle and the conservation principle. Einstein realized that the class of coordinate systems in which the Entwurf equation takes on the same form does not satisfy the generalized principle of relativity in the way he imagined. He therefore abandoned with a heavy heart the realization of general covariance. Nevertheless, he could … [Click Below for Full Description]
Bookseller: The Manhattan Rare Book Company [United States]
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