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        A Practical Treatise of Husbandry:

      London: for J. Whiston and B. White, R. Baldwin, W. Johnston, P. Davey and B. Law,, 1759. wherein contained, many useful and valuable experiments and observations in the new husbandry, collected during a series of years, also, the most approved practice of the best English farmers, in the old method of husbandry. With copper-plates of several new and useful instruments. Quarto (262 x 205 mm). Contemporary speckled calf, red morocco label, twin gilt rules to raised bands and borders of boards, edges speckled red, title page in red and black. Woodcut head- and tailpieces and historiated capitals. Six engraved plates, of which 4 are folding, 1 folding table. Small wormhole to bottom edge of front board and bottom margin of first half of text block neatly repaired; contemporary or early reference number inscription to front free endpaper. Light scuffing and some superficial insect damage to boards, joints faintly worn, the occasional isolated spot to contents. A very good copy. First edition in English. Quesnay's entry on agriculture, "which appeared in the first volume of the Encyclopédie in 1751, was influenced by the work of Duhamel du Monceau. See Weulersse, Mouvement physiocratique, 1:29?30, 108?11" (Amy S. Wyngaard, From Savage to Citizen: The Invention of the Peasant in the French Enlightenment, 2004, p. 210). The first part of Duhamel du Monceau's treatise was published in France in 1750, as Traité de la culture des terres, five other parts followed, the last one published in 1760. The edition in English was translated and edited by John Mills.

      [Bookseller: Peter Harrington]
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        BESKRIFNING OM DE SWENSKA FORSAMLINGARS FORNA OCH NARWARANDE TILSTAND, UTI DET SA KALLADE NYA SWERIGE, SEDAN NYA NEDERLAND, MEN NU FOR TIDEN PENSYLVANIEN.DE LA WARE, WAST-YERSEY OCH NEW CASTLE COUNTY UTI NORRA AMERICA.

      Stockholm. 1759. - [20],533,[1]pp. (irregularly paginated). Small quarto. Mid-19th-century half morocco and marbled boards, spine gilt, raised bands. Loganian Library bookplate, with small ink deaccession note initialled by Edwin Wolf II, but without any other library marks. Several leaves browned. Extensive contemporary ink notations (ciphering?) on three leaves bound in following text. Very good. A history of the churches in New Sweden, and a basic work on the Swedish plantation on the Delaware, with copious information concerning the government of the colony, historical events, and the culture of the people. Acrelius, who served as Provost to the Swedish Congregations in America, discusses the Swedish, Dutch, and British administrations; the churches in New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania; and his visits to America. This copy has an interesting provenance, coming from one of the earliest American subscription libraries, the Loganian Library, founded by the great colonial book collector, James Logan. When the Loganian Library was merged with the Library Company of Philadelphia in the 1950s, the director, former bookseller and distinguished bibliographer Edwin Wolf II, managed the sale of duplicates, of which this is one. SABIN 133. LARSON 3. BELL A55. VAIL 528. HOWES A34, "aa." JCB 1202.

      [Bookseller: William Reese Company - Americana]
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        Miscellaneous pieces of M De Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Translated from the new edition of his works in quarto printed at Paris

      London: printed for D. Wilson and T. Durham. 1759. 8vo., vi + (2) + 334pp., including the half-title but without the final blank Y8, contemporary gilt-ruled sprinkled calf, with raised bands and gilt lines, spine generally rubbed and joints and head and foot of spine worn, but still a very good copy in a sound contemporary binding. First edition in English. Goldsmiths 9529.1. Higgs 2124. This posthumous collection - Montesquieu had died in 1755 - includes Eulogium on President Montesquieu> by Monsieur d'Alembert, - The analysis of the spirit of laws>. By M. d'Alembert. - An oration pronounced the 24th of January, 1728>. By President Montesquieu. - An essay upon taste - New Persian letters. - The temple of Gnidus. - Lysimachus. - A defence of the spirit of laws. To which are added some explanations.> (All by Montesquieu).

      [Bookseller: John Drury Rare Books]
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        Einrichtung und Disciplin eines Eidgenössischen Regiments zu Fuss und zu Pferd: Oder gründliche Anweisung, wie ein eidgenössisches Regiment Cavallerie und Infanterie capitulirt, angeworben, montirt, armirt . werden müsse. Welchem noch beygefügt Tit. pl. Herrn Marschall von Sachsen vortreffliche Formation der Regimenter in Legionen nach schweizerischen Fuss eingerichtet. Alles aus berühmter Officieren Schriften, und eignen Sammlungen . zusammen getragen, in III. Theil verfasst.

      Zürich, Ziegler 1758 - 1759. - 3 Bände. Mit 1 gest. Frontispiz, 16 (15 mehrfach gefalt.) Kupfertafeln, 3 gest. Vignetten und einigen gefalt. Tabellen. 12 Bll., 355 S.; 8 Bll., 436 S., 1 Bl.; 8 Bll., 479 S. Lederbde. d. Zt. Jähns 2601. - Nicht im JBdA. - Eingehende Abhandlung über alle Bereiche des Miltärwesens, selbst über Marschmusik weiß der Verfasser einiges zusagen. Die Kupfer zeigen meist verschiedene Formationen. Johann Heinrich Wirz (1699-1791) war Hauptmann bei den Generalstaaten der Vereinigten Niederlande. - Die Bände jeweils mit gest. Wappenexlibris "Joseph Ulrich Ignati von Sonnenberg, Herr zu Castellen, Fischbach" (Gerster, Die schweizerischen Bibliothekzeichen 2121). - Etwas berieben, Rückenschilder fehlen.

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Uwe Turszynski]
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        A Practical Treatise of Husbandry: wherein contained, many useful and valuable experiments and observations in the new husbandry, collected during a series of years, also, the most approved practice of the best English farmers, in the old method of husbandry. With copper-plates of several new and useful instruments.

      London: for J. Whiston and B. White, R. Baldwin, W. Johnston, P. Davey and B. Law, 1759 - Quarto (262 x 205 mm). Contemporary speckled calf, red morocco label, twin gilt rules to raised bands and borders of boards, edges speckled red, title page in red and black. Woodcut head- and tailpieces and historiated capitals. Small wormhole to bottom edge of front board and bottom margin of first half of text block neatly repaired; contemporary or early reference number inscription to front free endpaper. Light scuffing and some superficial insect damage to boards, joints faintly worn, the occasional isolated spot to contents. A very good copy. Six engraved plates, of which 4 are folding, 1 folding table. First edition in English. Quesnay's entry on agriculture, "which appeared in the first volume of the Encyclopédie in 1751, was influenced by the work of Duhamel du Monceau. See Weulersse, Mouvement physiocratique, 1:29–30, 108–11" (Amy S. Wyngaard, From Savage to Citizen: The Invention of the Peasant in the French Enlightenment, 2004, p. 210). The first part of Duhamel du Monceau's treatise was published in France in 1750, as Traité de la culture des terres, five other parts followed, the last one published in 1760. The edition in English was translated and edited by John Mills. ESTC T107757; Kress B5778.

      [Bookseller: Peter Harrington. ABA member]
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        The Compleat Angler (or Contemplative Man's Recreation)

      Printed by Henry Kent, London 1759 - , in two parts, xxiv, 340 pages, [8], 10 engraved plates (including frontispiece), engravings in text throughout, initials friezes head and tail pieces, music (The Angler's Catch), inscriptions to upper endpapers blanks and title page (including notes with page references), inscription to lower pastedown "Algernon Percy", printed note and armorial bookplate to upper pastedown 'Edmund Ferrers' Seventh Edition , refurbished with original boards and label to spine, slight wear to boards, some marking and ghosting to occasional pages, tear to foredge page 263, good condition , full calf, raised bands to spine with blindstamped rules and gilt titles on label, gilt turn-ins, 12mo, 16.5 x 10 cms Hardback ISBN: [Attributes: Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: Keoghs Books]
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        QUEBEC CITY, CANADA / SEVEN YEARS’ WAR: A PLAN OF QUEBEC.

      London: John Rocque 1759 - Broadside: Copper engraving with original full hand color (Very Good, stellar original color, crisp engraving, small professional restoration to upper left corner outside of platemark, old discreet vertical fold through centre), 37 x 53.5 cm (14.5 x 21 inches). Rare – a highly attractive broadside plan of Quebec City, printed in London just as British forces were consolidating their control over the city following the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. This rare and unusually attractive broadside plan of Quebec City, featuring brilliant original hand color, was issued in London in October 1759, just as British forces were consolidating their control over Quebec City, having seized it the month before at the battle of the Plains of Abraham. Devised by the architect Edward Oakley, it was published by John Rocque, the leading British engraver of city plans. The colorful and detailed map of Quebec City dominates the right two-thirds of the composition, and is based on authoritative French sources. The city is shown perched upon the promontory of Cap Diamant, where the St. Lawrence River narrows before opening to its maritime estuary. The Lower Town, the commercial center, features the city’s port, while above, the walled government centre of the Upper Town features the city’s official civil and ecclesiastic buildings, as well as the finest residences. In the Upper Town, of note, is the ‘Fort St. Louis’; the ‘Bishop’s Palace’, the Jesuit College; the ‘Cathedral Church’; the Hotel Dieu (hospital) and the ‘Kings Magazine’ (arsenal). Towards the bottom of the text, to the left, are the ‘References’, which identify 7 additional sites across the city: A. Residence of the Governor General; B. Battery of the Fort; C. Notre Dame de la Victoire (an important church); D. The Nuns of the Congregation; E. The Cavaliers of the Windmill; F. Ursulines Convent; and G. Recollets (monastery). The relatively detailed text features notes on the geography, history and economy of Quebec City (founded in 1608) and New France. Notably, it also lends a fine summary of the several British attacks upon Quebec City, which occurred from 1629 to 1746. These missions included Sir David Kirks’s successful seizure of the town in 1629 (although Quebec was returned to France in 1632); Sir William Phipps’ siege of Quebec of 1690, famously repelled by Governor Frontenac; the unsuccessful 1711 attempt to take the city mounted by Hovenden Walker and John Hill; and finally, Admiral Richard Lestock’s disastrous expedition of 1746. Returning to the map, the inset in the upper left, ‘The Port & Environs of Quebec, as it was when Attack’d by the English’, depicts Phipps’s squadron of 34 ships during their abortive mission of 1690. The inset in the upper right, ‘A Draught of the port of the River St. Laurence’ depicts the greater area, including the maritime approaches to the city around the Ile d’Orléans. Immediate Historical Context - The present broadside was printed in London in October 1759, just weeks after the British had taken Quebec City, but before news of the event had reached the Britain. The conquest of Quebec marked the apex of the Seven Years’ War (1756-63), a global conflict that was, in essence, a contest between Britain and France to establish which would become the dominant international empire. Britain’s principal objective in the Americas was to capture New France, of which Quebec City was the key target. While the war started out badly for Britain, the tide turned in July 1758, when the British captured the fortress of Louisburg, on Cape Breton Island, the gateway to Canada. After that point, it became an open secret that Britain’s next move would be upon Quebec City. In the late months of 1758, and through 1759, discussions about Quebec prevailed in the coffee houses and salons of London. The British assembled a force of 4,400 men, under the command of General James Wolfe, carried by a flotilla under Admiral Charles Saunders. The British arrived at the Il

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Dasa Pahor]
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        Le Philosophe Payen ou Pensées de Pline

      Elie Luzac, Leide 1759 - 3 volumes. I: 1 plate, LII/302pp; II: 1 plate, 432pp; III: 1 plate, 447pp All boards and spines are worn and rubbed, the leather is dry. The pages are discoloured and with some foxing. 30% of volume 2's spine is missing, from the top and bottom. About 10 pages are a little folded towards the front edge. The spine of volume 3 is almost loose. In need of a little repair. Text in French. [Attributes: Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: The Book Cellar Argentina]
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        A Natural History of English Song-Birds, and such of the foreign as are usually brought over and esteem'd for their singing. To which are added, Figures of the Cock, Hen, and Egg of each Species, exactly copied from nature By Mr, Eleazar Albin, And curiously engraven on Copper. Also A particular Account how to order the Canary-Birds in Breeding; likewise their Diseases and Cure.

      ALBIN, Eleazar: A Natural History of English Song-Birds, and such of the foreign as are usually brought over and esteem'd for their singing. To which are added, Figures of the Cock, Hen, and Egg of each Species, exactly copied from nature By Mr, Eleazar Albin, And curiously engraven on Copper. Also A particular Account how to order the Canary-Birds in Breeding; likewise their Diseases and Cure. London, printed for C.Ware at the Bible and Sun, on Ludgate-Hill, MDCCLIX [1759]. The Third Edition. Engraved frontis ,[v] 96, [iv], 23 plates of birds as called for. Recently rebound to style in full sprinkled calf , the spine in six compartments, red label, gilt. Bookplate of Ferdinand Mc Veagh to front pastedown. All illustrations ,frontis, head and tail pieces hand coloured .Some offsetting from images, light toning, but the paper crisp and generally clean A charming little volume with excellent recent colouring .

      [Bookseller: John Underwood Antiquarian Books]
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        DEDUCÇÃO CHRONOLOGICA, E ANALYTICA.

      - PARTE PRIMEIRA. Na qual se manifesta pela successiva serie de cada um dos reynados da Monarquia Portugueza, que decorrêrão desde o Governo do Senhor Rey D. João III até o presente, os horrorosos estragos, que a Companhia denominada de Jesus fez em Portugal e todos seus Dominios, por hum Plano, e Systema por ella inalteravelmente seguido desde que entrou neste Reyno, até que foi d"elle proscripta, e expulsa pela justa, sabia e providente Ley de 3 de Septembro de 1759. DADA Á LUZ PELO DOUTOR JOSÉ SEABRA DA SILVA, Desembargador da casa da Supplicação, e Procurador DA COROA DE SUA MAGESTADE, Para servir de Instrucção, e fazer parte do Recurso, que o mesmo Ministro interpoz, e se acha pendente na REAL PRESENÇA do dito SENHOR, sobre a indispensável necessidade, que insta pela urgente Reparação de algumas das mais atendíveis entre as Ruinas, cuja existência se acha deturpando a Authoridade Regia, e oprimindo o Público socego. (Florão com as armas de Portugal) EM LISBOA. Anno M DCC LXVIII. (1768) Na Officina de MIGUEL MANESCAL DA COSTA, Impressor do Santo Officio. POR ORDEM, E COM PRIVILEGIO REAL. - PARTE SEGUNDA, NA QUAL SE MANIFESTA O QUE SUCCESSIVAMENTE PASSOU NAS DIFFERENTES EPOCAS DA IGREJA SOBRE A CENSURA, PROHIBIÇÃO, E IMPRESSÃO DOS LIVROS: DEMONSTRANDO-SEOS INTOLERAVEIS PREJUIZOS, QUE COM O ABUSO DELLAS.SE TEM FEITO Á MESMA IGREJA DE DEOS, A TODAS AS MONARQUIAS, A TODOS OS ESTADOS SOBERANOS, E AO SOCEGO PUBLICO DE TODO O UNIVERSO. DADA Á LUZ PELO DOUTOR JOSÉ SEABRA DA SILVA, Desembargador da casa da Supplicação, e Procurador DA COROA DE SUA MAGESTADE. (Florão com as armas de Portugal) EM LISBOA. Anno M DCC LXVIII. (1768) Na Officina de MIGUEL MANESCAL DA COSTA, Impressor do Santo Officio. POR ORDEM, E COM PRIVILEGIO REAL. - PROVAS DA PARTE PRIMEIRA [E DA PARTE SEGUNDA] DA DEDUCÇÃO CHRONOLOGICA, E ANALYTICA, E PETIÇÃO DE RECURSO DO DOUTOR JOSEPH DE SEABRA DA SILVA, DESEMBARGADOR DA CASA DA SUPPLICAÇÃO, E PROCURADOR DA COROA DE S. MAGESTADE FIDELISSIMA. (Florão com as armas de Portugal) EM LISBOA. Anno M DCC LXVIII. (1768) Na Officina de MIGUEL MANESCAL DA COSTA, Impressor do Santo Officio. POR ORDEM, E COM PRIVILEGIO REAL. Obra em 5 volumes. In 8º (de 17,7x11,3 cm. Com [viii] -viii-384 + [ii] 385 a 786 [vi] - [vi] - xviii - 357 + [xviii] - 398 + [viii] - 248 págs. Encadernações inteiras de pele com títulos gravados a ouro em rótulos vermelhos e verdes nas lombadas. Exemplar com ex-libris armoriado de Sir John Cox Hippisley Bart. Uma das mais importantes fontes para o conhecimento das ideias políticas e dos métodos de exercer o poder do Marquês de Pombal. Célebre obra de propaganda da autoria do Marquês de Pombal, elaborada para justificar a perseguição aos Jesuítas e para incitar os restantes soberanos a imitarem os actos do rei D. José. O esforço para denegrir os feitos da Companhia de Jesus torna a obra inverosímil e mesmo contraproducente para sensibilidades do nosso tempo. No entanto a Dedução é percursora da construção de «lendas negras» que iriam ser utilizadas na afirmação de potências dominantes e na justificação de actos de violência e agressão, pois estabeleceu o paradigma das obras de propaganda negativa, com acusações pessoais e falsidades chocantes, que se tornaram regra nas lutas ideológicas dos últimos 250 anos. CHRONOLOGIC AND ANALYTIC DEDUCTION Work in 5 volumes. In 8º (17.7x11.3 cm) Col. [viii] -viii-384 + [ii] 385 to 786 [vi] - [vi] - xviii - 357 + [xviii] - 398 + [viii] - 248 pp. Binding: full calf with guilt tooled titles on red and green labels on spine. Copy with a coat of arms ex-libris belonging Sir John Cox Hippisley Bart. One of the most important sources for the knowledge of the political ideas and methods of enforcing power of Marquis of Pombal. A famous work of propaganda by the Marquis of Pombal, carried out to justify the persecution of the Jesuits and to encourage the other sovereigns to do the same as King D. José. The efforts to demeaning the accomplishments of the Company of Jesus turn this w

      [Bookseller: Livraria Castro e Silva]
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        Barbalogia ovvero Ragionamento intorno alla barba...

      Marchesani, 1759. Cm. 20,5, pp. xv (1) 174 + (2) d'errata. Legatura coeva in cart. alla rustica con dorso ricoperto in carta dipinta. Esemplare genuino e marginoso, in ottimo stato di conservazione. Edizione originale ed unica di una delle pochissime opere dedicate alla barba.

      [Bookseller: Studio Bibliografico Benacense]
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        Manuscript Letter - Primary Source Letter to the Pope Regarding Commerce Trade in California - Text in Italian

      Portugal 1759 - Lisbon, 5 June 1759. Fair copy manuscript letter, transcribed in 1760 by a scribe of the Portuguese royal court, with the original letter in hand, being correspondence from a Jesuit called Pietro Antonio Contarini, addressed to Pope Clement XIII, which was intended to apprise the Pope of the excellent works of the Jesuits in America in terms of global commerce and trade, with special interest being taken in California gold and pearls, to report on anti-Jesuit propaganda and scandals, and ultimately to augment the Pope's support in a time of persecution. According to the transcriber's final annotation, however, the letter was intercepted by the court of King Joseph I of Portugal, who only three months later officially expelled the Society from his kingdom and colonies. The final page consists of a poem honoring Saint Francis Xavier, co-founder of the Society of Jesus. All text is in Italian. Folio. 6 pages written on two double leafs laid watermarked paper measuring approximately 22 x 34 cm. Some creasing and minor chips to edges, otherwise in very good condition, clean and bright, a superlative primary source document, paramount to any Jesuit Americana library. The timing and the content of the letter, together with surrounding political circumstances, are most significant. In September 1759, only 3 months after this letter was written, a letter in which a Jesuit noble who revealed economic activity in California and persecution in Lima, King Joseph I of Portugal and his minister the 1st Marquis of Pombal expelled the Jesuits from the Kingdom of Portugal and its colonies. The Jesuits had been recently accused of having instigated a plot against the king's life, allegedly supported by theological justification, and for the purpose of covering up their rebellion in South America. The Jesuits were also accused of trying to set up their own fiefdom in South America, having allegedly seized royal territory and establishing the community through the mistreatment and toils of the indigenous people. Propaganda pamphlets were distributed, accusing the Jesuits of all sorts of misdeeds. The Jesuits were also persecuted, as described in this letter. The Jesuit Reductions, as they are also known, were a type of settlement for indigenous people in South America created by the Jesuit Order during the 17th and 18th centuries. Owing to some economic success, combined with the Jesuits' independence, the settlements came to be considered a threat by the secular Portuguese authorities. In 1758 the government of Joseph I of Portugal took advantage of the waning powers of Pope Benedict XIV and deported some of the Jesuits from America. The possibility of the Jesuit Order expanding their global commerce, and gaining economic power in New Spain was of immense concern. This letter, with its detailed descriptions of the opportunities in California, of universal trade, of gold found in abundance, and of pearls being secretly gathered and harbored, surely gave impetus to the Portuguese Marquis' unrelenting aim to eliminate Jesuit influence and power. No longer threatened by the Jesuits after their expulsion, the First Marquis of Pombal introduced many fundamental administrative, educational, economic, and ecclesiastical reforms, albeit it by autocratic means of suppressing opposition, furthering and controlling colonial economic exploitation, and print censorship. He is considered to be the most prominent minister in the history of Portugal's government. The author of the letter is Pietro Antonio Contarini, a well-travelled Jesuit who was active in the Americas (New Spain) in the 1730s, and who descends from the ancient and noble House of Contarini, the most powerful of the twelve founding families of the Venetian Republic. The intended recipient was Pope Clement XIII, a stalwart defender of the Jesuit order, born in 1693 as Carlo della Torre Rezzonico to a wealthy family of merchants from the Republic of Venice. However, the letter's concluding remark,

      [Bookseller: Voyager Press Rare Books & Manuscripts]
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        Traité d'Ostéologie, traduit de l'anglais de M. Monro; où l'on a ajouté des planches en taille-douce, qui représentent au naturel tous les os de l'adulte et du foetus avec leurs explications.

      1759 - Paris, Guillaume Cavelier, 1759. 2 parties en un vol. in-plano, front., (1) f., XXXII, 212 pp., (1) f., pag. 213 à 317, 31 pl. h. t. en double état, qqs. rouss., qqs. mouill. marginales, taches d'huile marginales, qqs. galeries de vers sur la marge int. sans atteinte au texte, taches claires sur la p. 101, rel. dégarnie, coins us. Édition originale française traduite par J.J. Sue, fils d'Eugène Sue. Elle contient un frontispice et 31 superbes grandes planches dessinées par Torsis, et tirées sur papier fort, en deux états. Le papier vergé très épais ayant servi au tirage a été spécialement fabriqué pour cette édition. (Choulant-Franck 324). [Attributes: First Edition; Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: Librairie Girard-Talec]
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        Schwanenburg vom Kermisdal gesehen und die Schwanenburg von der Eingangsseite.

      - Kupferstich v. van Liender n. de Beyer, 1759, 18,5 x 13,5

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Norbert Haas]
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        Gesamtansicht von Norden und Nordwesten.

      - Kupferstich v. van Liender n. de Beyer, 1759, 18 x 26

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Norbert Haas]
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        Manuscript Letter - Primary Source Letter to the Pope Regarding Commerce Trade in California - Text in Italian

      Portugal, 1759. Lisbon, 5 June 1759. Fair copy manuscript letter, transcribed in 1760 by a scribe of the Portuguese royal court, with the original letter in hand, being correspondence from a Jesuit called Pietro Antonio Contarini, addressed to Pope Clement XIII, which was intended to apprise the Pope of the excellent works of the Jesuits in America in terms of global commerce and trade, with special interest being taken in California gold and pearls, to report on anti-Jesuit propaganda and scandals, and ultimately to augment the Pope's support in a time of persecution. According to the transcriber's final annotation, however, the letter was intercepted by the court of King Joseph I of Portugal, who only three months later officially expelled the Society from his kingdom and colonies. The final page consists of a poem honoring Saint Francis Xavier, co-founder of the Society of Jesus. All text is in Italian. Folio. 6 pages written on two double leafs laid watermarked paper measuring approximately 22 x 34 cm. Some creasing and minor chips to edges, otherwise in very good condition, clean and bright, a superlative primary source document, paramount to any Jesuit Americana library. The timing and the content of the letter, together with surrounding political circumstances, are most significant. In September 1759, only 3 months after this letter was written, a letter in which a Jesuit noble who revealed economic activity in California and persecution in Lima, King Joseph I of Portugal and his minister the 1st Marquis of Pombal expelled the Jesuits from the Kingdom of Portugal and its colonies. The Jesuits had been recently accused of having instigated a plot against the king's life, allegedly supported by theological justification, and for the purpose of covering up their rebellion in South America. The Jesuits were also accused of trying to set up their own fiefdom in South America, having allegedly seized royal territory and establishing the community through the mistreatment and toils of the indigenous people. Propaganda pamphlets were distributed, accusing the Jesuits of all sorts of misdeeds. The Jesuits were also persecuted, as described in this letter. The Jesuit Reductions, as they are also known, were a type of settlement for indigenous people in South America created by the Jesuit Order during the 17th and 18th centuries. Owing to some economic success, combined with the Jesuits' independence, the settlements came to be considered a threat by the secular Portuguese authorities. In 1758 the government of Joseph I of Portugal took advantage of the waning powers of Pope Benedict XIV and deported some of the Jesuits from America. The possibility of the Jesuit Order expanding their global commerce, and gaining economic power in New Spain was of immense concern. This letter, with its detailed descriptions of the opportunities in California, of universal trade, of gold found in abundance, and of pearls being secretly gathered and harbored, surely gave impetus to the Portuguese Marquis' unrelenting aim to eliminate Jesuit influence and power. No longer threatened by the Jesuits after their expulsion, the First Marquis of Pombal introduced many fundamental administrative, educational, economic, and ecclesiastical reforms, albeit it by autocratic means of suppressing opposition, furthering and controlling colonial economic exploitation, and print censorship. He is considered to be the most prominent minister in the history of Portugal's government. The author of the letter is Pietro Antonio Contarini, a well-travelled Jesuit who was active in the Americas (New Spain) in the 1730s, and who descends from the ancient and noble House of Contarini, the most powerful of the twelve founding families of the Venetian Republic. The intended recipient was Pope Clement XIII, a stalwart defender of the Jesuit order, born in 1693 as Carlo della Torre Rezzonico to a wealthy family of merchants from the Republic of Venice. However, the letter's concluding remark, appended by a scribe, reveals that the original was intercepted by the anti-Jesuit Portuguese court, and put into the hands of influential Portuguese judge Ignacio Ferreira de Souta who was a member of the judicial council that ruled over the scandalous and pivotal Tavora affair, who in turn delivered it to a Portuguese noble, none other than the first Count of Oeiras and first Marquess of Pombal, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo (1699-1782), who effected the expulsion of the Jesuits from Portugal only three months later. The original letter, it is safe to presume, never reached the Pope. The annotation reads as follows: "Questa lettera e sonetto l'ebbe l'anno passato il Sig Ignacio Ferreira sotto per darlo a S.E. il Sig Conte d'Oeyra, ed il sonetto fu qui tradotto nel Portughese da un sacerdote claustrale." [This letter and the sonnet were given to S.E., Count of Oeyra, by Mr. Ignacio Ferreira last year, and the sonnet was translated from Portuguese by a cloistered priest.] Ignacio Ferreira de Souta, mentioned in the above notice, was a leading Portuguese judge, assigned by Joseph I of Portugal as one of the nine judges in the supreme judicial council 'Junta de Inconfidencia' who presided over the trial of the rioters in the Tavora affair. Still contested today, the Távora affair was a political scandal of the 18th century Portuguese court, an event which intensified rivalry between the Portuguese crown and the Jesuits, and was ostensibly the catalyst to the expelling of the Jesuits. It began with an attempted assassination of King Joseph I of Portugal in 1758, allegedly instigated by the Távora family and supported by the Jesuit Society, and culminating into the public torture and execution of the entire Távora family, and the subsequent banishing of the Jesuit order. Following the Távora affair, the new Count of Oeiras, first Marquess of Pombal, Dom Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, knew no opposition. It was Dom Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, 1st Count of Oeiras (1699-1782), who in fact received the letter, and who effected the expulsion of the Jesuits only three months later, through his Pombaline Reforms. He was a Portuguese statesman, Secretary of the State of Internal Affairs of the Kingdom (First Minister) in the government of Joseph I of Portugal. With news of gold, pearls and rare medicinal herbs in California, and remarks of a calculated foothold over sea trade, this letter most certainly gave impetus to the Portuguese minister's fear of the Jesuits' rising political and economic power. Also being contemporary to the Tavora affair, it is no coincidence that the Jesuits were banished from Portugal three months later. The letter is addressed to Beatissimo Padre" meaning "Most Holy Father," and being Pope Clement XIII who had been consecrated one year earlier, and who, in spite of incessant and dogmatic opposition, wished and earnestly attempted to support the Jesuit Society, rather than suppressing them. [This Pope's pontificate was overshadowed by the constant pressure to suppress the Society of Jesus but despite this, he championed their order and also proved to be their greatest defender at that time. He was also one of the few early popes who favoured dialogue with Old Catholic Protestants. Shortly after Pope Clement XIII began his papacy on 6 July 1758, the reforming minister of Joseph I of Portugal, Marquis of Pombal, expelled the Jesuits from Portugal. The Order was civilly suppressed in 1759, and beginning 16 September 1759, nine voyages transported 1,036 Jesuits from Lisbon to Civitavecchia near Rome, as a "gift for the Pope." The Portuguese ambassador was recalled from Rome and the papal nuncio sent home in disgrace. Relations between Portugal and Rome were broken off until 1770.] A positively fascinating surviving manuscript document, an intercepted manuscript letter which was addressed to the Pope but fell into the hands of the Jesuit fearing and autocratic Portuguese monarchy, Contarini's firsthand account now serves as a primary source testament to Jesuit wealth, to their early interests in California and America, and also to the persecution which they suffered. The fact that his letter was confiscated en route to the Vatican, also bears witness to the circumspect, if not devious efforts, of the Portuguese Crown to suppress any economic, political, or religions opposition. Following a summary of his extensive travels and gleanings into universal trade, evidently to gain the confidence of the Pope, the writer discloses his observations in New Spain. He describes California as having abundant gold and precious stones, its sea having pearls and other marine life, which happens to be a secret closely guarded by Spain. Among other coveted agricultural commodities deriving from America, he specifically mentions rare medicinal herbs from California. In 1734, Contarini had dined with Conde del Bena-Masserano (Guido Jacinto Ferrero-Fieschi y Saboya), Commander of the Spanish Fleet in Vera Cruz. He recounts a specific occasion where the Spanish commander had been asked by two Jesuit priests to transport a small casket containing rare medicinal herbs and unusual seashells from California, to the Jesuit College in El Puerto de Santa Maria, Cadiz. The casket and its contents were received with covetous appreciation. Contarini describes being in Mexico in 1736 when Dr. José Cevayos, a student presbyter, discovered a rebellion which the viceroy Vizarrón (Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta), commanded the Jesuits to quell. The Jesuits were obliged to disburse 684,000 Mexican pesos, to which the viceroy contributed. He mentions a then very recently printed 100-page treatise condemning the Jesuits, now exceedingly scarce, and titled, "Riflessioni di um Portoghese Sopra il Memoriale presentado da' PP. Gesuiti alla Santtità di PP. Clemente XIII. Felicemente Regnante. Esposte in una Lettera ad un Amico di Roma Lisbon, 1758." One page is devoted to significant events in Paraguay and Lima in 1731, surrounding the controversial execution of "Giovanni Antequeira" the de facto governor of the Spanish colonial Province of Paraguay, José Antequera y Castro (1689-1731), and his secretary Juan de Mena. [José Antequera y Castro had antagonized the Jesuits and also coveted their wealth. The Viceroy in Peru, Joseph de Armendáriz, Marques of Castelfuerte, ordered him to stand trial in Lima, where he was sentenced to death. Fearing an uprising by the populace who supported Antequera, the Viceroy dispatched soldiers with fixed bayonets to accompany him, riding a mule, to the scaffold. He ordered that Antequera should be beheaded as well as hanged. He then summoned Antequera's aged secretary Juan de Mena from the gaol, and accompanied him to the scaffold where he was beheaded.] The Spanish Armada is also mentioned, "Armada de Barlovento" meaning "Windward Fleet." [The armada was important to Spanish politics in America, playing a crucial defensive and logistical role, particularly in protecting the trade and the coasts of the Spanish territories in America. The Armada was dissolved in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.] Following are some excerpts from the letter [with rough translation]: "Certa cosa é che per Le luoghi viaggi che ho fatto Europa tutta nella miglior e maggior parte dell'Asia, e nella due Americhe Spagnole, replicatamente [ripetutamente] a Mexico, mi sono trovato a portata d'essere instruitto del grande commercio, che li Padri fanno nella Costa Orientale in Manilla... in Portovelo, Panama, Popaian, Quito, Guiaichil, Lima o Los Reyes Capitale del Peru, e el Chille ed in tutta quella costa bagnata del Pacifico, come pure nella Nuova Spagna, Guatemala, Zonzonate... Havanna... e finalmente in tutti li luoghi dove hanno Collegii e Missioni con scandalo universale, non dico solamente de commercianti, ma di tutti li naturali di quelle regioni, che esageravano con qual morale / sendo sacerdoti, e contra tante censure e Bolle Pontificie / pottessero [potessero] fare questo Universale Commercio non solo in tutte le parit del mondo scoperto, ma in tutte le diverse specie de generi allo stesso Commercio pertinenti." [Certainly by travelling places, the best of Europe and most of Asia, and in both of the Spanish Americas, repeatedly in Mexico, I found myself within reach of being instructed/informed in big business, by the Fathers on the east coast of Manilla... in Portovelo, Panama, Popaian, Quito, Guachichil.... Lima Capital of Peru... and in all that wet Pacific coast, as well as in New Spain, Guatemala, Zonzonate... Havana... and finally in all places where they have Colleges and Missions with universal scandal... not only from merchants, but also from all natives of the regions, who exaggerated by what morals (...) the priests, and against the many censures and Papal Bulls... potentially this universal commerce could not only be in all of the discovered world, but in all regions where the different types of (...) is relevant for commerce.] "Qui devo fare una breve digressioner, perche nella descrizione e topografica che ho fatto di sopra ho lasciato La California, Peninsola grande e ricca sopra le molte scoperte quantunque Le di Lei richezze siano â pochissimi note separata della Costa della Nuova Spagna... hora questa California é abbondante d'Oro, & pietre preciose, ed il Mare di perle Coralli, èd altre rarità marine: Lé conseguirono a titolo di missione, Li Padri dal Monarca Cattolico, e furono loro Li primi a penetrarla, ed entratti, per cosi dire... alla riserva di quei pochissimi â cui é commesso il commercio..." [Here I must make a brief digression because in the topographical description above I have omitted California, a large peninsula where many great riches have been discovered... a few separate notes on the Coast of New Spain... At this time California is abundant with gold, & precious stones, and with Coral Sea pearls, and other marine rarities: The Fathers of the Catholic monarch established a mission, and they were the first to penetrate, and extract them, so to speak... of the reserves, very few are committed the trade...] "... di voler prendere nella Sua Nave Santo Antonio Capitana della Flottiglia chiamata los Azogues... una Cassetina per consegnarla al Collegio di Padri del Porto Santa Maria di Cadice. Rispose il Conte, Comparve finalmente... volle sapere cosa racchiudeva in se la Casset, e disse il Procuratore ch'erano bagatelle, conchiglie curiose, radici d'erbe rare medicinali che si coglievano nella California, e Corone o Rosari d'un precioso legno opèra de gl'Indj di quell'Isola... il Conte disse, che voleva uno de que Rosari... ripieni di perle di varie grandezze, di pietre preciose..." [... taken in his ship Santo Antonio by the Captain of the fleet called los Azogues... a small chest to deliver to the College of the Fathers of the Port of Saint Mary in Cadiz. The Count, who finally appeared... wanted to know what was contained in the chest, and the procurer told him that they were trifles, curious seashells, roots of rare medicinal herbs gathered in California, and crowns, or rosaries of precious wood handcrafted on that Island... the Count said he wanted one of those rosaries... filled with pearls of various sizes... of precious stones...] "Alteratosi il Conte, per l'inganno, parlo alto, e disse, che conseguirebbe La casseti al Signor D. Francesco de Varras Valdes Presidente della Casa della Contrattazione, ed Intendente Generale della Marina, e scriverebbe al Signor D. Guisepee Patigno Secretario di Stato, e del Dispaccio Universale." [Count Alteratosi, for the deception, spoke up and said that the small chest would be sent to Mr D. Francesco de Varras Valdes, President of the House of Trade, and Intendant General of the Navy, and that he would write to Mr D. Giusepee Patigno, State Secretary and the Universal Dispatch.] "che nel Paraguai... ad investogare il Loro procedere un Auditore del consiglio giustificato e dotto per nome D. Giovanni Antequeixa, Cavaliere dell'ordine di Calatrava, il quale, colâ giunto, venne di penetrare Le Tiranie dei Padri, e le richezze che accumulavano; E timorosi d'essere scoperti e privati del medesime riccorsero all Audienza Reale di Lima, querelandosi dell' Antequeira a cui formarono un processo tale, che fu chiamato dal ViceRe Don Joseph de Armendarez..." [in Paraguay... the investigation proceeded with an auditorium of justified council and a scholar named John D. Antequeixa, Knight of the order of Calatrava, who came... to penetrate the tyrannies of the Fathers, and the wealth they had accumulated; And fearful of getting caught and deprived of the same appeal to the Royal Audience of Lima, of finding fault in (Joseph de) Antequera who had formed the process, and which was called by the Viceroy Don Joseph de Armendariz, Marquis of Castelfuerte...] "Le maliziose calunnie ingiustamente accumulate all' Antequeira, fu sentenziato ad essere decolato, pero come le rare di lui qualita avevano captivate il populo tutto in di lui vantaggio... li Soldati del Pirhette che marchiavano con baionetta in canna le ammazzassero..." [The malicious slander unfairly accumulated against Antequera, was sentenced to be dismissed, but as he (Antequera) possessed the rare ability to captivate the people for his total advantage... Pirhette's soldiers marched with bayonets to kill him...] "... ad un librino... il di cui titulo e Riflessioni sopra l'espositione fatta del Padre Generale della Compagnie di IHS alla Santita del Regnate Pontifico sopra le colpe de Padri etc. tradotto dall Italiano e stampato nel Portughese... alla Santa Sede; e nella vita del Padre La Chaise... é una Velazione curiosissima d'un caso amoroso accaduto al medesimo confessore del Re in tempo di notte... nel 1735, da un Gesuita, che uscito della Compagnia, e rifugiatosi in Londra, si pose nel Commercio, e navigo meco dalla medesima Londra fini alla Jamaica." [...a small book... Reflections on the Exposition made the Father General of the Society of Jesus to His Holiness the Pontifical Sovereign over the sins of the Fathers etc. translated from Italian and printed in Portuguese... to the Holy See; and in the life of Father La Chaise ... is a revelation of a curious event that happened during the night to the same confessor of the King... (the book received) in 1735, from a Jesuit, who came out of the Society, and fled to London, entered commerce, and sailed with me from London to Jamaica.] End excerpts. The writer is a Jesuit named Pietro Antonio Contarini, possibly a descendent of Italian diplomat, cardinal and Bishop Gasparo Contarini (1483-1542) of Belluno, who was one of the first proponents of the dialogue with Protestants, after the Reformation. [The House of Contarini is one of the twelve founding and ruling families of the Venetian Republica, from which eight Doges emerged, as well as other notables. Considered the most powerful of Venetian families, and controlling the largest number of seats in the Great Council of Venice from the period before the Serrata del Maggior Consiglio to the end of the republic in 1797, among them are a number of important diplomats, cardinals and navy commanders, The Contarini led the Venetian Republic forward through ever changing eras commensurate with notable changes in trade, technology, trade, science, religion, art, banking and finance, diplomacy and war. Many wealthy Venetians, such as the Contarini, enjoyed the monetary and health benefits wrought from, for example, the spice trade, which facilitated longevity, a fundamental requirement for assumption of the role of Doge.] Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, 1st Count of Oeiras (1699-1782) was Secretary of the State of Internal Affairs of the Kingdom (the equivalent to today's Prime Minister) in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. He expelled the Jesuits from Portugal on 3rd September 1759, forcing Pope Clement XIII to make the order at his instigation. The Portuguese title of nobility Count of Oeiras (Conde de Oeiras) was a created by a royal decree on 15 July 1759, by King Joseph I, and first granted to Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Head of the Portuguese Government. Other persons mentioned in the letter include: Padre Pietro Nascimben, Venetian and his colleague in grammar, in Mexico in 1734 at the College of St. Peter & St. Paul ("responsible for introducing choral singing in California"). Conte del Bene, Turinese, brother of Prince di Massarane, one of the guards of the Spanish king circa 1729 Antonio Spinola, commander of the Barlovento Armada Francisco de Varras y Valdez, Intendente de la Mariña de Indias, 1738, presidente della Casa della Contrattazione, Intendente Generale della Marina (president of the Consulado de Cadiz) e sciverebbe al Sig. D. Giuseppe Patigno (José Patiño), Secretario di Stato from 1726 Joseph de Armendariz, Marques de Castelfuerte & Viceroy of Peru (1724-1736) who restored order in Paraguay Archbishop Juan Antonio Vizarrón y Eguiarreta - Viceroy of Mexico (1734-1740) . Very Good.

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        Neujahrsblatt der Stadtbibliothek Zürich, 1. Jg. 1759 - 83. Jg. 1841 (1. Jg.: «Der Jugend und Wissenschaft liebenden Jugend gewiedmet von der Stadt-Bibliothek in Zürich, am Neujahrs-Tage 1759» - 83. Jg.: «Neujahrsblöatt herausgegeben von der Stadtbibliothek in Zürich auf das Jahr 1841»). (83 Hefte).

      Zürich, o. Vlg., 1759 - 1841 Gr.8°, bis und mit 1818 jeweils 8 S., später auch bis 16, selten mehr S.; jeweils 1 gestochene Taf. auf dem ersten Bl., Lose, tlw. geleimte gefalzte Bögen; (selten brosch.); ab 1837 brosch., Tlw. stockfl. oder staubrandig, tlw. etw. randrissig u. -knittrig, Titelbl. von Nr. 1 fleckig u. gebräunt; allg. gutes Ex. Rohr Nr. 1 - 83. Die Kupfer der ersten 4 Jahrgänge von Salomon Gessner. ab dem 5. bis zum 32. Jahrgang meist Darstellungen der Schweizergeschichte von Johann Balthasar Bullinger. spätere Kupfer oft nach Martin Usteri. Versand D: 20,00 EUR Helvetica - Zürich Geschichte - allgemein Zeitschriften

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        HUYSBURG/bei Halberstadt. -, Kurze Geschichte der ehemaligen Benedictinerabtei Huysburg nebst einem Gemälde derselben und ihrer Umgebungen.

      17,5 x 12 cm. VI S., 1 Bl, 140 S. Mit 3 altkolor. Kupferstichen von und nach E. Henne. Pp. d. Zt. Thieme-Becker XVI, 390. - Die reizvollen Tafeln von E.S. Henne (1759-1828) in nuanciertem Altkolorit zeigen das Kloster Huysburg bei Halberstadt von Norden und Süden, sowie den Eingang zur Daneills Höhle. - Einband bestoßen und beschabt. Innen sauber und frisch. Sachsen und Sachsen-Anhalt

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        Kurze Geschichte der ehemaligen Benedictinerabtei Huysburg nebst einem Gemälde derselben und ihrer Umgebungen. Mit drei illuminirten Kupfern.

      Mit 3 altkolorierten Kupfertafeln von E. (Eberhard) Henne. Einband beschabt (oberflächliche Bezugspapierabschabungen) und etwas bestoßen teils etwas stockfleckig Exlibris auf dem vorderen Innendeckel, Name auf dem Vordervorsatz. Die Kupfer in einem sehr schönen Altkolorit - sie zeigen "Die südliche Ansicht der Huysburg", "Die nördliche Ansicht der Huysburg" und "Die Daneils Höhle bei Huysburg". Zu dem Kupferstecher Eberhard Siegfried Henne (1759-1828) vgl. Thieme-Becker XVI, 390.

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        La principessa Adelaide contessa di Torino con nuovi documenti illustrata

      Stamperia Mairesse, 1759. Due volumi in 4°, pp. VIII, 225, (3); VIII, 232. Vignetta calcografica sui frontespizi. Cartonature rustiche dell'epoca. Copia in ottimo stato. Uniche due parti pubblicate, una terza, manoscritta, conservata alla Biblioteca Reale di Torino, fu danneggiata gravemente dall,incendio del 1904. Cfr. Claretta, Gaudenzio, Memorie storiche intorno alla vita ed agli studi di Gian Tommaso Terraneo, Torino, 1862.

      [Bookseller: Libreria antiquaria Atlantis]
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        Principes Mathématiques de la Philosophie naturelle.

      1759 - Édition originale de Madame du Châtelet et première édition française des Principia de Newton. Paris, Desaint, Lambert, 1759.2 tomes en 2 volumes in-4 de : I/ (2) ff., xxxix pp. prel., (1) p., (2) ff., 437 pp., 9 planches dépliantes ; II/ (2) ff., 180 pp., 2 planches dépliantes, 297 pp., 3 planches dépliantes, (1) f. Qq. rousseurs et minimes défauts, portion de la marge blanche supérieure des ff. de titre rognée. Vélin rigide, dos lisses avec le titre frappé or, tranches rouges. Reliure de l'époque. 250 x 195 mm. / First edition of Madame du Châtelet and first French edition of Newton's Principia. Paris, Desaint, Lambert, 1759.2 parts in 2 4to volumes [250 x 195 mm] of: I/ (2) ll., xxxix prel. pp., (1) p., (2) ll., 437 pp., 9 folding plates; II/ (2) ll., 180 pp., 2 folding plates, 297 pp., 3 folding plats, (1 ) l. A few foxing and minor defects, part of the upper blank margin of title ll. trimmed. Stiff vellum, flat spines with the gilt title stamped, red edges. Contemporary binding. [Attributes: Hard Cover]

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        Hannoversche Beyträge [Beiträge] zum Nutzen und Vergnügen vom Jahre 1759(-1762). Erster (1759), Zweyter (1760), Dritter (1761) und Vierter (1762) Theil.

      H.E.C. Schlüter, Hannover 1759-1763, 4 Bände, 1680, 1656, 1656, 1680 Sp. und jeweils Register, teils illustriert mit einigen Kupfern (u.a. gefaltete \"Paß-Charte von Heilige Land nach Wrangeroog und Blexum, nebst den Tonnen, Tiefen und Ankergründen in der Weser\", gez. v. A. Hiller und A. I. Strömberg 1756/1757 in Bremen, diese Karte mit Randeinriß). 8°, Dekorative Ganzledereinbände der Zeit auf 4 Bünden mit rotem Rückenschild,Einbände etwas berieben und beschabt, zwei Deckel etwas wurmgängig, ansonsten sehr gut erhaltenes und sauberes Exemplar, selten,Versand D: 4,90 EUR

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        Essais historiques sur Paris.

      Londres et Paris 1759-1776, Duchesne - LIVRES Nouvelle édition, revue, corrigée et augmentée. Tomes 1,2 & 3 à la date de 1759, le tome 4-1757, le tome 5-1756 et le tome 6-1776. Série bien décorative. 6 volumes in-12 Plein veau blond pour les 3 premiers volumes et écaille pour les 3 autres. [Attributes: Soft Cover]

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        Traité sur la nature et sur la culture de la vigne ? sur le vin, la façon de le faire, et la manière de le bien gouverner. A l'usage des différens vignobles du Royaume de France

      Paris, Savoye 1759 - 2 vol. in-12, plein veau raciné, dos à nerfs orné de caissons et fleurons dorés, pièces de titre en maroquin rouge, pièces de tomaison en maroquin citron, filet doré sur les coupes, tranches marbrées (reliure de l?époque), 24 ff., 534 pp. (vol. I), 5 ff. n. ch., 304 pp. (vol. II). 2ème édition ? tellement augmentée (l?E.O. de 1752 ne portait que sur les vins de Champagne) que l?on peut la considérer comme une édition originale ? de cet OUVRAGE RARE ET MAJEUR sur la viticulture. Edition revue et annotée par DUHAMEL DE MONCEAU. NICOLAS BIDET (1709-1782), agronome et officier de la maison du roi, fut aussi le sommelier de la reine Marie-Antoinette Ouvrage illustré de 15 jolies planches rempliées et d?un tableau Vicaire 93 ; "un des ouvrages capitaux du XVIIIe siècle sur la viticulture", Oberlé-Fritsch 91 Une coiffe en partie arrachée, un coin de p. anciennement restauré au papier adhésif, sinon BEL EXEMPLAIRE FRAIS

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        Almanach der kruid-kunde voor het Jaar 1800. Tot onderrichting en vermaak voor het schoone geslacht, als ook voor die genen die de eerste beginselen der kruidkunde beöefenen.Amsterdam, Jan Barend Elwe, [1799]. 12mo. With engraved title-page and 14 botanical flower and herb plates, all hand-coloured. Contemporary stiff, yellow paper wrappers.

      - Jacobsen Jensen 301; Waller, Cat. Ned. populaire boeken 92. Beautifully illustrated and hand-coloured introduction to herbs and flowers, published as an almanac for women and girls and designed to teach them the principles of botany. It is the first of four annual volumes published. The first twelve plates show plant species of classes one to six and eight to thirteen, so the plates are accordingly numbered Cl. I-VI and VIII-XIII. Each plate is accompanied by one leaf of letterpress text. Even though these texts are numbered I-XII, the names and classes agree with the plates. These are preceded by 6 leaves containing the 12 months of the calendar and another 6 with information on eclipses, holidays, advice to girls or women interested in botany and an introduction to the botanical texts. The last two plates and the numbered pages then follow with a thorough instruction on herbs and flowers, which continued in the almanacs for the following three years. These rare almanacs, really quite thorough botanical instruction books, were edited by the celebrated botanist Johan Carl Krauss (1759-1826). In very good condition. The wrapper is slightly dirty and the spine slightly tattered, but also very good. A rare and lovely little almanac designed to teach botany to women and girls, with 14 coloured botanical plates.

      [Bookseller: ASHER Rare Books]
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        Primary Source Manuscript Letter Surrounding Political Circumstances in America - California Gold, Coveted Pearls, Rare Medicinal Herbs and Spanish Secrets - Text in Italian

      Lisbon, 5 June 1759. Fair copy manuscript letter, transcribed in 1760 by a scribe of the Portuguese royal court, with the original letter in hand, being correspondence from a Jesuit called Pietro Antonio Contarini, addressed to Pope Clement XIII, which was intended to apprise the Pope of the excellent works of the Jesuits in America in terms of global commerce and trade, with special interest being taken in California gold and pearls, to report on anti-Jesuit propaganda and scandals, and ultimately to augment the Pope's support in a time of persecution. According to the transcriber's final annotation, however, the letter was intercepted by the court of King Joseph I of Portugal, who only three months later officially expelled the Society from his kingdom and colonies. The final page consists of a poem honoring Saint Francis Xavier, co-founder of the Society of Jesus. All text is in Italian. Folio. 6 pages written on two double leafs laid watermarked paper measuring approximately 22 x 34 cm. A superlative primary source document, paramount to any Jesuit Americana library. The timing and the content of the letter, together with surrounding political circumstances, are most significant. In September 1759, only 3 months after this letter was written, a letter in which a Jesuit noble who revealed economic activity in California and persecution in Lima, King Joseph I of Portugal and his minister the 1st Marquis of Pombal expelled the Jesuits from the Kingdom of Portugal and its colonies. The Jesuits had been recently accused of having instigated a plot against the king's life, allegedly supported by theological justification, and for the purpose of covering up their rebellion in South America. The Jesuits were also accused of trying to set up their own fiefdom in South America, having allegedly seized royal territory and establishing the community through the mistreatment and toils of the indigenous people. Propaganda pamphlets were distributed, accusing the Jesuits of all sorts of misdeeds. The Jesuits were also persecuted, as described in this letter. The Jesuit Reductions, as they are also known, were a type of settlement for indigenous people in South America created by the Jesuit Order during the 17th and 18th centuries. Owing to some economic success, combined with the Jesuits' independence, the settlements came to be considered a threat by the secular Portuguese authorities. In 1758 the government of Joseph I of Portugal took advantage of the waning powers of Pope Benedict XIV and deported some of the Jesuits from America. The possibility of the Jesuit Order expanding their global commerce, and gaining economic power in New Spain was of immense concern. This letter, with its detailed descriptions of the opportunities in California, of universal trade, of gold found in abundance, and of pearls being secretly gathered and harbored, surely gave impetus to the Portuguese Marquis' unrelenting aim to eliminate Jesuit influence and power. No longer threatened by the Jesuits after their expulsion, the First Marquis of Pombal introduced many fundamental administrative, educational, economic, and ecclesiastical reforms, albeit it by autocratic means of suppressing opposition, furthering and controlling colonial economic exploitation, and print censorship. He is considered to be the most prominent minister in the history of Portugal's government. The author of the letter is Pietro Antonio Contarini, a well-travelled Jesuit who was active in the Americas (New Spain) in the 1730s, and who descends from the ancient and noble House of Contarini, the most powerful of the twelve founding families of the Venetian Republic. The intended recipient was Pope Clement XIII, a stalwart defender of the Jesuit order, born in 1693 as Carlo della Torre Rezzonico to a wealthy family of merchants from the Republic of Venice. However, the letter's concluding remark, appended by a scribe, reveals that the original was intercepted by the anti-Jesuit Portuguese court, and put into the hands of influential Portuguese judge Ignacio Ferreira de Souta who was a member of the judicial council that ruled over the scandalous and pivotal Tavora affair, who in turn delivered it to a Portuguese noble, none other than the first Count of Oeiras and first Marquess of Pombal, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo (1699-1782), who effected the expulsion of the Jesuits from Portugal only three months later. The original letter, it is safe to presume, never reached the Pope. The annotation reads as follows: "Questa lettera e sonetto l'ebbe l'anno passato il Sig Ignacio Ferreira sotto per darlo a S.E. il Sig Conte d'Oeyra, ed il sonetto fu qui tradotto nel Portughese da un sacerdote claustrale." [This letter and the sonnet were given to S.E., Count of Oeyra, by Mr. Ignacio Ferreira last year, and the sonnet was translated from Portuguese by a cloistered priest.] Ignacio Ferreira de Souta, mentioned in the above notice, was a leading Portuguese judge, assigned by Joseph I of Portugal as one of the nine judges in the supreme judicial council 'Junta de Inconfidencia' who presided over the trial of the rioters in the Tavora affair. Still contested today, the Távora affair was a political scandal of the 18th century Portuguese court, an event which intensified rivalry between the Portuguese crown and the Jesuits, and was ostensibly the catalyst to the expelling of the Jesuits. It began with an attempted assassination of King Joseph I of Portugal in 1758, allegedly instigated by the Távora family and supported by the Jesuit Society, and culminating into the public torture and execution of the entire Távora family, and the subsequent banishing of the Jesuit order. Following the Távora affair, the new Count of Oeiras, first Marquess of Pombal, Dom Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, knew no opposition. It was Dom Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, 1st Count of Oeiras (1699-1782), who in fact received the letter, and who effected the expulsion of the Jesuits only three months later, through his Pombaline Reforms. He was a Portuguese statesman, Secretary of the State of Internal Affairs of the Kingdom (First Minister) in the government of Joseph I of Portugal. With news of gold, pearls and rare medicinal herbs in California, and remarks of a calculated foothold over sea trade, this letter most certainly gave impetus to the Portuguese minister's fear of the Jesuits' rising political and economic power. Also being contemporary to the Tavora affair, it is no coincidence that the Jesuits were banished from Portugal three months later. The letter is addressed to Beatissimo Padre" meaning "Most Holy Father," and being Pope Clement XIII who had been consecrated one year earlier, and who, in spite of incessant and dogmatic opposition, wished and earnestly attempted to support the Jesuit Society, rather than suppressing them. [This Pope's pontificate was overshadowed by the constant pressure to suppress the Society of Jesus but despite this, he championed their order and also proved to be their greatest defender at that time. He was also one of the few early popes who favoured dialogue with Old Catholic Protestants. Shortly after Pope Clement XIII began his papacy on 6 July 1758, the reforming minister of Joseph I of Portugal, Marquis of Pombal, expelled the Jesuits from Portugal. The Order was civilly suppressed in 1759, and beginning 16 September 1759, nine voyages transported 1,036 Jesuits from Lisbon to Civitavecchia near Rome, as a "gift for the Pope." The Portuguese ambassador was recalled from Rome and the papal nuncio sent home in disgrace. Relations between Portugal and Rome were broken off until 1770.] A positively fascinating surviving manuscript document, an intercepted manuscript letter which was addressed to the Pope but fell into the hands of the Jesuit fearing and autocratic Portuguese monarchy, Contarini's firsthand account now serves as a primary source testament to Jesuit wealth, to their early interests in California and America, and also to the persecution which they suffered. The fact that his letter was confiscated en route to the Vatican, also bears witness to the circumspect, if not devious efforts, of the Portuguese Crown to suppress any economic, political, or religions opposition. Following a summary of his extensive travels and gleanings into universal trade, evidently to gain the confidence of the Pope, the writer discloses his observations in New Spain. He describes California as having abundant gold and precious stones, its sea having pearls and other marine life, which happens to be a secret closely guarded by Spain. Among other coveted agricultural commodities deriving from America, he specifically mentions rare medicinal herbs from California. In 1734, Contarini had dined with Conde del Bena-Masserano (Guido Jacinto Ferrero-Fieschi y Saboya), Commander of the Spanish Fleet in Vera Cruz. He recounts a specific occasion where the Spanish commander had been asked by two Jesuit priests to transport a small casket containing rare medicinal herbs and unusual seashells from California, to the Jesuit College in El Puerto de Santa Maria, Cadiz. The casket and its contents were received with covetous appreciation. Contarini describes being in Mexico in 1736 when Dr. José Cevayos, a student presbyter, discovered a rebellion which the viceroy Vizarrón (Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta), commanded the Jesuits to quell. The Jesuits were obliged to disburse 684,000 Mexican pesos, to which the viceroy contributed. He mentions a then very recently printed 100-page treatise condemning the Jesuits, now exceedingly scarce, and titled, "Riflessioni di um Portoghese Sopra il Memoriale presentado da' PP. Gesuiti alla Santtità di PP. Clemente XIII. Felicemente Regnante. Esposte in una Lettera ad un Amico di Roma Lisbon, 1758." One page is devoted to significant events in Paraguay and Lima in 1731, surrounding the controversial execution of "Giovanni Antequeira" the de facto governor of the Spanish colonial Province of Paraguay, José Antequera y Castro (1689-1731), and his secretary Juan de Mena. [José Antequera y Castro had antagonized the Jesuits and also coveted their wealth. The Viceroy in Peru, Joseph de Armendáriz, Marques of Castelfuerte, ordered him to stand trial in Lima, where he was sentenced to death. Fearing an uprising by the populace who supported Antequera, the Viceroy dispatched soldiers with fixed bayonets to accompany him, riding a mule, to the scaffold. He ordered that Antequera should be beheaded as well as hanged. He then summoned Antequera's aged secretary Juan de Mena from the gaol, and accompanied him to the scaffold where he was beheaded.] The Spanish Armada is also mentioned, "Armada de Barlovento" meaning "Windward Fleet." [The armada was important to Spanish politics in America, playing a crucial defensive and logistical role, particularly in protecting the trade and the coasts of the Spanish territories in America. The Armada was dissolved in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.] Following are some excerpts from the letter [with rough translation]: "Certa cosa é che per Le luoghi viaggi che ho fatto Europa tutta nella miglior e maggior parte dell'Asia, e nella due Americhe Spagnole, replicatamente [ripetutamente] a Mexico, mi sono trovato a portata d'essere instruitto del grande commercio, che li Padri fanno nella Costa Orientale in Manilla... in Portovelo, Panama, Popaian, Quito, Guiaichil, Lima o Los Reyes Capitale del Peru, e el Chille ed in tutta quella costa bagnata del Pacifico, come pure nella Nuova Spagna, Guatemala, Zonzonate... Havanna... e finalmente in tutti li luoghi dove hanno Collegii e Missioni con scandalo universale, non dico solamente de commercianti, ma di tutti li naturali di quelle regioni, che esageravano con qual morale / sendo sacerdoti, e contra tante censure e Bolle Pontificie / pottessero [potessero] fare questo Universale Commercio non solo in tutte le parit del mondo scoperto, ma in tutte le diverse specie de generi allo stesso Commercio pertinenti." [Certainly by travelling places, the best of Europe and most of Asia, and in both of the Spanish Americas, repeatedly in Mexico, I found myself within reach of being instructed/informed in big business, by the Fathers on the east coast of Manilla... in Portovelo, Panama, Popaian, Quito, Guachichil.... Lima Capital of Peru... and in all that wet Pacific coast, as well as in New Spain, Guatemala, Zonzonate... Havana... and finally in all places where they have Colleges and Missions with universal scandal... not only from merchants, but also from all natives of the regions, who exaggerated by what morals (...) the priests, and against the many censures and Papal Bulls... potentially this universal commerce could not only be in all of the discovered world, but in all regions where the different types of (...) is relevant for commerce.] "Qui devo fare una breve digressioner, perche nella descrizione e topografica che ho fatto di sopra ho lasciato La California, Peninsola grande e ricca sopra le molte scoperte quantunque Le di Lei richezze siano â pochissimi note separata della Costa della Nuova Spagna... hora questa California é abbondante d'Oro, & pietre preciose, ed il Mare di perle Coralli, èd altre rarità marine: Lé conseguirono a titolo di missione, Li Padri dal Monarca Cattolico, e furono loro Li primi a penetrarla, ed entratti, per cosi dire... alla riserva di quei pochissimi â cui é commesso il commercio..." [Here I must make a brief digression because in the topographical description above I have omitted California, a large peninsula where many great riches have been discovered... a few separate notes on the Coast of New Spain... At this time California is abundant with gold, & precious stones, and with Coral Sea pearls, and other marine rarities: The Fathers of the Catholic monarch established a mission, and they were the first to penetrate, and extract them, so to speak... of the reserves, very few are committed the trade...] "... di voler prendere nella Sua Nave Santo Antonio Capitana della Flottiglia chiamata los Azogues... una Cassetina per consegnarla al Collegio di Padri del Porto Santa Maria di Cadice. Rispose il Conte, Comparve finalmente... volle sapere cosa racchiudeva in se la Casset, e disse il Procuratore ch'erano bagatelle, conchiglie curiose, radici d'erbe rare medicinali che si coglievano nella California, e Corone o Rosari d'un precioso legno opèra de gl'Indj di quell'Isola... il Conte disse, che voleva uno de que Rosari... ripieni di perle di varie grandezze, di pietre preciose..." [... taken in his ship Santo Antonio by the Captain of the fleet called los Azogues... a small chest to deliver to the College of the Fathers of the Port of Saint Mary in Cadiz. The Count, who finally appeared... wanted to know what was contained in the chest, and the procurer told him that they were trifles, curious seashells, roots of rare medicinal herbs gathered in California, and crowns, or rosaries of precious wood handcrafted on that Island... the Count said he wanted one of those rosaries... filled with pearls of various sizes... of precious stones...] "Alteratosi il Conte, per l'inganno, parlo alto, e disse, che conseguirebbe La casseti al Signor D. Francesco de Varras Valdes Presidente della Casa della Contrattazione, ed Intendente Generale della Marina, e scriverebbe al Signor D. Guisepee Patigno Secretario di Stato, e del Dispaccio Universale." [Count Alteratosi, for the deception, spoke up and said that the small chest would be sent to Mr D. Francesco de Varras Valdes, President of the House of Trade, and Intendant General of the Navy, and that he would write to Mr D. Giusepee Patigno, State Secretary and the Universal Dispatch.] "che nel Paraguai... ad investogare il Loro procedere un Auditore del consiglio giustificato e dotto per nome D. Giovanni Antequeixa, Cavaliere dell'ordine di Calatrava, il quale, colâ giunto, venne di penetrare Le Tiranie dei Padri, e le richezze che accumulavano; E timorosi d'essere scoperti e privati del medesime riccorsero all Audienza Reale di Lima, querelandosi dell' Antequeira a cui formarono un processo tale, che fu chiamato dal ViceRe Don Joseph de Armendarez..." [in Paraguay... the investigation proceeded with an auditorium of justified council and a scholar named John D. Antequeixa, Knight of the order of Calatrava, who came... to penetrate the tyrannies of the Fathers, and the wealth they had accumulated; And fearful of getting caught and deprived of the same appeal to the Royal Audience of Lima, of finding fault in (Joseph de) Antequera who had formed the process, and which was called by the Viceroy Don Joseph de Armendariz, Marquis of Castelfuerte...] "Le maliziose calunnie ingiustamente accumulate all' Antequeira, fu sentenziato ad essere decolato, pero come le rare di lui qualita avevano captivate il populo tutto in di lui vantaggio... li Soldati del Pirhette che marchiavano con baionetta in canna le ammazzassero..." [The malicious slander unfairly accumulated against Antequera, was sentenced to be dismissed, but as he (Antequera) possessed the rare ability to captivate the people for his total advantage... Pirhette's soldiers marched with bayonets to kill him...] "... ad un librino... il di cui titulo e Riflessioni sopra l'espositione fatta del Padre Generale della Compagnie di IHS alla Santita del Regnate Pontifico sopra le colpe de Padri etc. tradotto dall Italiano e stampato nel Portughese... alla Santa Sede; e nella vita del Padre La Chaise... é una Velazione curiosissima d'un caso amoroso accaduto al medesimo confessore del Re in tempo di notte... nel 1735, da un Gesuita, che uscito della Compagnia, e rifugiatosi in Londra, si pose nel Commercio, e navigo meco dalla medesima Londra fini alla Jamaica." [...a small book... Reflections on the Exposition made the Father General of the Society of Jesus to His Holiness the Pontifical Sovereign over the sins of the Fathers etc. translated from Italian and printed in Portuguese... to the Holy See; and in the life of Father La Chaise ... is a revelation of a curious event that happened during the night to the same confessor of the King... (the book received) in 1735, from a Jesuit, who came out of the Society, and fled to London, entered commerce, and sailed with me from London to Jamaica.] End excerpts. The writer is a Jesuit named Pietro Antonio Contarini, possibly a descendent of Italian diplomat, cardinal and Bishop Gasparo Contarini (1483-1542) of Belluno, who was one of the first proponents of the dialogue with Protestants, after the Reformation. [The House of Contarini is one of the twelve founding and ruling families of the Venetian Republica, from which eight Doges emerged, as well as other notables. Considered the most powerful of Venetian families, and controlling the largest number of seats in the Great Council of Venice from the period before the Serrata del Maggior Consiglio to the end of the republic in 1797, among them are a number of important diplomats, cardinals and navy commanders, The Contarini led the Venetian Republic forward through ever changing eras commensurate with notable changes in trade, technology, trade, science, religion, art, banking and finance, diplomacy and war. Many wealthy Venetians, such as the Contarini, enjoyed the monetary and health benefits wrought from, for example, the spice trade, which facilitated longevity, a fundamental requirement for assumption of the role of Doge.] Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, 1st Count of Oeiras (1699-1782) was Secretary of the State of Internal Affairs of the Kingdom (the equivalent to today's Prime Minister) in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. He expelled the Jesuits from Portugal on 3rd September 1759, forcing Pope Clement XIII to make the order at his instigation. The Portuguese title of nobility Count of Oeiras (Conde de Oeiras) was a created by a royal decree on 15 July 1759, by King Joseph I, and first granted to Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Head of the Portuguese Government. Other persons mentioned in the letter include: Padre Pietro Nascimben, Venetian and his colleague in grammar, in Mexico in 1734 at the College of St. Peter & St. Paul ("responsible for introducing choral singing in California"). Conte del Bene, Turinese, brother of Prince di Massarane, one of the guards of the Spanish king circa 1729 Antonio Spinola, commander of the Barlovento Armada Francisco de Varras y Valdez, Intendente de la Mariña de Indias, 1738, presidente della Casa della Contrattazione, Intendente Generale della Marina (president of the Consulado de Cadiz) e sciverebbe al Sig. D. Giuseppe Patigno (José Patiño), Secretario di Stato from 1726 Joseph de Armendariz, Marques de Castelfuerte & Viceroy of Peru (1724-1736) who restored order in Paraguay Archbishop Juan Antonio Vizarrón y Eguiarreta - Viceroy of Mexico (1734-1740)

      [Bookseller: Voyager Press Rare Books & Manuscripts]
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        ERLANGEN-BRUCK: Gesamtansicht

      um 1759, Kupferstich, 15x26 cm -*- ALTE ORIGINAL-GRAPHIK UND STÄDTEANSICHTEN DEUTSCHLAND

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Murr Bamberg]
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        Consolatio liber, quo se ipsum de filiae morte consolatus est.[copy imprint:] Paris, Nicolas Chesneau, 1583 ([Netherlands?], manuscript dated 1759 at end, binding probably ca.1700). Small 16mo (8.5 x 5.5 x 4 cm). The binding contains a Latin manuscript in dark brown ink on paper, written in a Latin hand. A very richly engraved and pierced silver binding (ca. 1700?), each board with 4 putti, 4 squirrels and about 30 very detailed flowers, all surrounding an oval cartouche, that on the front with an unidentified (imaginary?) coat of arms, that on the back left blank; the spine with 2 putti and about 22 very detailed flowers. The arms show: below, a square-rigged 3-masted ship in full sail (possibly alluding to the VOC or the Amsterdam city seal) and above, a hooded jacket, the whole with a king's helmet crested with a bare-chested man issuing. Two clasps with engraved flower decorations are hinged to the front plate and catch on the back plate. The bookblock is loosely inserted in the silver binding.

      A 1759 transcription of a printed edition of Cicero's Consolatio (Paris, 1583) inserted in a spectacular finely engraved and pierced silver binding. None of the silver elements bears a silver mark, but stylistically the binding appears to be older than the manuscript and does not fit it perfectly. We suspect it dates from the late 17th- or early 18th-century. The fine engraving, leaving only thin strands of metal in some places makes it look almost like filigree, but in fact the decorations on each board and the spine are the parts of the metal plate that were not engraved away, rather than wires added to it. The only similar arms found via Renesse (Daumiller in Brabant) seems not to match. The back board lacks the (plain) border piece at the head and one of its rivets, the horizontal band at the foot of the spine has lost its central rivet and cracked through the rivet hole, but the binding is otherwise in very good condition. A truly unique and extraordinary custom-made silver binding.

      [Bookseller: ASHER Rare Books (Since 1830)]
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        Three years travels from Moscow over-land to China: thro great Ustiga, Siriana, Permia, Sibiria, Daour, great Tartary, &c. to Peking.Including: KAO, Dionysius. A short description of the vast Empire of China.London, Printed for W. Freeman, J. Walthoe, T. Newborough, J. Nichelson and R. Parker, 1706. 4to. With engraved frontispiece, 1 engraved folding map, and 30 engraved plates (8 folding and 1 double-page). Contemporary blind- and gold-tooled calf, rebacked.

      - Cordier, Sinica, col. 2468; ESTC T55175; Lach & Van Kley III, pp. 1759-1767. First and only edition in English of a travel account by the ambassador of the Czar of Muscovy to the court of the Emperor of China. Ambassador Ides (1657-1708) was a native of Holstein-Glückstadt and set up as a merchant in Moscow in 1687. In 1692 Ides was selected to lead a Russian embassy and trade mission to China. His account of this journey, first published in Dutch in 1704, is one of the "most detailed and accurate descriptions of inner Asia up to that time" (Lach & Van Kley). He gives rich descriptions of the landscape and inhabitants of Siberia and especially important is his information on Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, where the expanding Russian and Chinese empires bordered. As one of the first Europeans, Ides described the Gobi Desert.Combined with Ides's account of his travels is a description of the topography of China and of its inhabitants, supposedly written by a Catholic Chinese named Dionysius Kao. Ides had received a manuscript with this text from Kao and had later sent it to his Dutch friend Nicolaes Witsen (1641-1717), possibly together with a manuscript of his own account. According to a note by the original Dutch translator, Kao's text was written in "barbarous and unintelligible Latin, and somewhat better German" (p. 209). Most plates with repaired tears and waterstains, pages browned with some darker stains. Original binding heavily damaged but professionally restored. A fair copy of an important travel account.

      [Bookseller: ASHER Rare Books]
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        Candide, ou l'Optimisme, traduit de l'Allemand de Mr. le Docteur Ralph. (Bound with:) Tableau du Siecle. Par un Auteur connu. (Paul Antoine Nolivos Saint-Cyr)

      (Geneva: Cramer), 1759. First edition, in its earliest surviving state, of Voltaire's masterpiece, the epitome of the French Enlightenment and one of the enduring classics of Western Civilization. The rare first edition, printed and published clandestinely by Cramer in Geneva, under the pseudonym of "Dr. Ralph". This edition, one of four editions dated 1759 with 299 pages, preceded the other sixteen different editions of Voltaire's novel published throughout Europe in 1759. The bibliographical history of this book has been exasperatingly complex and confused, and, until recently, virtually insoluble. The cumulative analyses of Ira Wade, Giles Barber, and Stephen Weissman, however, finally succeeded in resolving the matter conclusively. The 1759 Cramer edition containing 299-pages, with the points detailed below, has been given priority: the misprint "que ce ce fut" on p. 103, line 4 (corrected in later editions to "que ce fut"); the incorrect adjective "precisement" on p. 125, line 4 (corrected in later editions to "precipitamment"); with Voltaire's revisions on p. 31, where an unnecessary paragraph break was eliminated, and p. 41, where several short sentences about the Lisbon earthquake were rewritten. Finally, as in all of the few known copies of the Geneva printing, Chapter XXV (signature L) does not contain the paragraph critical of contemporary German poets, which Voltaire decided to drop while the book was being printed. As in seven of the ten known copies, this copy has been bound without the final leaves N7, a blank, and N8, instructions to the binder concerning the cancellation of two pairs of leaves (B4 and B9 and D6 and D7). Barber 299G. Bengesco 1434. Morize 59a. Wade 1. Printing and the Mind of Man 204. A satire on religious and political optimism (or gullibility; or hypocrisy depending on one's perspective), in the form of a picaresque novel, Candide finally recommends that mantra of sanity and common-sense, "Il faut cultiver notre jardin." "Candide, and his equally guileless if more worldly-wise mentor, Dr. Pangloss, and their delicious adventures, still command our attention. The folly of philosophic and religious optimism is displayed with a vigour and wit that carries the reader away. Irony without exaggeration, a perfect restraint in its admirable humour, a gift for the 'throw-away line' ...; all these show Voltaire's style and originality at their incomparable best." PMM 204 12mo, full contemporary mottled French calf. Spine expertly repaired at foot, tear to lower blank corner of A3 (pp. 5/6) and lower blank corner of A4 (pp. 7/8) expertly repaired; tear to D7, just touching the catchword, also repaired; these minor blemishes notwithstanding, a remarkably fine copy, in contemporary binding, of the correct first edition. Only a small handful of copies of the true first edition of Candide are known to exist.

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        Friedrich von Schillers sämmtliche Werke in 24 Bänden.

      313 S. 304 S. bis Bd. 19 je 1 Frontispiz OHalbleinen, Frakturschrift, farblich marmorierter Schnitt, Rückentitel goldgeprägt Bücher in guter Erhaltung, Einbände mit altersgemäßen leichten Lagerspuren, Seiten hell und sauber, zweiter Bd.: letzten beiden Seiten Inhalt lose, fünfter Bd. Buchblock gering gelockert. Einige Bd. mit dezentem Namensstempel auf Titelblatt 24 Bände in 20 Büchern (Doppelbände: 1/2 6/7 16/17 20/21) ab Band 20: Anhang zu F. v. Schillers sämmtl. Werken, Nachlese.Kienreich Johann Nep. Andreas, Verleger und Buchdrucker. * Graz, 2. 5. 1759 Graz, 6. 4. 1845. Sohn eines Käsestechers zuerst ebenfalls Käsestecher, erlernte er dann das Buchdruckergewerbe. Bis Anfang 1791 Kompagnon des Grazer Buchhändlers Trötscher, gründete er einen eigenen Verlag und 1796 eine eigene Druckerei. 1801 erwarb er eine Papierfabrik. Seine pädagog. Drucke wurden besonders im Südosten der Monarchie bis zur Militärgrenze verbreitet. 1816 war er einer der 14 Viertelmeister der Gemeinde Graz und trug wesentlich zur Rettung der hist. Denkmäler des Grazer Schloßberges bei. Es war vermutlich im Jahre 1790, daß der aus einer alten steirischen Familie stammende konzessionierte Buchhändler Josef Andreas Kienreich die Bruckmayersche Buchhandlung in Graz erwarb. Bereits zwei Jahre später soll die Kienreichsche Buchhandlung eine ziemliche Ausdehnung gehabt haben. Nach einem zeitgenössischen Zeugnis soll er schon manches aus dem ökonomischen, medizinischen und auch belletristischen Fach verlegt haben. Das älteste erhaltene Werk des Kienreichschen Verlags ist das anonym erschienene Buch Der vollkommene Weinwirth, nur eines von einer ganzen Reihe von Anleitungsbüchern, auf die sich Kienreich spezialisierte. Andere Schwerpunkte waren pädagogische Literatur, Kinderbücher, wissenschaftliche Werke, Werke landwirtschaftlichen, gewerblichen und technischen Inhalts, Kalender, Gebetbücher sowie Nachdrucke von Dichtungen und Romanen. Ein 1830 ausgegebenes Verzeichnis derjenigen Bücher, welche bei Jos. Andreas Kienreich, Buchhändler in Grätz, verlegt oder in Menge zu haben sind, verzeichnete nicht weniger als 629 Bücher verschiedenen Inhalts und 232 Theaterstücke. Der Gründer des Hauses dürfte auch um das Jahr 1830 gestorben sein. Das Geschäft ging auf seinen Sohn Josef Johann Kienreich über, und die Firma Joh. Andreas Kienreich wurde im Jahre 1831 in Graz protokolliert. Kienreich betrieb auch eine eigene Druckerei und hatte einträgliche Drucksortenaufträge, die allerdings 1869 durch die vom Katholischen Preßverein für Steiermark errichtete Vereinsdruckerei (s. Styria-Verlag), an die Kienreich die Druckarbeiten für das bischöfliche Ordinariat abgeben mußte, übernommen wurden. Kienreich sah sich daher veranlaßt, das Geschäft auf eine andere Grundlage zu stellen. Aus "Österreichische Verlagsgeschichte".

      [Bookseller: Franklin61]
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        PIECES FUGITIVES POUR SERVIR A L'HISTOIRE DE FRANCE.

      2 tomes en 3 volumes, Paris, Hugues-Daniel Chaubert et Claude Herissant,1759 ; 3 volumes in-4 (26 x 20,5), plein veau blond moucheté de l'époque, dos à nerfs ornés, pièces de titre et de tomaisons, tranches rouges, frises sur les coupes. Premier volume TOME I: table manuscrite sur page de garde, page de titre, viij, "Voyage de Gabriel de Luetz, seigneur d'Aramon, à Constantinople, en Perse, en Egypte et en Palestine". bandeau et cul de lampe, 236 pages, "Histoire des guerres du Comté Venaissin, de Provence, de Languedoc etc., par L. de Perussis", bandeau et cul de lampe, 384 pages, " Voyage de Charles IX en France, écrit par Abel Jouan. Itinéraire des rois de France de Louis VII à Louis XIV", bandeau et cul de lampe, 165 pages, second volume TOME I, partie seconde: page de titre, iii, "EXPLOITS de Mathieu Merle, baron de Salavas", bandeau et cul de lampe, 20 pages, "Voyage de l'amiral de Joyeuse en Gevaudan", bandeau et cul de lampe, 16 pages, "MEMOIRES sur les guerres civiles du HAUT VIVARAIS", bandeau et cul de lampe, 56 pages, "Histoire de la guerre civile en Languedoc", bandeau et cul de lampe, 56 pages, "JUGEMENTS sur la Noblesse de Languedoc Par M. DE BESONS", bandeau et cul de lampe, 352 pages, "MELANGES. CHARTES. TITRES", bandeau et cul de lampe, 144 pages, troisième volume TOME II: page de titre, bandeau et cul de lampe, "Histoire des deux sièges de Sommières, par Etienne Giry", 24 pages, "journal de Charbonneau sur les guerres de Beziers", bandeau et cul de lampe, 32 pages, " SIEGE DE SARLAT", bandeau et cul de lampe, 40 pages, " memoires du Duc d'Angouleme sous Henri IV. en 1589", bandeau et cul de lampe, 68 pages, "MEMOIRES DU BARON D'AMBRES:guerres de la ligue en Languedoc", bandeau et cul de lampe, 56 pages, "JOURNAL DE FAURIN sur les guerres de Castres", bandeau et cul de lampe, 72 pages, "Commentaires de Louis Freton, Seigneur de Servas", bandeau et cul de lampe, 48 pages, "Mémoires de Vignolles: affaires de Guienne", bandeau et cul de lampe, 24 pages, "HISTOIRE de la guerre de Guienne par BALTAZAR", bandeau et cul de lampe, 60 pages, "JUGEMENTS sur la Noblesse de Languedoc", et "mélanges: LYON...bandeau et cul de lampe, 214 pages. Reliures solides avec légers accrocs, manquent pièces de tomaison, coins et coupes émoussés, ensemble de textes fort rares, bien complet.(photos sur demande)

      [Bookseller: Betan - Livres anciens]
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        The Theory of Moral Sentiments.

      London: for A. Millar, and A. Kincaid and J. Bell, in Edinburgh,, 1759. Octavo (201 × 122 mm). Contemporary sprinkled calf, neatly rebacked, morocco label renewed. Complete with the half-title, with the errata on final leaf. Pp. 317-336 omitted from the pagination, as issued. Pages 139-40 with tear to the gutter neatly repaired; paper lightly toned, some spotting and soiling, a few leaves with offset; withal a very good copy. First edition, published in April 1759 with a recorded "print run of 1,000 copies" (Sher, Early Editions of Adam's Smith's Books, 13). Smith's first book and his later Wealth of Nations demonstrate "a great unifying principle? Smith's ethics and his economics are integrated by the same principle of self-command, or self-reliance, which manifests itself in economics in laissez faire" (Spiegel). Smith's famous phrase is first used here that would be repeated in the later work: that self-seeking men are often "led by an invisible hand? without knowing it, without intending it, to advance the interest of the society" (Part IV, Chapter 1). "The fruit of his Glasgow years? The Theory of Moral Sentiments would be enough to assure the author a respected place among Scottish moral philosophers, and Smith himself ranked it above the Wealth of Nations?. Its central idea is the concept, closely related to conscience, of the impartial spectator who helps man to distinguish right from wrong. For the same purpose, Immanuel Kant invented the categorical imperative and Sigmund Freud the superego" (Niehans, 62).

      [Bookseller: Peter Harrington]
 33.   Check availability:     Biblio     Link/Print  


        Diurnale Concionatorium Id Est Conceptus Prædicabiles In singulos dies, seu pro qualibet Dominica Septem.

      Sacræ Scripturæ testimoniis, selectis Patrum aliorumque Authorum sententiis collecti, Bina aut trina divisione, elucidati, In formam Concionatoriam modernam redacti, & Stylô brevi, simplici & ad captum idoneo propositi a Francisco Xaverio Dornn, Serenissimi Electoris Bavariæ Consiliario Ecclesia-stico, Not. Apost. & Prædicatore Ordinarie in Fridberg. Editio Tertia. Pars Vernalis. Cum Gratia, & Privil. S. C. M. speciali, & Perm. Sup. Augustæ Vindelicorum, Sumptibus Joannis Baptistæ Burckart, propè Weinstadl. Anno 1759. ZUSTAND: Seiten nachgedunkelt, mit Stempel auf dem Titelblatt. Handschriftliche Notizen mit Bleistift im Vorsatz, darüber hinaus ein kleines Besitzeretikett V. Conventus PP. Franciscanorum Vaciensium auf dem Innendeckel. Ledereinband der damaligen Zeit mit den typischen Altersspuren.

      [Bookseller: Anpamaho Bücherland]
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        The Description and Use, of the Universal Planispheres; or terrestrial and celestial globes in plano.

      W. Owen, at Homer?s-Head, near Temple-Bar, Fleet Street,, London, 1759 - The universal planisphere 8vo (230 by 140mm), licence fleet, title, five large fold-out plates, original quarter calf over blue paper boards, rubbed and scuffed. Samuel Dunn's rare work on his invention, the universal planispheres.Samuel Dunn (d.1794) was a British mathematician and astronomer, and was at the forefront of developments in navigation and cartography over the eighteenth century. He was an authorised signatory for ship's masters' certificates, a consultant to the East India Company, and had instruments and publications accepted by the Board of Longitude.The 'Universal Planispheres' was published after he had become master of an academy in Chelsea which specialised in "navigation and commerce". Dunn produced a pamphlet on the subject in 1757, and expanded on it and reissued it as this work. The book provided "an economical method of teaching spherical geometry without the expense of purchasing actual globes". The work contains several planispheres - two dimensional maps of the terrestrial and celestial globes on what he called a 'stereographic' projection, mimicking the visual and mathematical properties of globes. There are two celestial and two terrestrial plates, with an eastern and western hemisphere of each. The planispheres are accompanied by a "slider", which would be used on a planisphere in order to make calculations. Dunn was passionate about navigational education, and his work is an example of the fever gripping Britain as the longitude race continued. He was a proponent of the use of magnetic variation in order to ascertain longitude at sea, and he is mentioned several times in the minutes of the Board of Longitude between 1765 to 1772 (now housed at Cambridge University). Both the eastern and western planispheres within the present work contain the lines of magnetic variation, and on pages 152 and 153, Dunn deals with the problems of solving longitude at sea using magnet variation.Dunn's book is rarely offered as a complete work, and the plates have often been extracted. There are two institutional copies in the British Library and Bibliotheque Nationale. The Bodleian holds a copy of the 1757 pamphlet; there may also be a copy in the Yale Map Collection.

      [Bookseller: Daniel Crouch Rare Books LLP]
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        Histoire de l'Empire de Russie sous Pierre Le Grand

      S.n. 1759 - - S.n., S.l.[ Geneve] 1759 - 1763, In-8 (12x20cm), XXXIX 302pp. et (2) XVI, 318pp., relié. - Edition originale, rare, avec le premier volume parue en 1759 et le second à la date de 1763 (voir Cioranescu 64221). Elle est illustrée d'un frontispice, d'une vignette de titre répétée à la page de titre du second volume, et de 2 cartes dépliantes et rehaussées de couleurs. Reliures du XXe en pleine basane blonde marbrée. Très beau pastiche d'une reliure d'époque. Pièces de titre de veau rouge, pièces de tomaison de veau blond. Triple filet d'encadrement sur les plats. Très bel exemplaire, relativement frais. Dans sa préface de 1829 de l'édition Garnier de 1878, Beuchot raconte plusieurs faits intéressants : après avoir publié l'Histoire de Charles XII, Voltaire pensait devenir l'historiographe de Pierre 1er, le rival du roi de Suède. C'est à la suite de la publication des Anecdotes sur Pierre Le Grand en 1748 que le comte Schouvaloff engage Voltaire à écrire une histoire de Pierre le Grand. Bien que date de publication soit 1759, l'ouvrage fut mis en vente l'année suivante, Voltaire attendant l'autorisation de la cour de Petersbourg. Le livre commence par une description de la Russie et se poursuit par l'histoire de Pierre 1er. On trouve différentes études intéressantes dans le second tome qui ne parut qu'en 1763 : De la religion, des lois, du commerce avec la Chine, des voyages de Pierre le Grand en Perse. [AUTOMATIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION FOLLOWS] first edition, rare, with the first volume published in 1759 and the second at the date of 1763 (see Cioranescu 64221). It is illustrated with a frontispiece, a title thumbnail repeated the title of the second volume of page, and 2 folding cards and enhanced colors. Twentieth Binders in full sheepskin marbled blonde. Beautiful pastiche of contemporary binding. As pieces of red calf, volume number of pieces of golden calf. Very nice copy, relatively fine. XXXIX 302pp. et (2) XVI, 318pp. [Attributes: First Edition; Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: Librairie Le Feu Follet]
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        Raccolta di scritture relative alla tenuta delle Grotte in Catania unita al principato di Biscari dal 1452 al 1781

      178X. ] - in 4° grande - pp.cc 3b + 19 di indice alfabetico + 16 di indice cronologico + 4b + 356 - Pergamena molle coeva - Ottimo stato di conservazione - Titolo al dorso - Raccolta di circa 105 documenti raccolti in unico volume. I primi 90 rilegati, gli altri sciolti. Nelle prime carte sono presenti due indici, uno alfabetico e uno cronologico con elencato il contenuto della collezione. L'ultimo documento riportato nell'indice è del 1759. Gli altri fino al 1781 non sono censiti.Tre documenti sono del XV secolo, 11 del XVI , 22 del XVII secolo, i restanti del XVIII secolo.

      [Bookseller: Antica Libreria Srl]
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        Eloge de l enfer. Ouvrage critique, historique et moral. Tome premier (e Tome second)

      chez Pierre Gosse, La Haye 1759 - Legature coeve in piena pelle con nervi. Ricchi fregi, titoli e numerazione dei voll. in oro su doppio tassello al ds. Tagli rossi. Due curiosi timbretti di appartenenza a forma triangolare ai frontis. Splendido esemplare in ottimo stato di conservazione. Barbier II, 71; Caillet, 1021. 12mo (cm. 16), 2 Voll., 1 c.nn. (frontis.), VIII-X-265 pp. con 8 tavv. incise su rame f.t. (di cui una in antiporta); VI-353 pp. con 8 tavv. Frontespizi in rosso e nero con graziose vignette di G. Sibelius. [Attributes: Hard Cover]

      [Bookseller: Libreria Ex Libris ALAI-ILAB/LILA member]
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