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        Pandectarum, seu Digestum iuris civilis, quibus iurisprudentia ex veteribus iureconsultis desumpta, libris L continetur; Tomus Primus quod Digestum Vetus vulgo appellant: cum Accursij Commentarijs, & doctissimorum virorum annotationibus. Omnia diligentissime purgata, & recognita. Accessit Rerum, et Verborum insignium Index locupletissimus.

      Bevilacqua 1569 Primo dei tre tomi del 'Digestum' col commento di Accursio, edito a Venezia da Francesco De Franceschi, Gaspare Bindoni il vecchio, Niccolò Bevilacqua (così a fine vol., ma: 'Bevilaqua' al front.) e Damiano Zennaro; i nomi dei quattro editori sono riassunti dalla grande marca tipografica composita al front. - nell'ordine: pace, occhio, pazienza e salamandra - e dalle iniziali ad essa sottoscritte; "Index materiarum" di Egidio Perrino. Ponderoso vol. in 4o di pp. (176), 1509, (3), leg. coeva in p. perg. con nervi a vista e tit. anticamente ms. al d., contropiatti foderati con carte mss. a tre colori, marca tip. xilografata al front., 2 tavv. incise, ripiegate, raffiguranti rispettivamente "Arbor Iurisdictionum" e "Arbor servitutum"; t. in r/n. Mancanze al d. e ai piatti, ma legatura solida; prima c.b. parzialmente attaccata al ms. del contropiatto ant. e ultima attaccata alla prec., senza perdita di t.; foro di tarlo all'ang. inf. est., da c. L7 (p. 541) a QQ2 (p. 1348), solo nelle ultime 30 cc. più esteso e solamente in due casi (pp. 1304 e 1318) con minima e trascurabile lesione della nota a marg.; foro da bruciatura di 14 mm, con leggera perdita di t., alla c. S8 (pp. 655-6); lieve alone di umidità al marg. sup. dell'intero vol. e, occasionalmente, sugli altri margini; nella seconda parte del vol. gora d'acqua, sempre al marg. sup., a tratti piuttosto marcata. Qualche mancanza ai margini del front.; ultime quattro cc. in condizioni peggiori, con pieghe e mancanze in prossimità della cucitura, ma assolutamente integre nel t. Es. completo ed interamente orig. di ed. piuttosto rara, in stato di conservazione complessivo più che discreto e arricchito dai fogli manoscritti ai contropiatti.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Quae Exstant]
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        HISTORIA FRUMENTORUM, LEGUMINUM, PALUSTRIUM ET AQUATILIUM HERBARUM, AC EORUM, QUAE EO PERTINENT...

      Cm. 17x11, p. pergam. molle coeva, tit. ms. al dorso, 293 pp.num., 5 cc.nn. (Indici), marca tipografica silograf. al frontesp., molto ben illustr. da 88 figure di piante, a p. pag. nel t. Seconda edizione (la I è del 1566). Cfr. Adams,I, p. 360 - Durling,1177 - Pritzel,2346. L?olandese Rembert Dodoens, più noto come Dodonaeus (1517-85), che fu medico di Massimiliano II e del figlio Rodolfo II, non si occupò esclusivamente di medicina ma anche di letteratura e di matematica; ebbe soprattutto grandi conoscenze nel campo della botanica e la sua fama fu di livello internazionale. Così Biographie Médicale,III, p. 498-499. Con aloni e lievi uniformi arross., ma certamente un buon esemplare.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Malavasi]
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        Fiorenza (Firenze).

      Venezia, Bolognino Zaltieri, 1569. Incisione in rame all'acquaforte, b/n, cm 21,3 x 29. Veduta a volo d'uccello della citt? tratta dal "De' disegni delle pi? illustri citt? et fortezze del mondo", edita da Bolognino Zaltieri nel 1569, opera realizzata sulla scia de "Il Primo Libro delle Citt? et Fortezze Principali del Mondo" del Forlani (1567) e de "Il Civitatum Aliquot insigniorum et locorum.." del Bertelli (1568). L'opera ? costituita da cinquanta vedute e da una carta geografica, e rappresenta il primo tentativo, nell'ambito dell'editoria italiana, della realizzazione di un insieme delle principali fortezze e citt? del mondo. A differenza dei suoi predecessori, dei quali utilizza spesso i rami e le iconografie (e quindi pur risultando il suo lavoro una ristampa delle lastre del Forlani e di Domenico Zenoi) il Ballino concepisce un'opera unitaria corredata di testo descrittivo e di indice e della quale, per la prima volta, si ha perci? la conoscenza dell'esatto numero di tavole che la compongono. In realt? poi, la veduta di Firenze ? pi? grande per dimensioni rispetto alle precedenti inserite nei lavori di Forlani e Bertelli, e quindi non risulta essere una ristampa di queste; tuttavia la correzione nel titolo (alla L di Florencia, di cui restano tracce, si sostituisce qui la I di Fiorenza) lascia supporre che si tratti comunque di una ristampa da una lastra realizzata in precedenza. In ogni caso l'incisione del Ballino ? resa riconoscibile rispetto a quelle dello Zenoi e del Bertelli per la presenza del testo al verso, peraltro in un volgare gi? molto italianizzato. Monogrammata in lastra in basso al centro ITC. Bell'esemplare in ampi margini, in bella impressione e in ottimo stato di conservazione. (Cfr. Cremonini pp. 10, 11; Valerio, pp. 46, 47).

      [Bookseller: Botteghina D'arte Galleria K?s]
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        Fiorenza [Firenze]

      Inc. su rame mm.210x287 alla battuta, foglio di mm. 260x375. Veduta prospettica presa da Monte Oliveto con 60 richiami al marg. inf. su sei colonne, in alto a sin. l'arma medicea e a destra il giglio fiorentino, tratta dal volume di M. Giulio Ballino "De' disegni delle più illustri città et fortezze del mondo. Parte I, la quale ne contiene cinquanta....", Venezia, Zaltieri, 1569. Bell'es., al verso antica annotazione. (Mori-Boffito, p.35)

      [Bookseller: Libros con Historia]
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        COMOEDIAE OMNES. Cum absolutis commentariis Aelii Donati, Guidonis Iuvenalis, Petri Marsi in omnes fabulas, Ioannis Calphurnii in Heautontimorumenon....

      In-4 p., p. pergam. antica (piccoli restauri al dorso), 10 cc.nn., 380 pp.num., con marca tipograf. al frontesp. e al fine, ornato da fregi, grandi capilett. e con 12 piccole vignette, due per ciascuna delle sei commedie (Andria - Eunuchus - Heautontimorumenos - Adelphi - Hecyra - Phormio). "Accedunt Antonii Goveani Epistola ad Guillelmum Bellaium.. Bartolomaei Latomi in singulas scenas argumenta.. Henrici Loriti in carmina Terentii per omnes eius comoedias..". Cfr. Adams,II,363 - The British Library, p. 664. Esemplare con antico restauro al marg. inf. bianco del frontesp.; piccolo foro che intacca alc. lettere alla pag. 226; qualche lieve uniforme arross. ma complessivam. ben conservato.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Malavasi]
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        ARTIS GYMNASTICAE APUD ANTIQUOS CELEBERRIMAE, NOSTRIS TEMPORIBUS IGNORATAE, LIBRI SEX.

      In-8 p. (mm. 215 x 155), p. pergam. molle antica con legacci (risg. rifatti), tit. ms. al dorso, 19 cc.nn., 1 c.b., 120 cc.num., testo in caratteri rotondi, 2 marche tipografiche differenti, una al frontesp. e una al verso dell?ultima carta; ornato da eleganti capilett., tutti silografati; con 1 tav. f.t., più volte ripieg., che rappresenta la pianta di una palestra, secondo Vitruvio. Introdotta da un "Carmen" di Lorenzo Gambara e da un Indice analitico, l?opera descrive le diverse applicazioni (ai sani, agli infermi, ai giovani e ai vecchi) della ginnastica medica, atletica e bellica, considerata uno dei mezzi più idonei al miglioramento dell?organismo. "Prima edizione", dedicata dall?A. al Cardinale Alessandro Farnese. Cfr. Camerini ?Annali dei Giunti?,II,723: ?Questa edizione, con aggiunte e altre illustrazioni, avrà numerose ristampe? - Cicognara,1711 - Brunet,III,1646 - Choix de Olschki,I,1672. Frontesp. e prime 10 cc. con lieve alone; uniformi lievi arross. e restauri per picc. fori di tarlo margin., interc. nel testo, ma complessivam. esempl. ben conservato. "Il forlivese Girolamo Mercuriale (1530-1606) fu prof. di medicina alle università di Padova, Bologna e poi Pisa. Portò il suo contributo in diversi campi della medicina (epidemiologia, igiene, terapeutica, tossicologia, pediatria, oculistica, ecc.), soprattutto in quello della critica storico-medica, traducendo in latino, dai migliori codici, le opere di autori greci, specialmente di Ippocrate. Si giovò della sua vasta erudizione per compilare il suo massimo lavoro ?De Arte gymnastica?". Così Encicl. Treccani,XXII, p. 891.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Malavasi]
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        Four large wall-maps representing the four continents: America on 12 sheets; Africa on 8 sheets; Asia on 8 sheets; Europe on 12 Sheets

      Venice: Stefano Scolari,, 1569. THE MOST IMPORTANT WALL MAPS OF THE FOUR CONTINENTS, PRODUCED BY THE GREATEST ITALIAN MAPMAKER Each with framed dimensions: 665/8" x 517/8" References: R. W. Karrow, Mapmakers of the Sixteenth Century and Their Maps: Bio-Bibliographies of the Cartographers of Abraham Ortelius, 1570 (Chicago, 1993), 216-249; Philip D. Burden, The Mapping of North America (Rickmansworth, 1996), 45-49; D. W. Sims, Giacomo Gastaldi and the Four Continents (Brooklyn, 2003). The four large-scale maps by Gastaldi are unique and remain unrivaled by any set of wall maps available today in terms of quality and importance. The maps saw a development through three different states as successive publishers added the latest information to them. State one, dating from ca. 1569, is thought to have been published by Giovanni Francesco Camocio. In approximately 1588, Donato Bertelli also published the plates, with some changes to the map of America in order to correct errors made by Gastaldi's assistants after his death (such errors mostly had to do with the assembly of the printed sheets). The second state of Gastaldi's maps appeared circa 1655, now enlarged with additional copperplate sheets. This edition was published by Stefano Scolari, who made minor nomenclature additions. On the New World map the title "America" was added, as were the names "California," "Nova Granada" and "Estotiland." Scolari was also responsible for another printing of Gastaldi's maps approximately seven years later, circa 1662. For this third state, the publisher once again updated the maps and included the new names of "Stretto D'Anian," "Nova Albion," "Novo Amsterdan" and "Stretum Davis." The south coast of Greenland was also added and Tierra del Fuego was shown as an island. Gastaldi's maps not only represented the most accurate information available but are also remarkable for their exquisite engraving. Each was produced on eight or twelve separate sheets that were then joined, creating a single cohesive map with extensive written annotations and decorative elements, including fleets of sailing ships. Most maps created during this period were printed on one or two sheets. A very limited number of large wall maps, involving numerous plates to print a certain area, were produced by major cartographic houses. Those few that were produced were ostensibly used for ostentatious public display, and the surviving number is exceedingly scarce. These wall maps were mounted on canvas and exposed to light, dirt and other environmental factors. That not only one individual wall map, but indeed an entire set of four, has survived from this period is partially due to the constant esteem in which they (and their author) have been held since the time of their production, and partly due to sheer good fortune. Indeed, the number of wall maps by Gastaldi still in existence is extremely small.. Third State. Book.

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        Rettung Der wolgegründten ursachen des abtrettens von den Secten, zu der alten wahren, recht Evangelischen Catholischen Kirchen: Darinn ... grundlich erkläret wird, zu was Religion sich ein frommer Christ, ... entlich halten soll. Auff ein Buch des verschinen Jars zu Tubingen in Truck außgangen. Allen Hohes und Niders Standts personen, sonderlich aber den Lutherischen zu lesen sehr nützlich

      (München, Adam Berg) 1569.. kl.-4°. 222 (1) Bll. Tit. in Rot u. Schwarz. Ldr. d. Zt. über Holzdeckdel. Mit reicher Blindprägung v. Rollenstempel a. beiden Deckeln. Tit. u. Schlußbl. gestemp. VD16 B 1745 - Reformatorisches, frühes Werk zum Sektenbegriff und zu mittelalterlichen Sekten. Michael Bentz (-1578). Zu Adam Berg s. Benzing 109.

      [Bookseller: Antiquariat Burgverlag]
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        BIBLIA SACRA. Ad vetustissima exemplaria castigata, necnon figuris & chorographicis descriptionibus illustrata.

      In folio (mm. 393x245), p. pergam. coeva, dorso a cordoni con tit. ms., tagli rossi, 6 cc.nn., 394 cc.num., 65 cc.nn.: ?accesserunt praetereà, Hebraicorum, Chaldaeorum & Graecorum nominum interpretationes, cum Indicibus copiosissimis? (manca 1 carta bianca prima dell?Index Rerum et Sententiarum..). A cura di Jean Henten. Il vol. è ornato da una marca tipografica al frontesp. (entro cornice figurata, aquila con gli artigli su una sfera e in basso due serpenti con le code attorcigliate), da belle testate, finali, fregi e grandi capilettera, ed è molto ben illustrato nel t. da centinaia di pregevoli vignette, su disegno di Pierre Eskrich (4 sono a p. pag.), con 4 carte geografiche f.t., tutto inc. su legno. Cfr. Adams,I,B-1078 - Graesse,I,395 cita varie ediz. stampate dall?editore Rovillium (a partire dalla prima del 1562) ma non la ns. Con qualche lieve uniforme arross.; aloni interc. nel t.; ultime 30 cc. di Indice restaur. per picc. manc. margin., ma complessivam. buon esemplare.

      [Bookseller: Libreria Antiquaria Malavasi]
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        La nobilta' della citta' di como descritta... con la tavola delle cose notabili. in vinetia, appresso giolito di ferrarii, 1569.

      Cm. 20, pp. (28) 158 (2). Frontespizio con testata e grande marchio giolitino, bei capolettera istoriati e decorazioni xilografiche nel testo ed una figura al verso dell'ultima carta. Legatura coeva in pergamena semirigida (anticamente rimontata?), qualche macchietta al piatto anteriore, una minuscola striscia di carta rimossa alla parte bassa del frontespizio ed un timbro verosimilmente celato al verso del frontespizio. Esemplare peraltro genuino e ben conservato. Rara edizione originale. Cfr. Bongi II, 286.

      [Bookseller: Studio Bibliografico Benacense]
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        "historia dell'origine di tutte le religioni, che sin'ad hora sono state al mondo, con gli autori di quelle, and che in provincia, and sotto qual imperatore, and papa; and in che tempo hebbero i loro principij. con l'origine ancora delle religioni militari.. " in venetia, appresso pietro da fino (giovanni griffio), 1569.

      In-8° (155x105mm), ff. (8), 216, legatura coeva p. pergamena con unghie e titolo calligrafato in antico al dorso. Altro titolo calligrafato su tassello cartaceo. Al frontespizio, impresa editoriale incisa su legno con un gallo ad ali spiegate su un globo poggiato a sua volta su un libro chiuso, il tutto entro cornice figurata con motto ""Tota nocte excubo"". Ritratto xilografico dell'autore a pag. intera al verso del frontespizio. Dedica a stampa di Pietro da Fino al Vescovo di Torcello, Giovanni Delfino. Alcuni capilettera animati incisi su legno su fondo nero. Indice preliminare. Qualche lieve brunitura interna, aloni alla pergamena. Firma di possesso cinquecentesca o secentesca al margine inferiore del titolo (""Hier.[oni]mi Michaëly""). Timbro di estinta biblioteca. Bell'esemplare nel complesso. Prima edizione, rara, impressa in realtà da Giovanni Griffio e registrata dal Rhodes fra le opere dei ""Silent Printers"" della Venezia rinascimentale, di questa pionieristica storia comparata delle religioni nelle varie parti del mondo, dall'antichità al Rinascimento. Il volume discorre anche, fra le molte cose, dell'Ordine di Malta, dei Templari, della presenza evangelizzatrice in Etiopia, in India, ecc. Il Morigia, o Morigi (Milano, 1525-ivi, 1604), sacerdote gesuita, fu illustre storico della propria città, con occhio attentissimo alle vicende artistiche, alla storia ecclesiastica, all'araldica e alla genealogia. STC Italian, p. 449. EDIT16 CNCE 25287. Rhodes, Silent Printers, Anonymous Printing at Venice in the sixteenth century, p. 178. Manca all'Adams, che, M-1788 e M-1789, ha solo le ristampe veneziane del 1586 e 1590.

      [Bookseller: Studio Bibliografico Benacense]
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        Biblia, Ad vetustissima exemplaria castigata.

      Christopher Plantin, Antwerpen 1569. 8°. (16)+606 (303 leaves)+(1)+(blank)+517+(1)+(blank)+148 (74 leaves) pages. Woodcut printer's device and woodcut border on titlepage. Contemporary binding of dark brown calf with simple gilt ornamentation on spine and boards . All edges gilt. With 2 clasps with brass hinges. Later red titel-label on spine. Upper spine-end defective. Some soiling to some pages. Old names on title-page. Later inscriptions on front endpaper.. Preface by Johannes Henten

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        Fiorenza [Firenze]

      Inc. su rame mm.210x287 alla battuta, foglio di mm. 260x375. Veduta prospettica presa da Monte Oliveto con 60 richiami al marg. inf. su sei colonne, in alto a sin. l'arma medicea e a destra il giglio fiorentino, tratta dal volume di M. Giulio Ballino "De' disegni delle più illustri città et fortezze del mondo. Parte I, la quale ne contiene cinquanta....", Venezia, Zaltieri, 1569. Bell'es., al verso antica annotazione. (Mori-Boffito, p.35)

      [Bookseller: Taberna Libraria]
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        Adversus mathematicos, Hoc est, adversus eos qui profitentur disciplinas, Opus eruditissimum, complectens universam Pyrrhoniorum auctissimorum Philosophorum disputandi de quibuslibet disciplinis & artibus rationem, Graecè nunquam, Latinè nunc primùm editum, Gentiano Herveto Aurelio interprete. Eiusdem Sexti Pyrrhoniarum hypotyposeon (Greek) libri tres: Quibus in tres Philosophiae partes Severissimè inquiritur ... Interprete Henrico Stephano. Accessit & Pyrrhonis vita, ex Diogene Laertio ... Item, Claudii Galeni Pergameni contra Academicos & Pyrrhonios, D. Erasmo Roterodamo interprete.

      Anwerpen, Plantin, 1569 [Paris, Martin Le Jeune, 1569 on Colophon]. Small folio. 19th century marbled paper boards. Gilt leather title-label to spine. Wear to extremities and inner front hinge a bit weak. Light dampstain to top and inner margin of first leaves. First two leaves strengthened at inner margin. Small needle-holes to inner margin throughout, from previous stitching/binding. Light scattered brownspotting. A bit of soiling and old owner's name to title-page. Woodcut printer's device to title-page (Plantin), and to the "title-page" (pagination continues through it) of the "Pyrrhoniarum Hypotyroseon" as well as the colophon and the end of the Index (all three Martin Le Jeune); woodcut vignettes and initials at beginning. (8), 583, (1), (30, - Index) pp. Housed in a custom-made dark greu cloth box with gilt leather titles to spine.. The seminal first edition of the work that came to determine the course of much modern thought, one of the single most important printings in the history of Western thought, namely the first edition of the collected works of Sextus Empiricus, being leading French Catholic Humanist Gentian Hervet's Sextus Empiricus-edition, which consists mainly in the very first appearance in print of Sextus' hugely influential main work "Adversos Mathematicus" (pp. 1-398), together with the second edition of the "Hypotyposes" (pp. (399)-542) (first edition of the Hyp.: Estienne, 1562, which did not contain any other of Sextus' writings). The two 16th century editions of Sextus' works came to inaugurate a new era in the history of Western thought, and caused Sextus to be viewed as "the father of modern philosophy", profoundly influencing the thought of Bruno, Montaigne, Descartes, and many other pivotal thinkers of the modern era. Between the two editions, Hervet's complete 1569 one, with the "Adversos Mathematicus" for the first time, is by far the most important, determining the influence of scepticism on modern thought."No discovery of the Renaissance remains livelier in modern philosophy than scepticism". (Copenhaver & Schmitt, p. 338). "The revived skepticism of Sextus Empiricus was the strongest single agent of disbelief". (ibid., p. 346). "As the only Greek Pyrrhonian sceptic whose works survived, he came to have a dramatic role in the formation of modern thought. The historical accident of the rediscovery of his works at precisely the moment when the skeptical problem of the criterion had been raised gave the ideas of Sextus a sudden and greater prominence than they had ever before or were ever to have again. Thus, Sextus, a recently discovered oddity, metamorphosed into "le divin Sexte", who, by the end of the seventeenth century, was regarded as the father of modern philosophy. Moreover, in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the effect of his thoughts upon the problem of the criterion stimulated a quest for certainty that gave rise to the new rationalism of René Descartes and the "constructive skepticism" of Pierre Gassendi and Martin Mersenne." (Popkin, p. 18)."The printing of Sextus in the 1560s opened a new era in the history of scepticism, which had begun in the late fourth century BCE with the teachings of Pyrrho of Elis. [...] Before the Estienne and Hervet editions, Sextus seems to have had only two serious students, Gianfrancesco Pico at the turn of the century and Francesco Robortello about fifty years later." (Copenhaver & Schmitt, pp. 240-41). Our knowledge of ancient scepticism comes from Sextus, which is introduced to the Renaissance with the first printings of his works in 1562 and 1569, Hervet's 1569-edition being by far the most important, not only due to the fact that it is here that Sextus' main work, "Adversus Mathematicos" appears for the first time, but also due to the influence that Hervet, his interpretation, and his preface came to exercise on the use of skepticism throughout more than a century. "The revival of ancient philosophy was particularly dramatic in the case of scepticism. This critical and anti-dogmatic way of thinking was quite important in Antiquity, but in the Middle Ages its influence faded [...] when the works of Sextus and Diogenes were recovered and read alongside texts as familiar as Cicero's "Academia", a new energy stirred in philosophy; by Montaigne's time, scepticism was powerful enough to become a major force in the Renaissance heritage prepared for Descartes and his successors." (Copenhaver & Schmitt, pp. 17-18). Hervet's seminal Sextus-edition was was printed in Paris by bookseller Martin Le Jeune, but part of the edition was taken up by Christopher Plantin and issued in Antwerp under his imprint, explaining the two different imprints of our copy. "The first printed edition was by Henri Estienne (Stephanus) in 1562 of Sextus' "Hypotyposes". A second printed Latin edition of the "Hypotyposes" plus "Adversus Mathematicos" appeared in 1569. The text of the "Hypotyposes is that of Estienne, the translation of "Adversus Methematicos" was done by French counter-reformer and theologian, Gentian Hervet, from a manuscript that belonged at the time to the Cardinal of Lorraine. The Greek text was not published until 1621 by the Chouet brothers." (Popkin, p. 18)."Gentian Hervet (d. 1584) was a committed churchman, who after studies in the universities of Orleans and Paris lived in the household of Reginald Pole, later to became Archbishop of Canterbury and Cardinal, at first in England then - as Pole had, because of the Reformation, to leave England - in Padua, Venice and Rome. Hervet took part with Marcello Cervini (later Pope Marcellus II) in the first sessions of the Council of Trent. He returned to France in 1555 as vicar general to the bishop of Noyon and wrote pamphlets against the Huguenots. In 1561 he entered the service of the Cardinal of Lorraine, Charles de Guise, whom he accompanied to the third period of the Council of Trent (1562-3). In 1564 he took part as canon of the cathedral in the provincial council of Rheims, in which the cardinal published the decrees of the Council of Trent. About the time of his activity in the Council of Trent the focal point of Hervet's translations shifted. He translated not only the Greek Fathers of the Church, but in addition, under the influence of academic scepticism as represented also by Reginal Pole, Sextus Emopiricus' "Adversus Mathematicos" (Paris, 1569). He had long been active as translator of works connected with the Aristotelian philosophy. During an earlier sojurn in Rome, he published a number of philosophical texts which concerned the controversies surrounding Pietro Pomponazzi. In 1544 he translated into Latin Aristotle's "De anima", together with the commentary of Johannes Philoponus. There followed translations of Alexander of Aphrodisias's "De fato" (1544) and "Quaestiones naturales et morales" (1548) and of Zacharias Scholasticus's "Ammonius: Dialogus quod mundus non sit Deo coaeternus" (1546). In these works Hervet described those who denied the immortality of the soul as atheists and as opponents of Aristotle and his commentators." (Lohr, p. 36). Hervet's religious outlook came to be determinative for the use of scepticism throughout the following century. He not only gave to the modern world the writings of Sextus, and the only proper knowledge we have of ancient scepticism, he also outlined its importance and usage. During the 1560'ies, Hervet fought intellectually against the encroachments of Calvinism, challenging various Protestants to debate with him and publishing many pamphlets against their views. He saw Sextus' work as ideal for demolishing this new form of heretical dogmatism, that of the Reformer. If nothing can be known, he insisted, Calvinism cannot be known either.In the mid-sixteenth century, the Calvinist movement in France grew very rapidly, and within a few years, France was embroiled in a civil war, both militarily and intellectually. "In order to save the citadels of French thought from falling into the hands of the Reformers, strong measures had to be taken. One of these measures was to put Pyrrhonism to work in the service of the Church. The first step taken in this direction was the publication in 1569 of the writing of Sextus Empiricus in Latin by a leading French Catholic, Gentian Hervet, the secretary of the cardinal of Lorraine. As has been mentioned earlier, Hervet, in his preface, boldly wrote that in this treasury of doubts was to be found an answer to the Calvinists. They were trying to theorize about God. By destroying all human claims to rationality through skepticism, Hervet believed that the Calvinist contentions would be destroyed as well. Once one realized the vanity of man's attempts to understand, the fideistic message that God can only be known by faith, not by reason, would become clear. The avowed aim by Hervet, to employ Pyrrhonism to undermine the Calvinist theory, and then to advocate Catholicism on a fideistic basis, was to become the explicit or implicit view of many of the chief battlers against the Reformation, in France. By adapting the pattern of argument of the sceptics of the issue at hand, the Counter-Reformers constructed "a new machine of war" to reduce their opponents to "forlorn scepticism" in which they could be sure of nothing. (Popkin, p. 67)."In his dedicatory epistle [of the present work] to his employer, Hervet said that he had come across a manuscript of Sextus in the cardinal's library at a time when he was worn out from his Counter-Reform activities and his work on the Church Fathers. He took the manuscript to read as a divertissement while traveling. Then, he reported, when he had read it with unbelievable pleasure, he thought it was a most important work, since it showed that no human knowledge can resist the arguments that can be opposed to it. The only certainty we can have is in God's Revelation. In Sextus one finds many arguments against the pagans and heretics of the time, who try to measure things by reason and who do not understand because they do not believe. In Sextus one can find a fitting answer to the "nouveaux academiciens" and Calvinists. Scepticism, by controverting all human theories, will cure people from dogmatism, give them humility, and prepare them to accept the doctrine of Christ. This view of Pyrrhonism, by one of the leaders of French Catholicism, was to set the direction of one of its major influences on the next three-quarters of a century. Shortly after the publication of Sextus, however, one finds signs of it being read for philological reasons and as a source material about ancient philosophy. One such reader was Giordano Bruno, who discussed Pyrrhonism in some of his dialogues. [...]". (Popkin, p. 37).Thus, Hervet's Sextus-edition came to be determinative for late 16th and 17th century thought, not only being determinative for the fight against the Reformation, but also directly influencing some of the greatest thinkers of the era: Bruno, Montaigne, Descartes, and many, many others, both directly and indirectly. Montaigne's knowledge of Sextus stems primarily from Hervet's edition, which influenced him tremendously. "[h]e [Montaigne] also read the newer material provided by the Latin Sextus, which emerged only ten years before he began to write. Montaigne's most extensive presentation of scepticism is also his longest essay..." (Copenhaver & Schmitt, 252). "Montaigne, who covered the beams of his study with quotations from Sextus, had his motto - "Que sais-je?" - cast as a medal with the scales on the obverse, to remind him always of the mismeasure between God and mankind and of the need to keep doubting." (Copenhaver & Schmitt, p. 255)."[a]ncient Scepticism had a number of followers in the renaissance, especially in the sixteenth century, when the writings of Sextus became more widely known. [...] Scepticism in matters of religion is by no means incompatible with religious faith, as the example of Augustine may show; consequently this position had many more followers during the sixteenth century than is usually realized. The chief expression of this sceptical ethics is found in some of the essays of Montaigne, and in the writings of his pupil, Pierre Charon." (Kristeller, p. 36). Hervet's edition expresses true philosophical insight, and it was due to his understanding of the texts that Sextus came to exercise the influence that he did upon the coming century. "In contrast to Estienne's rather lighthearted promulgation of what was later called "that deadly Pyrrhonic poison", Gentian Hervet gave similar but more somber reasons for his edition in 1569. Hervet (1499-1584), secretary of the Cardinal of Lorraine and participant at part of the Council of Trent, linked his work on Sextus with what Gianfrancesco Pico had earlier done. He declared that "just how useful Sextus Empiricus' commentary can be in upholding dogmas of the Christian religion against outside philosophers, Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola has beautifully taught us in that book in which he upholds Christian philosophy against the dogmas of outside philosophers." (Popkin, p. 36)."This leads us to the problem of what, if any, relation there is between the revival of interest in the writings of Sextus Empiricus by Pico della Mirandola and the first Latin editions of the works of Sextus by Henri Estienne and Gentian Hervet. No mention is made of Gianfrancesco in Estienne's preface to the first of Sextus' works to be printed in 1562, and there is no clear indication that he knew of Pico's work. When the larger work against the mathematicians was published seven years later, however, the translator, Gentian Hervet, has the following to say in his preface: "Just how useful Sextus' Empiricus's commentary can be in upholding dogmas of the Christian religion against outside philosophers, Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola has beautifully taught us in that book in which he upholds Christian philosophy against the dogmas of outside philosophers."Here perhaps we have a clearer and more accurate evaluation of Pico and his endeavor than we have hitherto encountered. Hervet seems to be one of the few who realized precisely what Pico was getting at. He sees Gianfrancesco as one who has safeguarded the Christian religion against the onslaught of dogmatic philosophers. Hervet believed, as Pico did, that a sceptical attitude toward the various polemics among dogmatic schools of philosophy is the best safeguard for Christianity." (Schmitt, p. 169). "Since the Renaissance had to discover or rediscover the tools of philology and history needed for such detective work, the pioneering labours of obscure humanist scholars - Gentian Hervet, who translated sextus, or William Canter, who first published a Greek text of the "Eclogae" of Stobaeus - certainly deserve our memory and admiration. It was they who first edited, organized, translated, printed, and disseminated the philosophical remains of antiquity that succeeding centuries have come to take for granted. If Thales and his successors were the fathers of Western philosophy, the humanist scholars of the Renaissance were the midwives of its rebirth in a classical form." (Copenhaver & Schmitt, p. 18). Kristeller: "Renaissance Thought II. Papers on Humanism and the Arts", 1965.Popkin: "The History of Scepticism. From Savonarola to Bayle", 2003.Lohr: "Renaissance Latin translations on the Greek commentaries on Aristotle", in: "Humanism and Early Modern Philosophy", Edt. by Kraye and Stone, 2000.Schmitt: "Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola (1469-1533) and his critique of Aristotle", 1967.Copenhaver & Schmitt: "Renaissance Philosophy", 1992

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        M. Tulli Ciceronis orationum pars I, cum correctionibus Paulli Manutij.

      Venetiis, Aldus (Paulus Manutius), 1569. 703 + 1 blank p. Later half vellum with marbled boards and gilt lettering on spine. 15,5 X 10 cm. First 25 and last 100 pages dampstained. Very old underlinings and notes in the margin with ink. Old signature on the title page

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