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Lettres philosophiques Sur l'origine des - TOLAND, J - 1768. 
Londres 1768 - L'Ã©dition originale anglaise parue en 1704 Ã©tait rÃ©putÃ©e comme trÃ¨s rare au moment de cette traduction. L'ouvrage est composÃ© de cinq dissertations dont l'histoire du dogme de l'immortalitÃ© de l'Ã¢me chez les paÃ¯ens, une rÃ©futation du systÃ¨me de Spinoza et une preuve que le mouvement est essentiel Ã la matiÃ¨re. Petit in-8 - Londres - 1768 - plein veau de l'Ã©poque, dos frottÃ© - II, 267 pages - - - John Toland (30 novembre 1670 Ã Ardagh, Irlande - 11 mars 1722 Ã Londres, Grande-Bretagne) est un philosophe irlandais. Il fut la premiÃ¨re personne Ã Ãªtre qualifiÃ©e de freethinker (libre-penseur) par l'Ã©vÃªque Berkeley. Il Ã©crivit plus d'une centaine d'ouvrages dont le plus connu est le Christianisme sans mystÃ¨res (Christianity not Mysterious), publiÃ© en 1696. Il Ã©crivit Ã©galement les Lettres Ã Serena en 1704 et le Pantheisticon, publiÃ© en 1720, peu de temps avant sa mort. C'est dans cet ouvrage que le terme "panthÃ©isme" apparaÃ®t pour la premiÃ¨re fois. Il fit une traduction de l'ouvrage de Giordano Bruno Lo spaccio de la bestia trionfante, Ã©crit en 1584. Bien qu'il ait voulu Ã l'origine rÃ©futer Spinoza ses ouvrages de polÃ©mique dÃ©iste, mais presque matÃ©rialiste, ont Ã©tÃ© combattus par Leibniz, le rÃ©verend Clarke et Gordon Thomas. Il fonda en 1717 le Druid Order, le premier mouvement nÃ©o-druidique et fut le premier Grand Druide de cet ordre John Toland (30 November 1670 - 11 March 1722) was an Irish-born rationalist philosopher and freethinker, and occasional satirist, who wrote numerous books and pamphlets on political philosophy and philosophy of religion, which are early expressions of the philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment. Born in Ireland, he was educated at the universities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, Leiden and Oxford and was influenced by the philosophy of John Locke. Verry little is known of Toland's early life. He was born in Ardagh on the Inishowen Peninsula, a predominantly Catholic and Irish-speaking region in northwestern Ireland. His parents are unknown. He would later write that he had been baptised Janus Junius, a play on his name that recalled both the Roman two-faced god Janus and Junius Brutus, reputed founder of the Roman republic. According to his biographer Pierre des Maizeaux, he adopted the name John as a schoolboy with the encouragement of his school teacher. Having formally converted from Catholicism to Protestantism at the age of 16, Toland got a scholarship to study theology at the University of Glasgow. In 1690, at age 19, the University of Edinburgh conferred a master's degree on him. He then got a scholarship to spend two years studying at University of Leiden in Holland, and subsequently nearly two years at Oxford in England (1694-95). The Leiden scholarship had been provided by wealthy English Dissenters, who hoped Toland would go on to become a minister for Dissenters. In Toland's first book Christianity not Mysterious (1696), he argued that the divine revelation of the Bible contains no true mysteries; rather, all the dogmas of the faith can be understood and demonstrated by properly trained reason from natural principles. For this argument he was prosecuted by a grand jury in London. As he was a subject of the Kingdom of Ireland, members of the Parliament of Ireland proposed that he should be burnt at the stake, and in his absence three copies of the book were burnt by the public hangman in Dublin as the content was contrary to the core doctrines of the Church of Ireland. Toland bitterly compared the Protestant legislators to "Popish Inquisitors who performed that Execution on the Book, when they could not seize the Author, whom they had destined to the Flames". [Attributes: First Edition; Hard Cover]
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