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Manuscript Atlas - European Revolutions of 1848 - PONA, Julea - 1848. 
France, 1848. [France], 1848-1849. Petit Atlas GÃ©orgaphique. Manuscript atlas, hand drawn and hand coloured, by a young lady named Julea Pona, comprising 15 maps with manuscript border, an astrological diagram, an altitude chart of the world's highest mountains and notable rivers, and a manuscript title page. Text is in French. Signed to front endpaper by the author. 8vo. 34 pages. Navy blue cloth boards. Tear to one leaf at bottom margin, otherwise in very good condition, a pleasing volume. Contemporary to the European Revolutions of 1848, the geographical content herein largey reflects European boundaries which were established at the Congress of Vienna 1814-15 and the fall of Napoleon, while also also highlighting territorial changes resulting from the then current Revolutions. [With the Congress of Vienna, France lost all of its recent conquests, while Prussia, Austria and Russia made major territorial gains.] The maps pre-date the construction of the Suez Canal (1859-1869), the charting of Alaska (began in 1859), some highly significant polar explorations such as the discovery of the discovery of the Northwest Passage (1851), and the entire Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration (ca. 1895-1917). The volume begins with a visual illustration of geographical terminology, an altitude chart of the world's highest mountains and notable rivers, as well as, most appropriate for the time, a detailed astrological chart. A lovely presentation, the amateur geographer's work also illustrates what was known and what was yet unknown of the world some 165 years ago. The double hemisphere world map does not include Russian America, the Arctic or Antarctica, which were then uncharted. Alaska and the Aleutian Islands are not present, as the map pre-dates the start of exploration of the region by some twenty years. North and south polar regions are not delineated, but merely indicated with a circular outline. This map pre-dates the discovery of the discovery of the Northwest Passage in 1851 and every subsequent expedition to finally traverse it. It also pre-dates the entire Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration (ca. 1895-1917). The map of Russia (see above) shows its acquisition of parts of Poland, following the Congress of Vienna. [Russia also retained Finland which was conquered from Sweden in 1808, and Bessarabia which was taken from Turkey in 1812.] The historic Austrian Empire, officially proclaimed in 1804 in response to the coronation of Napoleon as the Emperor of the French, and at the time of Miss Pona's work being a State of the German Confederation, is drawn here with Transylvania (now part of Romania), Bohemia and Moravia (region now in the Czech Republic), Slavonia and Dalmatia (two of the four historical regions of modern-day Croatia), the Kingdom of Illyria on the Balkan Peninsula (part of modern-day Albania), the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (now part of Italy), and so forth. [From March 1848 through November 1849, the Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements, most of which were of a nationalist character. Both liberal and socialist currents resisted the empire's longstanding conservatism. Ultimately, the revolutions failed, partly because the individual groups had conflicting goals.] France is shown here when it was divided only into 86 departments including Corsica. A separate map shows France divided into 32 provinces, the former administrative system prior to the creation of departments. The provinces were abolished entirely in the years of the French Revolution. [The division of the country into departments was established on 4 March 1790. The number of departments, initially 83, was increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814-1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size; the number of departments was reduced to 86 (as seen here), as three of the original departments had been split. Twelve years after this map was drawn, in 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, creating of three new departments. Changes and expansion continued over the course of time. Today France is divided into 96 metropolitan departments and 5 overseas departments.] The map of Germany was made during the German Revolutions of 1848-1849 and delineates only the 17 states which formed the German Confederation and the Kingdom of Prussia, which remained in effect until which lasted, with some changes in the member states, until 24 August 1866, under the presidency of the Austrian imperial House of Habsburg. A general map of Europe extends from the Samoyed (Nenets) inhabited reaches of northern Russia (roughly at Indiga), to Aleppo in Syria which was then part of the Ottoman Empire. Continental maps include France; Great Britain; an uncoloured map of Sweden, Denmark and Norway; Russia; the German Confederation; Belgium; Switzerland; Italy; Spain and Portugal; a map titled 'Greece and Turkey' which essentially shows the possessions of the Kingdom of Greece after the 1932 War of Greek Independence; and Holland - the former province on the western coast of the Netherlands. Maps illustrate several of these countries individually with further detail. A work in progress, further pages have headings for maps that have not been drawn, suggesting a tragedy possibly ending the life of the young author, or an emigration abroad, as a result of the events of the French Revolution of 1848. The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848, largely Republican revolts against European monarchies. Beginning in Sicily, and spreading to France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire, they all ended in failure and repression. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history. . Very Good.
[Bookseller: Voyager Press Rare Books & Manuscripts, ]
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