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Adversvs execrabilem Antichristi bvllam. - Luther, Martin - 1520. 
Wittembergae: [Melchior Lotter] Small 4to (19.5 cm; 7.75").  ff.. 1520 Pope Leo X (r. 1513?21) struggled during the last years of his short papacy with Luther's insurgency and on 15 June 1520 issued his bull "Exsurge Domine," where the third sentence compares Luther and his followers in this way (translation at http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Leo10/l10exdom.htm): "Listen to our prayers [dear God], for foxes have arisen seeking to destroy the vineyard whose winepress you alone have trod." Later he asks God, "As far as Martin himself is concerned, O good God, what have we overlooked or not done? What fatherly charity have we omitted that we might call him back from such errors? For after we had cited him, wishing to deal more kindly with him, we urged him through various conferences with our legate and through our personal letters to abandon these errors." And in the end, the pope decides, "Therefore we can, without any further citation or delay, proceed against him to his condemnation and damnation as one whose faith is notoriously suspect and [who is] in fact a true heretic with the full severity of each and all of the above penalties and censures." Luther received his copy of "Exsurge Domine" on 10 October 1520 and, needless to say, was not pleased with this stern dressing down and excommunication; but how could he have been surprised? He interrupted his writing of "De captivitate babylonica ecclesiae" (i.e., "The Babylonian Captivity of the Church") in order to rebut the pope, and that rebuttal is the work offered here, published on 4 November. Of course Luther stood his ground, refusing the offer of recanting and being rewelcomed into the fold. In no way on the defensive, he attacks the pope, the Church, and the systemic corruption, hypocrisy, and theological errors that brought on his bringing on the excommunication. Written in Latin and printed in roman characters with a few historiated woodcut initials. => This the first edition. Removed from a nonce volume and sewing perished. Title-leaf with approximately one-third missing in blank fore- and bottom areas, replaced with later good quality paper; publication date noted and title partially underlined on title-page in old red ink. First text leaf remargined on fore- and bottom edges, and first page of text with red ink underlining and red ink marginalia in three places. A good copy. Complete.
[Bookseller: Philadelphia Rare Books & Manuscripts Co]
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